Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Omar, K.
    A cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on breast-feeding among working mothers. A total of 200 working mothers who attended the Child Health Clinics in Temerloh, for their chil-dren's third DPT/Polio vaccination were interviewed. Eighty-nine percent of the mothers successfully initiat-ed breast-feeding. However, there was a rapid decline in breast-feeding each month especially during the period when the mothers returned to work. Only 33.5% of the mothers had at least one experience in expressing and feeding expressed breast milk to their babies and only 47% reported that they had been taught by health work-ers. The mothers scored highest on the 'benefits of breast-feeding' with a mean knowledge score of 77.9% and lowest on "storage of expressed breast milk" (35.4%). Overall the mothers showed a positive attitude towards breast-feeding. The two main reasons given for stopping breast-feeding were "work" (61.4%) and "insufficient milk" (57.9%). In conclusion, other areas of breast-feeding besides benefits such as "expressing and storing breast milk" and "how" to practise breast-feeding while working away from home are also impor-tant for working mothers.
  2. Musa, R., Haniff, J., Bujang, M.A., Mohamad, N.A., Omar, K., Radeef, A.S.
    Introduction: The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) has been widely used as a tool to
    detect eating disorders. We aimed to identify the EDE-Q normative data among secondary school students in
    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving four secondary schools in an
    urban area. The respondents of secondary school students were selected using stratified sampling. Results:
    There were 298 teenagers 12 to 17 years of age who participated in the study. The EDE-Q mean scores ±
    standard deviation was 1.27 ± 1.08 for the total score (Global Score), 0.78 ± 0.95 for Restraint Domain, 1.02
    ± 1.03 for Eating Concern, 1.76 ± 1.55 for Shape Concern and 1.54 ± 1.43 for Weight Concern. Conclusion:
    Mean values obtained from this study were relatively lower when compared to western populations. Shape
    Concern and Weight Concern had higher scores compared to the other domains. These values are useful for
    EDE-Q interpretation in Malaysia.
  3. Al-Khaza'leh KA, Omar K, Jaafar MS
    J Biol Phys, 2011 Jan;37(1):153-61.
    PMID: 22210969 DOI: 10.1007/s10867-010-9206-4
    The effects of pH value and presence of serum in an incubation medium on photosensitizer drug cellular uptake in MCF7 cancer cells have been investigated. The results showed that the presence of serum in an incubation medium reduced the drug cellular uptake at all pH values. It has been found that decreasing on pH values of the incubation medium increased the cellular uptake of the drug, demonstrating selective uptake of the sensitizer. The HepG2 liver cancer cells exhibited more drug cellular uptake than CCD-18CO normal colon cells, which assessed the selectivity uptake of photosensitizer on cancerous cells. The concentration of photosensitizer measured in 10(6) cells showed a good correlation to the incubation time. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy been have used to examine the cells.
  4. Liliwati I, Lee VKM, Omar K
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(1):42-47.
    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea, its associated factors and its effects on school activities among adolescent girls in a secondary school in a rural district of Selangor, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a public secondary school. A stratified random sampling of 300 female students (12 to 17 years old) from Form one to Form five classes were selected. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20-items was used to collect sociodemographic and menstrual data. Pain intensity for dysmenorrhoea was measured by numerical rating scale. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 62.3%. It was significantly higher in the middle adolescence (15 to 17 years old) age group (p=0.003), girls with regular menstrual cycle (p=0.007) and a positive family history (p
  5. Hanisah A, Omar K, Shah SA
    J Prim Health Care, 2009 Mar;1(1):20-5.
    PMID: 20690482
    AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial acne and its impact on the quality of life among adolescents attending secondary schools in Muar, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted where 409 samples were selected using stratified cluster random sampling from two secondary schools in Muar, involving Form 1 to Form 5 students. Students were diagnosed clinically and the severity of facial acne was assessed using Global Acne Grading System. A self-reported Cardiff Acne Disability Index was used to assess the quality of life among adolescents who had acne.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of facial acne among the adolescents was 67.5% (n = 276). Facial acne increased with increasing age (p = 0.001). It was more common among males (71.1%) than females (64.6%), p = 0.165. The males also had a higher prevalence of severe acne (p = 0.001). The quality of life was affected by the severity of acne. Students with severe acne had higher levels of Cardiff Acne Disability Index (rho = 0.521).
    CONCLUSION: Facial acne is a common disorder and appears to have a considerable impact on quality of life among adolescents. The above findings should alert health care professionals and the school authorities to actively identify, manage and educate adolescents with facial acne.
  6. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Sulaiman Z, Amin RM, Omar K
    J Relig Health, 2017 Dec;56(6):1916-1929.
    PMID: 26809242 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0185-z
    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
  7. Alomari YM, Sheikh Abdullah SN, MdZin RR, Omar K
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2015;2015:673658.
    PMID: 25793010 DOI: 10.1155/2015/673658
    Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved.
  8. Alomari YM, Sheikh Abdullah SN, Zaharatul Azma R, Omar K
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2014;2014:979302.
    PMID: 24803955 DOI: 10.1155/2014/979302
    Segmentation and counting of blood cells are considered as an important step that helps to extract features to diagnose some specific diseases like malaria or leukemia. The manual counting of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) in microscopic images is an extremely tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate process. Automatic analysis will allow hematologist experts to perform faster and more accurately. The proposed method uses an iterative structured circle detection algorithm for the segmentation and counting of WBCs and RBCs. The separation of WBCs from RBCs was achieved by thresholding, and specific preprocessing steps were developed for each cell type. Counting was performed for each image using the proposed method based on modified circle detection, which automatically counted the cells. Several modifications were made to the basic (RCD) algorithm to solve the initialization problem, detecting irregular circles (cells), selecting the optimal circle from the candidate circles, determining the number of iterations in a fully dynamic way to enhance algorithm detection, and running time. The validation method used to determine segmentation accuracy was a quantitative analysis that included Precision, Recall, and F-measurement tests. The average accuracy of the proposed method was 95.3% for RBCs and 98.4% for WBCs.
  9. Muthupalaniappen L, Omar J, Omar K, Iryani T, Hamid SN
    PMID: 23431837
    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
  10. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Mohd Amin R, Omar K, Thurasamy R
    BMC Public Health, 2017 02 02;17(1):157.
    PMID: 28152993 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3949-1
    BACKGROUND: From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire (YSI-Q), which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intention, attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. The YSI-Q then underwent a validation process that included content and face validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This study was conducted on unmarried youths aged 18 to 22 years who were studying in colleges around Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: EFA supported the four factor structure, but five items were removed due to incorrect placement or low factor loading (<0.60). Internal reliability using Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.89 and 0.94. The CFA further confirmed the construct, convergent and discriminant validity of the YSI-Q with χ 2 = 392.43, df = 164, p 

