Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 247 in total

  1. Halim I, Omar AR
    Int J Occup Saf Ergon, 2012;18(1):85-96.
    PMID: 22429532
    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.
  2. Sheikh-Omar AR, Mutalib AR
    Vet. Rec., 1985 Mar 23;116(12):330-1.
    PMID: 3992849
  3. Soleimani AF, Zulkifli I, Omar AR, Raha AR
    PMID: 22036750 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.10.003
    Physiological responses to social isolation stress were compared in 56-day-old male Japanese quail. Birds were fed pretreated diets for 3 days as follows: (i) Basal diet (control); (ii) Basal diet+1500 mg/kg metyrapone (BM); (iii) Basal diet+30 mg/kg corticosterone (BCO); (iv) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid (BC); (v) Basal diet+250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BE); (vi) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid and 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BCE). The birds were subsequently socially isolated in individual opaque brown paper box for 2 hours. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration and heart and brain heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) expressions were determined before stress and immediately after stress. Two hours of isolation stress elevated CORT concentration significantly in the control and BE birds but not in the BC, BCE and BM birds. There was a significant reduction in CORT concentration after isolation stress in the BCO group. Isolation stress increased Hsp 70 expression in the brain and heart of control and BM birds. However, brain and heart Hsp 70 expressions were not significantly altered in the isolated BC, BCE and BE birds. Although, the CORT concentration of BM birds was not affected by isolation stress, Hsp70 expression in both brain and heart were significantly increased. Moreover, exogenous corticosterone supplementation did not result in elevation of Hsp 70 expression. It can be concluded that, although Hsp 70 induction had not been directly affected by CORT concentration, it may be modulated by the HPA axis function via activation of ACTH.
  4. Soleimani AF, Zulkifli I, Omar AR, Raha AR
    Poult Sci, 2011 Jul;90(7):1435-40.
    PMID: 21673158 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01381
    Domestic animals have been modified by selecting individuals exhibiting desirable traits and culling the others. To investigate the alterations introduced by domestication and selective breeding in heat stress response, 2 experiments were conducted using Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), village fowl (VF), and commercial broilers (CB). In experiment 1, RJF, VF, and CB of a common chronological age (30 d old) were exposed to 36 ± 1°C for 3 h. In experiment 2, RJF, VF, and CB of common BW (930 ± 15 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in experiment 1. Heat treatment significantly increased body temperature, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and plasma corticosterone concentration in CB but not in VF and RJF. In both experiments and irrespective of stage of heat treatment, RJF showed lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, higher plasma corticosterone concentration, and higher heat shock protein 70 expression than VF and CB. It can be concluded that selective breeding for phenotypic traits in the domestication process has resulted in alterations in the physiology of CB and concomitantly the ability to withstand high ambient temperature compared with RJF and VF. In other words, domestication and selective breeding are leading to individuals that are more susceptible to stress rather than resistant. It is also apparent that genetic differences in body size and age per se may not determine breed or strain variations in response to heat stress.
  5. Soleimani AF, Zulkifli I, Omar AR, Raha AR
    Poult Sci, 2011 Jul;90(7):1427-34.
    PMID: 21673157 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01403
    This study aimed to determine the effect of neonatal feed restriction on plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in aged male Japanese quail subjected to acute heat stress. Equal numbers of chicks were subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). At 21 (young) and 270 (aged) d of age, birds were exposed to 43 ± 1°C for 1 h. Blood and hippocampus samples were collected to determine CORT and Hsp 70 and GR expressions before heat stress and following 1 h of heat stress, 1 h of post-heat stress recovery, and 2 h of post-heat stress recovery. With the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, we examined the hippocampal expression of GR and Hsp 70 and CORT. The GR expression of the young birds increased following heat stress and remained consistent throughout the period of recovery. Conversely, no significant changes were noted on GR expression of aged birds. Although both young and aged birds had similar CORT before and during heat stress, the latter exhibited greater values following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Within the young group, feeding regimens had no significant effect on Hsp 70 expression. However, neonatal feed restriction improved Hsp 70 expression in aged birds. Neonatal feed restriction, compared with the AL group, resulted in higher CORT on d 21 but the converse was noted on d 270. Neonatal feed restriction appears to set a robust reactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response allowing the development of adaptive, healthy, and resilient phenotypes in aged quail as measured by a higher hippocampal Hsp 70 expression along with lower CORT.
