Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Navaratnam V, Mansor SM, Sit NW, Grace J, Li Q, Olliaro P
    Clin Pharmacokinet, 2000 Oct;39(4):255-70.
    PMID: 11069212
    Various compounds of the artemisinin family are currently used for the treatment of patients with malaria worldwide. They are characterised by a short half-life and feature the most rapidly acting antimalarial drugs to date. They are increasingly being used, often in combination with other drugs, although our knowledge of their main pharmacological features (including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) is still incomplete. Such data are particularly important in the case of combinations. Artemisinin derivatives are converted primarily, but to different extents, to the bioactive metabolite artenimol after either parenteral or gastrointestinal administration. The rate of conversion is lowest for artelinic acid (designed to protect the molecule against metabolism) and highest for the water-soluble artesunate. The absolute and relative bioavailability of these compounds has been established in animals, but not in humans, with the exception of artesunate. Oral bioavailability in animals ranges, approximately, between 19 and 35%. A first-pass effect is highly probably for all compounds when administered orally. Artemisinin compounds bind selectively to malaria-infected erythrocytes to yet unidentified targets. They also bind modestly to human plasma proteins, ranging from 43% for artenimol to 81.5% for artelinic acid. Their mode of action is still not completely understood, although different theories have been proposed. The lipid-soluble artemether and artemotil are released slowly when administered intramuscularly because of the 'depot' effect related to the oil formulation. Understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of these 2 drugs helps us to explain the characteristics of the toxicity and neurotoxicity. The water-soluble artesunate is rapidly converted to artenimol at rates that vary with the route of administration, but the processes need to be characterised further, including the relative contribution of pH and enzymes in tissues, blood and liver. This paper intends to summarise contemporary knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of this class of compounds and highlight areas that need further research.
  2. Lai CS, Nair NK, Mansor SM, Olliaro PL, Navaratnam V
    PMID: 17719858
    The combination of two sensitive, selective and reproducible reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods was developed for the determination of artesunate (AS), its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and mefloquine (MQ) in human plasma. Solid phase extraction (SPE) of the plasma samples was carried out on Supelclean LC-18 extraction cartridges. Chromatographic separation of AS, DHA and the internal standard, artemisinin (QHS) was obtained on a Hypersil C4 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.05 M acetic acid adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1.0M NaOH (42:58, v/v) at the flow rate of 1.50 ml/min. The analytes were detected using an electrochemical detector operating in the reductive mode. Chromatography of MQ and the internal standard, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPM) was carried out on an Inertsil C8-3 column using methanol-acetonitrile-0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate adjusted to pH 3.9 with 0.5% orthophosphoric acid (50:8:42, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.00 ml/min with ultraviolet detection at 284 nm. The mean recoveries of AS and DHA over a concentration range of 30-750 ng/0.5 ml plasma and MQ over a concentration of 75-1500 ng/0.5 ml plasma were above 80% and the accuracy ranged from 91.1 to 103.5%. The within-day coefficients of variation were 1.0-1.4% for AS, 0.4-3.4% for DHA and 0.7-1.5% for MQ. The day-to-day coefficients of variation were 1.3-7.6%, 1.8-7.8% and 2.0-3.4%, respectively. Both the lower limit of quantifications for AS and DHA were at 10 ng/0.5 ml and the lower limit of quantification for MQ was at 25 ng/0.5 ml. The limit of detections were 4 ng/0.5 ml for AS and DHA and 15 ng/0.5 ml for MQ. The method was found to be suitable for use in clinical pharmacological studies.
  3. Parapini S, Olliaro P, Navaratnam V, Taramelli D, Basilico N
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2015 Jul;59(7):4046-52.
    PMID: 25918150 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00183-15
    Artemisinins are peroxidic antimalarial drugs known to be very potent but highly chemically unstable; they degrade in the presence of ferrous iron, Fe(II)-heme, or biological reductants. Less documented is how this translates into chemical stability and antimalarial activity across a range of conditions applying to in vitro testing and clinical situations. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is studied here because it is an antimalarial drug on its own and the main metabolite of other artemisinins. The behaviors of DHA in phosphate-buffered saline, plasma, or erythrocyte lysate at different temperatures and pH ranges were examined. The antimalarial activity of the residual drug was evaluated using the chemosensitivity assay on Plasmodium falciparum, and the extent of decomposition of DHA was established through use of high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection analysis. The role of the Fe(II)-heme was investigated by blocking its reactivity using carbon monoxide (CO). A significant reduction in the antimalarial activity of DHA was seen after incubation in plasma and to a lesser extent in erythrocyte lysate. Activity was reduced by half after 3 h and almost completely abolished after 24 h. Serum-enriched media also affected DHA activity. Effects were temperature and pH dependent and paralleled the increased rate of decomposition of DHA from pH 7 upwards and in plasma. These results suggest that particular care should be taken in conducting and interpreting in vitro studies, prone as their results are to experimental and drug storage conditions. Disorders such as fever, hemolysis, or acidosis associated with malaria severity may contribute to artemisinin instability and reduce their clinical efficacy.
  4. Lai CS, Nair NK, Muniandy A, Mansor SM, Olliaro PL, Navaratnam V
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2009 Feb 15;877(5-6):558-62.
    PMID: 19147417 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.12.037
    With the expanded use of the combination of artesunate (AS) and amodiaquine (AQ) for the treatment of falciparum malaria and the abundance of products on the market, comes the need for rapid and reliable bioanalytical methods for the determination of the parent compounds and their metabolites. While the existing methods were developed for the determination of either AS or AQ in biological fluids, the current validated method allows simultaneous extraction and determination of AS and AQ in human plasma. Extraction is carried out on Supelclean LC-18 extraction cartridges where AS, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and the internal standard artemisinin (QHS) are separated from AQ, its metabolite desethylamodiaquine (DeAQ) and the internal standard, an isobutyl analogue of desethylamodiaquine (IB-DeAQ). AS, DHA and QHS are then analysed using Hypersil C4 column with acetonitrile-acetic acid (0.05M adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1.00M NaOH) (42:58, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.50ml/min. The analytes are detected with an electrochemical detector operating in the reductive mode. Chromatography of AQ, DeAQ and IB-DeAQ is carried out on an Inertsil C4 column with acetonitrile-KH(2)PO(4) (pH 4.0, 0.05M) (11:89, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate 1.00ml/min. The analytes are detected by an electrochemical detector operating in the oxidative mode. The recoveries of AS, DHA, AQ and DeAQ vary between 79.1% and 104.0% over the concentration range of 50-1400ng/ml plasma. The accuracies of the determination of all the analytes are 96.8-103.9%, while the variation for within-day and day-to-day analysis are <15%. The lower limit of quantification for all the analytes is 20ng/ml and limit of detection is 8ng/ml. The method is sensitive, selective, accurate, reproducible and suited particularly for pharmacokinetic study of AS-AQ drug combination and can also be used to compare the bioavailability of different formulations, including a fixed-dose AS-AQ co-formulation.
  5. Ramanathan S, Karupiah S, Nair NK, Olliaro PL, Navaratnam V, Wernsdorfer WH, et al.
    PMID: 16046285
    A new approach using a simple solid-phase extraction technique has been developed for the determination of pyronaridine (PND), an antimalarial drug, in human plasma. After extraction with C18 solid-phase sorbent, PND was analyzed using a reverse phase chromatographic method with fluorescence detection (at lambda(ex)=267 nm and lambda(em)=443 nm). The mean extraction recovery for PND was 95.2%. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay precision, inter-assay precision and accuracy was less than 10%. The quantification limit with fluorescence detection was 0.010 microg/mL plasma. The method described herein has several advantages over other published methods since it is easy to perform and rapid. It also permits reducing both, solvent use and sample preparation time. The method has been used successfully to assay plasma samples from clinical pharmacokinetic studies.
  6. Runge-Ranzinger S, Kroeger A, Olliaro P, McCall PJ, Sánchez Tejeda G, Lloyd LS, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Sep;10(9):e0004916.
    PMID: 27653786 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004916
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak Prediction/ Detection and Outbreak Response seeks to provide countries with evidence-based best practices to justify the declaration of an outbreak and the mobilization of the resources required to implement an effective dengue contingency plan.