  11. ZamZam R, Thambu M, Midin M, Omar K, Kaur P
    Int J Ment Health Syst, 2009;3(1):13.
    PMID: 19538711 DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-13
    BACKGROUND: Screening for psychiatric disorders in primary care can improve the detection rate and helps in preventing grave consequences of unrecognised and untreated psychiatric morbidity. This is relevant to the Malaysian setting where mental health care is now also being provided at primary care level. The aim of this paper is to report the prevalence of psychiatric illness in a semi-urban primary care setting in Malaysia using the screening tool Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a semi-urban primary healthcare centre located south of Kuala Lumpur. Systematic random sampling was carried out and a total of 267 subjects completed the PHQ during the study period.
    RESULTS: The proportion of respondents who had at least one PHQ positive diagnosis was 24.7% and some respondents had more than one diagnosis. Diagnoses included depressive illness (n = 38, 14.4%), somatoform disorder (n = 32, 12.2%), panic and anxiety disorders (n = 17, 6.5%), binge eating disorder (n = 9, 3.4%) and alcohol abuse (n = 6, 2.3%). Younger age (18 to 29 years) and having a history of stressors in the previous four weeks were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.036 and p = 0.044 respectively) with PHQ positive scores.
    CONCLUSION: These findings are broadly similar to the findings of studies done in other countries and are a useful guide to the probable prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in primary care in other similar settings in Malaysia.
  12. Muhammad NA, Omar K, Shah SA, Muthupalaniappen L, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008;17(4):597-602.
    PMID: 19114396
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is escalating. Parents’ recognition of overweight or obesity in their own children is very important for a successful intervention in these children. This study examined parental perception of their children’s weight status, and its association with their knowledge on nutrition and obesity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of parents with children aged 9 to 12 years, in a primary school of Kuala Lumpur. Parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contains parental perception of their child weight status as well as knowledge on nutrition and obesity. The parents’ perception of the children’s weight status was then compared with the actual measured weight status.
    RESULTS: There were 204 parents who participated in the study. Parents were found to underestimate their child weight status and 38.2% were inaccurate in their perception. The mean score of knowledge on nutrition and obesity was 78.5±14.4; and this did not associate with the accuracy of their perception on the child weight status. Parents showed inadequate knowledge in food pyramid and preparation of low fat meals.
    CONCLUSION: The Malaysian Health Campaigns had resulted in overall good knowledge on nutrition and obesity in the parents except in few domains. However, this was insufficient to make the parents recognize the growing overweight and obesity problem in their children.
    Key Words: overweight, obesity, children, parental perception, knowledge
  13. Omar KZ, Ariffin H, Abdullah WA, Chan LL, Lin HP
    Med. Pediatr. Oncol., 2000 May;34(5):377-8.
    PMID: 10797367
  14. Eng TC, Yaakup H, Shah SA, Jaffar A, Omar K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2749-52.
    PMID: 22938453
    BACKGROUND: Breaking bad news to cancer patients is a delicate and challenging task for most doctors. Better understanding of patients' preferences in breaking bad news can guide doctors in performing this task.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the preferences of Malaysian cancer patients regarding the communication of bad news.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Oncology clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. Two hundred adult cancer patients were recruited via purposive quota sampling. They were required to complete the Malay language version of the Measure of Patients' Preferences (MPP-BM) with minimal researcher assistance. Their responses were analysed using descriptive statistics. Association between demographic characteristics and domain scores were tested using non-parametric statistical tests.

