Electrically-conducting polymers (CPs) were first developed as a revolutionary class of organic compounds that possess optical and electrical properties comparable to that of metals as well as inorganic semiconductors and display the commendable properties correlated with traditional polymers, like the ease of manufacture along with resilience in processing. Polymer nanocomposites are designed and manufactured to ensure excellent promising properties for anti-static (electrically conducting), anti-corrosion, actuators, sensors, shape memory alloys, biomedical, flexible electronics, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs, and adhesive applications with desired-appealing and cost-effective, functional surface coatings. The distinctive properties of nanocomposite materials involve significantly improved mechanical characteristics, barrier-properties, weight-reduction, and increased, long-lasting performance in terms of heat, wear, and scratch-resistant. Constraint in availability of power due to continuous depletion in the reservoirs of fossil fuels has affected the performance and functioning of electronic and energy storage appliances. For such reasons, efforts to modify the performance of such appliances are under way through blending design engineering with organic electronics. Unlike conventional inorganic semiconductors, organic electronic materials are developed from conducting polymers (CPs), dyes and charge transfer complexes. However, the conductive polymers are perhaps more bio-compatible rather than conventional metals or semi-conductive materials. Such characteristics make it more fascinating for bio-engineering investigators to conduct research on polymers possessing antistatic properties for various applications. An extensive overview of different techniques of synthesis and the applications of polymer bio-nanocomposites in various fields of sensors, actuators, shape memory polymers, flexible electronics, optical limiting, electrical properties (batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs), corrosion-protection and biomedical application are well-summarized from the findings all across the world in more than 150 references, exclusively from the past four years. This paper also presents recent advancements in composites of rare-earth oxides based on conducting polymer composites. Across a variety of biological and medical applications, the fact that numerous tissues were receptive to electric fields and stimuli made CPs more enticing.
Biocomposite materials create a huge opportunity for a healthy and safe environment by replacing artificial plastic and materials with natural ingredients in a variety of applications. Furniture, construction materials, insulation, and packaging, as well as medical devices, can all benefit from biocomposite materials. Wheat is one of the world's most widely cultivated crops. Due to its mechanical and physical properties, wheat starch, gluten, and fiber are vital in the biopolymer industry. Glycerol as a plasticizer considerably increased the elongation and water vapor permeability of wheat films. Wheat fiber developed mechanical and thermal properties as a result of various matrices; wheat gluten is water insoluble, elastic, non-toxic, and biodegradable, making it useful in biocomposite materials. This study looked at the feasibility of using wheat plant components such as wheat, gluten, and fiber in the biocomposite material industry.
Recent developments within the topic of biomaterials has taken hold of researchers due to the mounting concern of current environmental pollution as well as scarcity resources. Amongst all compatible biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL) is deemed to be a great potential biomaterial, especially to the tissue engineering sector, due to its advantages, including its biocompatibility and low bioactivity exhibition. The commercialization of PCL is deemed as infant technology despite of all its advantages. This contributed to the disadvantages of PCL, including expensive, toxic, and complex. Therefore, the shift towards the utilization of PCL as an alternative biomaterial in the development of biocomposites has been exponentially increased in recent years. PCL-based biocomposites are unique and versatile technology equipped with several importance features. In addition, the understanding on the properties of PCL and its blend is vital as it is influenced by the application of biocomposites. The superior characteristics of PCL-based green and hybrid biocomposites has expanded their applications, such as in the biomedical field, as well as in tissue engineering and medical implants. Thus, this review is aimed to critically discuss the characteristics of PCL-based biocomposites, which cover each mechanical and thermal properties and their importance towards several applications. The emergence of nanomaterials as reinforcement agent in PCL-based biocomposites was also a tackled issue within this review. On the whole, recent developments of PCL as a potential biomaterial in recent applications is reviewed.