  7. Navaratnam V, Ramanathan S, Wahab MS, Siew Hua G, Mansor SM, Kiechel JR, et al.
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Aug;65(8):809-21.
    PMID: 19404632 DOI: 10.1007/s00228-009-0656-1
    There is limited pharmacokinetic data available for the combination artesunate + amodiaquine, which is used widely to treat uncomplicated malaria. This study examines the bioavailability and tolerability of a fixed (200 mg artesunate + 540 mg amodiaquine) and loose (200 mg + 612 mg) combination with a 2x2 cross-over design in 24 healthy volunteers.
  8. Hussain-Alkhateeb L, Kroeger A, Olliaro P, Rocklöv J, Sewe MO, Tejeda G, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0196811.
    PMID: 29727447 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196811
    BACKGROUND: Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level.

    METHODS: We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users' recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user's workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico.

    FINDINGS: 34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion.

    CONCLUSION: EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities.

  9. Hunsperger EA, Yoksan S, Buchy P, Nguyen VC, Sekaran SD, Enria DA, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Oct;8(10):e3171.
    PMID: 25330157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003171
    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%.
  10. Olliaro P, Fouque F, Kroeger A, Bowman L, Velayudhan R, Santelli AC, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 02;12(2):e0005967.
    PMID: 29389959 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005967
    BACKGROUND: Research has been conducted on interventions to control dengue transmission and respond to outbreaks. A summary of the available evidence will help inform disease control policy decisions and research directions, both for dengue and, more broadly, for all Aedes-borne arboviral diseases.

    METHOD: A research-to-policy forum was convened by TDR, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, with researchers and representatives from ministries of health, in order to review research findings and discuss their implications for policy and research.

    RESULTS: The participants reviewed findings of research supported by TDR and others. Surveillance and early outbreak warning. Systematic reviews and country studies identify the critical characteristics that an alert system should have to document trends reliably and trigger timely responses (i.e., early enough to prevent the epidemic spread of the virus) to dengue outbreaks. A range of variables that, according to the literature, either indicate risk of forthcoming dengue transmission or predict dengue outbreaks were tested and some of them could be successfully applied in an Early Warning and Response System (EWARS). Entomological surveillance and vector management. A summary of the published literature shows that controlling Aedes vectors requires complex interventions and points to the need for more rigorous, standardised study designs, with disease reduction as the primary outcome to be measured. House screening and targeted vector interventions are promising vector management approaches. Sampling vector populations, both for surveillance purposes and evaluation of control activities, is usually conducted in an unsystematic way, limiting the potentials of entomological surveillance for outbreak prediction. Combining outbreak alert and improved approaches of vector management will help to overcome the present uncertainties about major risk groups or areas where outbreak response should be initiated and where resources for vector management should be allocated during the interepidemic period.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Forum concluded that the evidence collected can inform policy decisions, but also that important research gaps have yet to be filled.

Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links