    RESULTS: Nine items were rated by the patients as essential: "Doctor is honest about the severity of my condition", "Doctor describing my treatment options in detail", "Doctor telling me best treatment options", Doctor letting me know all of the different treatment options", "Doctor being up to date on research on my type of cancer", "Doctor telling me news directly", "Being given detailed info about results of medical tests", "Being told in person", and "Having doctor offer hope about my condition". All these items had median scores of 5/5 (IQR:4-5). The median scores for the three domains were: "Content and Facilitation" 74/85, "Emotional Support" 23/30 and "Structural and Informational Support" 31/40. Ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with scores for "Content and Facilitation" and "Emotional Support". Educational status was significantly associated with scores for "Structural and Informational Support".

    CONCLUSION: Malaysian cancer patients appreciate the ability of the doctor to provide adequate information using good communication skills during the process of breaking bad news. Provision of emotional support, structural support and informational support were also highly appreciated.

  15. Jusoh Z, Tohid H, Omar K, Muhammad NA, Ahmad S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):84-95.
    PMID: 29599638 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.10
    Background: The quality of life (QoL) describes the multidimensional self-perceived well-being of a person, which is an important diabetes outcome. This study aimed to measure the QoL scores among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as their clinical and sociodemographic predictors.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 180 randomly sampled patients at a primary care clinic on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire containing the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life-18 (ADDQoL-18) was used.

    Results: Most of the respondents (96.7%) were Malay, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 54.0 (14.0) years old. The majority of them were females (60.0%), married (81.1%) and from low-income families (63.3%), who attained a secondary education or lower (75.6%). Only 49.4% of them were employed. The mean (standard deviation, SD) ADDQoL-18 average weighted impact score was -4.58 (2.21) and all 18 domains were negatively affected, particularly the living condition, family life and working life. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the age (adjusted B = 0.05,P= 0.004) and insulin use (adjusted B = -0.84,P= 0.011) were QoL predictors.