  6. Abubakar MB, Aini I, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2011;2011:414198.
    PMID: 21541235 DOI: 10.1155/2011/414198
    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious and rapidly evolving pathogen of major concern to the poultry industry and human health. Rapid and accurate detection of avian influenza virus is a necessary tool for control of outbreaks and surveillance. The AI virus A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004 (H5N1) was used as a template to produce DNA clones of the full-length NS1 genes via reverse transcriptase synthesis of cDNA by PCR amplification of the NS1 region. Products were cloned into pCR2.0 TOPO TA plasmid and subsequently subcloned into pPICZαA vector to construct a recombinant plasmid. Recombinant plasmid designated as pPICZαA-NS1 gene was confirmed by PCR colony screening, restriction enzyme digestion, and nucleotide sequence analysis. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 strain by electroporation, and expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. A recombinant protein of approximately ~28 kDa was produced. The expressed protein was able to bind a rabbit polyclonal antibody of nonstructural protein (NS1) avian influenza virus H5N1. The result of the western blotting and solid-phase ELISA assay using H5N1 antibody indicated that the recombinant protein produced retained its antigenicity. This further indicates that Pichia pastoris could be an efficient expression system for a avian influenza virus nonstructural (NS1).
  7. Zulperi ZM, Omar AR, Arshad SS
    Virus Genes, 2009 Jun;38(3):383-91.
    PMID: 19242786 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-009-0337-2
    Two Malaysian infectious bronchitis virus isolates, MH5365/95 and V9/04 were characterized based on sequence and phylogenetic analyses of S1, S2, M, and N genes. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed many point mutations, short deletions, and insertions in S1 region of both IBV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene and sequences analysis of M gene indicated that MH5365/95 and V9/04 belong to non-Massachusetts strain. However, both isolates share only 77% identity. Analysis based on S1 gene showed that MH5365/95 shared more than 87% identity to several Chinese strains. Meanwhile, V9/04 showed only 67-77% identity to all the previously studied IBV strains included in this study suggesting it is a variant of IBV isolate that is unique to Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis suggests, although both isolates were isolated 10 years apart from different states in Malaysia, they shared a common origin. Analysis based on S2 and N genes indicated that both strains are highly related to each other, and there are fewer mutations which occurred in the respective genes.
  8. Hairul Aini H, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M, Aini I
    Microbiol Res, 2008;163(5):556-63.
    PMID: 16971101
    The current available molecular method to detect infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, the conventional PCR is time consuming, prone to error and less sensitive. In this study, the performances of Sybr Green I real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and conventional agarose detection methods in detecting specific IBDV PCR products were compared. We found the real-time PCR was at least 10 times more sensitive than ELISA detection method with a detection limit of 0.25pg. The latter was also at least 10 times more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis detection method. The developed assay detects both very virulent and vaccine strains of IBDV but not other RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. Hence, Sybr Green I-based real-time PCR is a highly sensitive assay for the detection of IBDV.
  9. Nurulfiza I, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Aini I
    Acta Virol., 2006;50(1):45-51.
    PMID: 16599185
    Three isolates of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), designated UPM04178, UPM04190 and UPM04238, were obtained from severe outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Malaysia in 2004. The hypervariable region (HPVR) of VP2 gene of these isolates was sequenced. The obtained sequences were compared with those of other isolates. The highest similarity (98%) concerning both nucleotide and amino acid sequences was found to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of the three isolates with vvIBDV strains. Evolutionary relatedness of the three isolates to vvIBDV strains was demonstrated by three phylogenetic methods: bootstrap values of 100%, 95% and 90% for nucleotide sequences and those of 58%, 86% and 96% for amino acid sequences were obtained by the distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likehood methods, respectively. It is concluded that UPM04178, UPM04190 and UPM04238 are vvIBDV isolates of serotype 1, which originate from a common ancestor of IBDV strains present in Malaysia.
  10. Sharma K, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Aini I
    Acta Virol., 2005;49(1):59-64.
