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  1. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Oskoueian A
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:349129.
    PMID: 24175289 DOI: 10.1155/2013/349129
    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (P < 0.05). The total VFA concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β -glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation.
  2. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad S
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 10;17(9):10816-30.
    PMID: 22964499 DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910816
    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.
  3. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Hendra R, Karimi E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(12):8610-25.
    PMID: 22272095 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12128610
    Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly (P < 0.01) higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.01) followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest IC(50) values followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals.
  4. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(11):13816-29.
    PMID: 23203036 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131113816
    The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs) indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC(50) of 125.9 and 110.3 μg/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 μg/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC(50) concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-δ and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-δ and caspase-3 as their mode of actions.
  5. Sajjadi M, Oskoueian E, Karimi E, Ebrahimi M
    Metab Brain Dis, 2021 10;36(7):1859-1869.
    PMID: 34273042 DOI: 10.1007/s11011-021-00768-7
    The Amygdalus spinosissima (Rosaceae) plant has been used in the Iranian folk medicine as a remedy for the burn wound. Hence, in this study, we aimed to determine the possible medicinal potential of the plant focusing on the root part. The bioactive phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the root extract of the Amygdalus spinosissima plant as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were determined. Moreover, the effects of root extract on learning and memory in mice were evaluated. The results revealed that the root methanolic extract contained phenolic and flavonoid compounds including apigenin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid. The extract possessed antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in vitro. These biological activities were attributed to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids. The A. spinosissima root extract improved learning and memory function in scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction in mice as determined using the Morris water maze task. The extract modulated the AChE, BChE, and inflammatory genes and enhanced the expression of the antioxidant enzymes in the brain. Consequently, A. spinosissima root extract could be considered as a promising source of potent bioactive compounds in the retarding the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
  6. Taheri S, Abdullah TL, Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Ebrahimi M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(7):13077-90.
    PMID: 25056545 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150713077
    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.
  7. Hendra R, Ahmad S, Oskoueian E, Sukari A, Shukor MY
    PMID: 22070850 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-110
    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and grows in tropical areas. The different parts of the fruit of P. macrocarpa were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.
  8. Hendra R, Ahmad S, Sukari A, Shukor MY, Oskoueian E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(6):3422-31.
    PMID: 21747685 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12063422
    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) is commonly known as 'Crown of God', 'Mahkota Dewa', and 'Pau'. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive, diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93-2.17 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds.
  9. Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2010 Sep;15(9):6244-56.
    PMID: 20877220 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15096244
    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries. Recently, attention has been paid to the identification of new sources of safe natural antioxidants for the food industry. The antioxidant activities of spices are mainly attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Saffron is one of the spices believed to possess antioxidant properties, but information on its antioxidant activity and phenolic, flavonoids compound are rather limited, therefore this research was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of saffron stigmas extracted with different solvents. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds of saffron were also examined using reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. Results showed that saffron stigma possess antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of saffron stigma at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 68.2% and 78.9%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic saffron extract was 6.54 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids, 5.88 ± 0.12 mg rutin equivalent/g DW, which were also higher than values obtained from the ethanolic and boiling water extracts. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol as two bioactive compounds. In summary, saffron stigmas showed antioxidant activity and methanol appeared to be the best solvent to extract the active components, among which the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol might contribute towards the stigma's antioxidant properties. Hence, saffron stigma could be applied as a natural antioxidant source for industrial purposes.
  10. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Idrus Z, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Shakeri M, et al.
    PMID: 25273634 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-368
    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens.
  11. Karimi E, Mehrabanjoubani P, Keshavarzian M, Oskoueian E, Jaafar HZ, Abdolzadeh A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Aug;94(11):2324-30.
    PMID: 24415452 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6567
    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
  12. Najjar A, Abdullah N, Saad WZ, Ahmad S, Oskoueian E, Abas F, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(2):2274-88.
    PMID: 24504029 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15022274
    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.
  13. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad S, Saad WZ, Omar AR, Ho YW
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5955-70.
    PMID: 22016638 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095955
    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0-1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) to ferrous ion (Fe(2+)). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.
  14. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Zulkifli I, Ebrahimi M, Karimi E, Goh YM, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Oct 30;15:392.
    PMID: 26518905 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0921-z
    BACKGROUND: Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of the palm oil industry is abundantly available in many tropical and subtropical countries. The product is known to contain high levels of phenolic compounds that may impede the deleterious effects of fungal mycotoxins. This study focused on the evaluation of PKC phenolics as a potential cytoprotective agent towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cell damage.

    METHODS: The phenolic compounds of PKC were obtained by solvent extraction and the product rich in phenolic compounds was labeled as phenolic-enriched fraction (PEF). This fraction was evaluated for its phenolic compounds composition. The antioxidant activity of PEF was determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. The cytotoxicity assay and molecular biomarkers analyses were performed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of PEF towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cell damage.

    RESULTS: The results showed that PEF contained gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin, catechin and ferulic acid. The PEF exhibited free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, ß-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances inhibition. The PEF demonstrated cytoprotective effects in AFB1-treated chicken hepatocytes by reducing the cellular lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant enzymes production. The viability of AFB1-treated hepatocytes was improved by PEF through up-regulation of oxidative stress tolerance genes and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory and apoptosis associated genes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings supported the proposition that the phenolic compounds present in PKC could be a potential cytoprotective agent towards AFB1 cytotoxicity.

  15. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Jafari S, Faseleh Jahromi M, Oskoueian E, Qurni Sazili A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(8):e0188369.
    PMID: 30067750 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188369
    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of altering the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diet on meat quality, fatty acid composition of muscle, and expression of lipogenic genes in the muscle of Boer goats. A total of twenty-one Boer goats (5 months old; 31.66±1.07 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios of 2.27:1 (LR), 5.01:1 (MR) and 10.38:1 (HR), fed at 3.7% of body weight. After 100 days of feeding, all goats were slaughtered and the longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled for analysis of fatty acids and gene expression. The dietary treatments did not affect (P>0.05) the carcass traits, and meat quality of growing goats. The concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, trans vaccenic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios linearly increased (P<0.01) with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios, especially for LR in the longissimus dorsi muscle of goats. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of the PPARα and PPARγ was down-regulated and stearoyl-CoA desaturase up-regulated in the longissimus dorsi of growing goats with increasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the optimal n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 2.27:1 exerted beneficial effects on meat fatty acid profiles, leading towards an enrichment in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in goat intramuscular fat.
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