Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 83 in total

  1. Shapi’i, R. A., Othman, S. H.
    Recently, incorporation of natural filler such as chitosan into edible film to produce food
    packaging material is of particular interest due to the improvement in the properties of the
    film such as mechanical, morphological and optical properties of the edible film. In this work,
    tapioca starch-based edible film was prepared with different concentrations of chitosan; 0, 20,
    40, 60, 80% w/w of dry starch solid weight. The effects of varying the chitosan concentration
    on the mechanical properties (tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB), and Young
    modulus (YM)), morphological and optical properties (color and transparency) of the edible
    films were investigated. There was 492% increment in TS value of the edible films when
    chitosan was added up to 60% w/w (21.23 MPa) compared to neat starch film (3.58 MPa). The
    60% w/w chitosan films exhibited smooth and even structure which indicated both chitosan
    and tapioca starch compounds were blended homogeneously. However, 60% w/w chitosan
    film exhibited very high YM value (2842.5 MPa) and low EAB value (2.46%) which might
    limit its application. Effects of chitosan concentration on optical properties could be considered
    negligible. The improvements in TS and morphological structure of the edible films will be
    beneficial for the potential application of film as food packaging material in which high TS is
    important to protect the structure of food and while morphological structure can be related to
    the aesthetical appearance of the food packaging materials.
  2. Abdullah A, Othman S
    BMC Fam Pract, 2011;12:143.
    PMID: 22208768 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-143
    Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is gaining popularity among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to explore the influence of self-initiated HBPM on primary care patients with hypertension.
    Six in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted, taking into consideration the experiences of 24 primary care patients with hypertension. These patients had been using HBPM as part of their hypertension management. The overriding influences were grouped under themes which emerged from analyzing the data using the grounded theory approach.
    There are both positive and negative influences of self-initiated HBPM. Patients used the readings of their HBPM to decide on many aspects of their hypertension management. The HBPM readings both influenced their adherence to diet and exercise and provided certain reassurance when they experienced symptoms. In addition, the act of discussing their HBPM readings with their health care providers resulted in an enhanced doctor-patient therapeutic relationship. Nevertheless, HBPM created confusion at times in some patients, particularly with regard to the target blood pressure level and the need for medication. This led to some patients making their own medical decisions based on their own standards.
    HBPM is becoming an integral part of hypertension management. Primary care patients who self-initiated HBPM reported being more self-efficacious, but lack of participation and guidance from their doctors created confusion, and hindered the true benefit of HBPM.

    Study site: urban primary care clinic, located within the University Malaya Medical Centre
  3. Wong YL, Othman S
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2008;20(2):102-16.
    PMID: 19124304 DOI: 10.1177/1010539507311899
    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
  4. Robson NZ, Othman S
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):331-2.
    PMID: 19385496 MyJurnal
    Despite being a common skin dermatosis in the tropics, physicians in the tropics may miss the diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans for other pruritic skin manifestation. This is especially in those who live in urban housing with no history of travel. Cutaneous larva migrans, an intensely pruritic skin pathology is mainly contracted by people with history of beach holiday or contact with moist soft sand which had been contaminated with dog or cat faeces. This article reports a patient who presented with intensely itchy papular spots over the dorsum of his foot after walking barefooted in an urban toilet soiled with cat faeces. The patient had initially seen an urban general practitioner who diagnosed the papular skin lesion as an allergic reaction, and prescribed antihistamines. The patient subsequently developed creeping skin lesions and was seen by the author who prescribed albendazole 400 mg twice daily for three days. The patient reported reduction in itching after two days of albendazole treatment and a follow up at ten days revealed a healed infection.
  5. Othman S, Harradine N
    Angle Orthod, 2007 Jul;77(4):668-74.
    PMID: 17605478
    To explore how many millimeters of tooth size discrepancy (TSD) are clinically significant, to determine what percentage of a representative orthodontic population has such a tooth size discrepancy, and to determine the ability of simple visual inspection to detect such a discrepancy.
  6. Sabil D, Othman SK, Isahak I
    Malays J Pathol, 1990 Jun;12(1):35-8.
    PMID: 1965320
    150 specimens from suspected herpes simplex genital and skin lesions were received in virus transport medium. They were inoculated into Hep-2 cell monolayers, examined for the presence of virus by cytopathic effect (CPE), direct immunoperoxidase (DIP) and direct immunofluorescence (DIF). Of 39 (26.0%) virus-positive specimens by CPE, 37 (24.7%) were HSV-positive by DIP and 36 (24.0%) by DIF staining. DIP staining had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 99.1%, positive predictive value of 97.3% and negative predictive value of 100% in relation to DIF as a standard test. Of 39 specimens positive by CPE, only 25.6% were HSV-positive within 24 h post-inoculation compared to 94% HSV-positive by DIP and DIF staining at the same time.
  7. Othman S, Mat Adenan NA
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2008 Sep 29;7(1):2.
    PMID: 18973706 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-7-2
    AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care providers regarding the identification and management of domestic violence in a hospital based primary health care setting.