    PMID: 15929400
    Two Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates, NP1SSH and NP2K were obtained from a severe infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Nepal in 2002. The hypervariable (HV) region of VP2 gene (1326 bp) of the isolates was generated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The obtained nucleotide sequences were compared with those of twenty other IBDV isolates/strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on this comparison revealed that NP1SSH and NP2K clustered with very virulent (vv) IBDV strains of serotype 1. In contrast, classical, Australian classical and attenuated strains of serotype 1 and avirulent IBDV strains of serotype 2 formed a different cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two isolates showed a 98.3% identity with each other and 97.1% and 98.3% identities, respectively with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) isolates/strains. Three amino acids substitutions at positions 300 (E-->A), 308 (I-->F) and 334 (A-->P) within the HV region were common for both the isolates. The amino acids substitutions at positions 27 (S-->T), 28 (I-->T), 31 (D-->A), 36 (H-->Y), 135 (E-->G), 223 (G-->S), 225 (V-->I), 351 (L-->I), 352 (V-->E) and 399 (I-->S) for NP1SSH and at position 438 (I-->S) for NP2K were unique and differed from other IBDV isolates/strains. NP1SSH and NP2K showed highest similarity (97.8%) with the BD399 strain from Bangladesh as compared with other vvIBDV isolates/strains. We conclude that the NP1SSH and NP2K isolates of IBDV from Nepal represent vvIBDV of serotype 1.
  11. Kianizadeh M, Aini I, Omar AR, Yusoff K, Sahrabadi M, Kargar R
    Acta Virol., 2002;46(4):247-51.
    PMID: 12693862
    Nine Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks in different regions of Iran were characterized at molecular level. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolates shared two pairs of arginine and a phenylalanine at the N-terminus of the fusion (F) protein cleavage site similarly to other velogenic isolates of NDV characterized earlier. Eight of the nine isolates had the same amino acid sequence as VOL95, a Russian NDV isolate from 1995. However, one isolate, MK13 showed 5 amino acid substitutions, of which 3 have been reported for other velogenic NDV isolates. These results suggest that the origin of the outbreaks of ND in different parts of Iran in 1995-1998 is VOL95.
  12. Hoque MM, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M, Aini I
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Apr;6(2):93-9.
    PMID: 12186763
    Previously we have shown that very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses (vvIBDV) that are SspI, TaqI and StyI positive (92/04, 97/61 and 94/B551) but not SspI and TaqI positive and StyI negative (94/273) cause high mortality, up to 80% in specific-pathogen-free chickens with significant damage of the bursal as well as nonbursal tissues. In this study, we sequenced the VP2 gene (1351 bp) of the 92/04, 94/273 and 94/B551 and compared them with other IBDV strains. All the isolates have the unique amino acid residues at positions 222A, 256I, 294I and 299S found in other vvIBDV strains. The deduced VP2 amino acids encoded by 92/04 is identical to the vvIBDV strains from Israel (IBDVKS), Japan (OKYM) and Europe (UK661), whereas the 94/273 and 94/B551 isolates have one to three amino acid substitutions. The 94/273 has two amino acid substitutions at positions 254 G to S and at 270 A to E that have not been reported before from vvIBDV strains. The 94/B551 also has one amino acid substitution at position 300 E to S, which is uncommon among other vvIBDV strains. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the isolates are very close to each other and all of them may have derived from the same origin as vvIBDV strains isolated from China, Japan and Europe. Even though antigenic index analysis of the 94/273 and 94/B551 indicated that the isolates are unique compared to other IBDV strains, their antigenic variation remain to be determined by monoclonal antibody study.
  13. Jasni S, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR
    Br. Vet. J., 1991 Jul-Aug;147(4):352-5.
    PMID: 1913132
    Twenty transport-stressed goats were divided into two groups. The first group was further stressed with steroid. Pasteurella haemolytica was found at various sites in the nasal cavity of goats in this group as early as 2 weeks post-transportation. The successful isolations continued consistently with more goats having pure growth of P. haemolytica at later stages. Mild catarrh rhinitis, loss of epithelial cilia and erosions were the main lesions observed in the nasal cavity. Goats in the second group that were not given steroid injections had inconsistent bacterial isolation and less severe pathological lesions.
  14. Lee CC, Sheikh-Omar AR, Jones A
    N Z Vet J, 1987 Nov;35(11):190-1.