    Conclusion: T2DM negatively impacts the patient's QoL in all aspects of their life. The QoL improvement with age suggests that the older patients had accepted and adapted to their illness. The need to improve the QoL among insulin users was also highlighted.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Malaysia
  16. Muhammad NA, Shamsuddin K, Omar K, Shah SA, Mohd Amin R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Sep-Oct;21(5):51-9.
    PMID: 25977634 MyJurnal
    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population.
  17. Abu Hassan H, Tohid H, Mohd Amin R, Long Bidin MB, Muthupalaniappen L, Omar K
    BMC Fam Pract, 2013;14:164.
    PMID: 24164794 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-164
    BACKGROUND: Many Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients refuse insulin therapy even when they require this modality of treatment. However, some eventually accept insulin. This study aimed to explore the T2DM patients' reasons for accepting insulin therapy and their initial barriers to use insulin.
    METHODS: This qualitative study interviewed twenty-one T2DM patients at a primary care clinic who had been on insulin for more than a year through three in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions. A semi structured interview protocol was used and the sessions were audio-recorded. Subsequently, thematic analysis was conducted to identify major themes.
    RESULTS: The participants' acceptance of insulin was influenced by their concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin. Concerns about complications of poorly controlled diabetes and side effects of other treatment regime had resulted in insulin acceptance among the participants. They also had a strong belief in insulin benefits and effectiveness. These concerns and beliefs were the results of having good knowledge about the diabetes and insulin, experiential learning, as well as doctors' practical and emotional support that helped them to accept insulin therapy and become efficient in self-care management. These factors also allayed their negative concerns and beliefs towards diabetes and insulin, which were their barriers for insulin acceptance as it caused fear to use insulin. These negative concerns were related to injection (self-injection, needle phobia, injection pain), and insulin use (inconvenience, embarrassment, lifestyle restriction, negative social stigma, and poor self-efficacy), whereas the negative beliefs were 'insulin could cause organ damage', 'their diabetes was not serious enough', 'insulin is for life-long', and 'insulin is for more severe disease only'.
    CONCLUSIONS: Exploring patients' concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin is crucial to assist physicians in delivering patient-centered care. By understanding this, physicians could address their concerns with aim to modify their patients' misconceptions towards insulin therapy. In addition, continuous educations as well as practical and emotional support from others were found to be valuable for insulin acceptance.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia FF-214-2009.
    Study site: Primary Care clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  18. Mohd Hashim S, Tong SF, Omar K, Abdul Rashid MR, Shah SA, Sagap I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):2007-11.
    PMID: 22292642
    BACKGROUND: Knowledge is believed to be a driving factor for patients' early presentation for healthcare. This study was conducted to assess knowledge of colorectal cancer among subjects presenting with rectal bleeding and to determine its association with late presentation.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 80 patients with rectal bleeding, aged 40 and above, was conducted between December 2008 and June 2009 in the endoscopy unit, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The research instruments used in this study was a self-administered questionnaire including data on duration of rectal bleeding, first medical consultation and knowledge of colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Sixty percent of subjects with rectal bleeding delayed seeking medical advice. Subjects were more aware of symptoms of non-colorectal cancers compared to symptoms of colorectal cancer. The majority of subjects (63.8%) correctly identified rectal bleeding as a symptom but were not aware of the best screening method to detect colorectal cancer. Half of the subjects knew increasing age and genetic background to be risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. However, knowledge of colorectal cancer was not found to be significantly associated with delay in seeking help.

    CONCLUSION: Findings indicate poor awareness of colorectal cancer among the subjects. Although public education of colorectal cancer is important for early presentation on rectal bleeding, further studies are advocated to evaluate other factors influencing patients' help seeking behavior other than knowledge.
  19. Su XV, Muhammad NA, Tan PS, Tan KTM, Tohid H, Omar K
    Teenage pregnancy carries serious impacts on adolescent health. This study aimed to examine the effects of pregnancy on adolescents and to explore how they cope with the problems they faced during the pregnancy. It involved 26 adolescents residing in a government shelter home in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended questions was used. Among physical (sleeping problem and self-care problem), psychological (emotional difficulties and low self-efficacy) and social (stigma and discrimination, financial difficulty, friendship problem and school dropout) problems, emotional difficulties were the most common problems, whereas stigma and discrimination was the least common. Young adolescents aged less than 16 years old were significantly associated with poor self-care (p=0.01). To cope with their problems, the adolescents generally used avoidance, withdrawal, and social support, particularly from parents and peers. Doctors were the least popular among all. In conclusion, holistic and individualised care is needed. Strategies to reduce emotional problem experienced by pregnant adolescents should be implemented. The available healthcare services for teenage pregnancy should also be promoted.
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