    PMID: 16031343
    Amphistomes of Calicophoron microbothrioides were recovered from the rumen of a Malaysian sambar deer (Cervus unicolor). Some measurements and illustrations of C. microbothrioides are given. This is a new host record for the species C. microbothrioides.
  15. Bande F, Arshad SS, Omar AR
    Adv Virol, 2016;2016:9058403.
    PMID: 27597865 DOI: 10.1155/2016/9058403
    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects. The isolated virus was purified by sucrose gradient and identified using negative staining transmission electron microscopy. Further confirmation was achieved through next-generation sequencing and nucleotide sequence homology search. Analysis of the viral sequences using the NCBI BLAST tool revealed 99-100% sequence homology with exogenous ALV viral envelope protein. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial envelope sequences showed the Malaysian isolate clustered with Taiwanese and Japanese ALV strains, which were closer to ALV subgroup J, ALV subgroup E, and recombinant A/E isolates. Based on these findings, ALV was concluded to be associated with the present outbreak. It was recommended that further studies should be conducted on the molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity of the identified virus isolate.
  16. Omar AR, Ibrahim M, Hussein A
    Diving Hyperb Med, 2018 Jun 30;48(2):112-113.
    PMID: 29888385 DOI: 10.28920/dhm48.2.112-113
    A diver presented with total loss of vision in the left eye and right hemiparesis following a routine no-stop scuba dive to 20 metres' depth. A diagnosis of decompression illness (DCI) with acute ophthalmic artery air embolism and left carotid artery insult causing acute anterior circulatory ischaemia was made. He underwent seven hyperbaric treatments leading to a full recovery. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed an underlying left anterior cerebral artery A1 segment hypoplasia. Making a prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen treatment are crucial to halt further tissue damage from ischaemia in central nervous system DCI. In this case, the finding of a left A1 anterior cerebral artery segment hypoplasia variant may have increased the severity of DCI due to deficient collateral circulation.
  17. Majid NN, Omar AR, Mariatulqabtiah AR
    J Gen Virol, 2020 07;101(7):772-777.
    PMID: 32427095 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001428
    In comparison to the extensive characterization of haemagglutinin antibodies of avian influenza virus (AIV), the role of neuraminidase (NA) as an immunogen is less well understood. This study describes the construction and cellular responses of recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFWPV) strain FP9, co-expressing NA N1 gene of AIV A/Chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004, and chicken IL-12 gene. Our data shows that the N1 and IL-12 proteins were successfully expressed from the recombinants with 48 kD and 70 kD molecular weights, respectively. Upon inoculation into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 105 p.f.u. ml-1, levels of CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ populations were higher in the wild-type fowlpox virus FP9 strain, compared to those of rFWPV-N1 and rFWPV-N1-IL-12 at weeks 2 and 5 time points. Furthermore, rFWPV-N1-IL-12 showed a suppressive effect on chicken body weight within 4 weeks after inoculation. We suggest that co-expression of N1 with or without IL-12 offers undesirable quality as a potential AIV vaccine candidate.
  18. Tan DY, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Aini I
    Avian Dis, 2004 Apr-Jun;48(2):410-6.
    PMID: 15283430
    The characteristics of the pathogenic infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that infected avian species other than commercial chickens were largely unknown. In this study, by using in vivo and molecular methods, we had characterized an IBDV isolate (named 94268) isolated from an infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreak in Malaysian village chickens--the adulterated descendant of the Southeast Asian jungle fowl (Gallus bankiva) that were commonly reared in the backyard. The 94268 isolate was grouped as the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strain because it caused severe lesions and a high mortality rate in village chickens (>88%) and experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free chickens (>66%). In addition, it possessed all of the vvIBDV molecular markers in its VP2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis using distance, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods revealed that 94268 was monophyletic with other vvIBDV isolates and closely related to the Malaysian vvIBDV isolates. Given that the VP2 gene of 94268 isolate was almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to other field IBDV isolates that affected the commercial chickens, we therefore concluded that IBD infections had spread across the farm boundary. IBD infection in the village chicken may represent an important part of the IBD epidemiology because these birds could harbor the vvIBDV strain and should not be overlooked in the control and prevention of the disease.
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