    METHOD: A survey of all clinicians and nursing staff of the outpatient, casualty and antenatal clinics in University Malaya Medical Centre using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Hundred and eight out of 188 available staff participated. Sixty-two percent of the clinicians and 66.9% of the nursing staff perceived the prevalence of domestic violence within their patients to be very rare or rare. Majority of the clinicians (68.9%) reported asking their patients regarding domestic violence 'at times' but 26.2% had never asked at all. Time factor, concern about offending the patient and unsure of how to ask were reported as barriers in asking for domestic violence by 66%, 52.5% and 32.8% of the clinicians respectively. Clinicians have different practices and levels of confidence within the management of domestic violence. Victim-blaming attitude exists in 28% of the clinicians and 51.1% of the nursing staff. Less than a third of the participants reported knowing of any written protocol for domestic violence management. Only 20% of the clinicians and 6.8% of the nursing staff had ever attended any educational program related to domestic violence.

    CONCLUSION: Lack of positive attitude and positive practices among the staff towards domestic violence identification and management might be related to inadequate knowledge and inappropriate personal values regarding domestic violence.

  8. Mohd Mydin FH, Othman S
    J Interpers Violence, 2020 Nov;35(23-24):6041-6066.
    PMID: 29294874 DOI: 10.1177/0886260517726411
    This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.
  9. Gan CS, Yusof R, Othman S
    Acta Trop, 2015 Sep;149:8-14.
    PMID: 25981524 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.005
    Dengue virus (DV) infection demonstrates an intriguing virus-induced intracellular membrane alteration that results in the augmentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted antigen presentation. As oppose to its biological function in attracting CD8(+) T-cells, this phenomenon appears to facilitate the immune evasion. However, the molecular events that attribute to the dysregulation of the antigen presenting mechanism (APM) by DV remain obscure. In this study, we aimed to characterize the host cell APM upon infection with all serotypes of whole DV. Cellular RNA were isolated from infected cells and the gene expressions of LMP2, LMP7, TAP1, TAP2, TAPBP, CALR, CANX, PDIA3, HLA-A and HLA-B were analyzed via quantitative PCR. The profiles of the gene expression were further validated. We showed that all four DV serotypes modulate host APM at the proteasomal level with DV2 showing the most prominent expression profile.
  10. Zaid SS, Othman S, Kassim NM
    PMID: 25519484 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-509
    To investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) on pubertal development of ovaries.
  11. Mohd Zain N, Low WY, Othman S
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Apr;27(3):335-47.
    PMID: 25005933 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514537678
    This study evaluated the impact of maternal marital status on birth outcomes among young Malaysian women and investigated other risk factors influencing the birth outcomes. Pregnant women with and without marital ties at the point of pregnancy diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at pregnancy diagnosis and shortly after childbirth. From a total of 229 unmarried and 213 married women who participated, marital status was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.61) and low birth weight (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.98-6.57). Other factors significantly associated with birth outcomes was prenatal care (OR, 4.92; 95% CI, 1.43-16.95), "use of drugs" (OR, 10.39; 95% CI, 1.14-94.76), age (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16), and number of prenatal visits (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). Promoting access to prenatal care and social support programs for unmarried mothers may be important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.
  12. Othman S, Goddard C, Piterman L
    J Interpers Violence, 2014 May;29(8):1497-513.
    PMID: 24323695 DOI: 10.1177/0886260513507136
    Victims of domestic violence frequently attend health care facilities. In many cases, their abusive experience is neither disclosed nor discussed during clinical consultations. This study examined the barriers faced by women when discussing abuse with health care providers, specifically in cases involving Malaysian women with a history of domestic violence. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with 10 women with a history of domestic violence residing at a shelter. Purposive sampling was conducted until data saturation. Using the grounded theory approach of analysis, themes that emerged from these interviews were then further analyzed to examine the barriers faced by these women. Women who experienced domestic violence faced multiple barriers while discussing their accounts of abuse with others. Values placed on the privacy of domestic violence; upholding the traditional gender roles; preserving the family unity; minimizing the abuse, the feeling of shame, self-blame; and fearing their abuser generally create internal barriers when discussing their encounters of abuse with health care providers. The perceived unknown role of health care professionals when dealing with patients experiencing domestic violence as well as the previous negative experiences in clinical consultations acted as external barriers for discussing abuse with health care providers. Women with domestic violence experiences faced internal and external barriers to discussing their abuse during clinical consultations. Physicians and health care providers must consider domestic violence in consultations with female patients. A good doctor-patient relationship that encompasses empathy, confidence, trust, support, assurance, confidentiality, and guidance can help patients with abusive backgrounds overcome these barriers, leading to the disclosure and discussion of their abusive encounters. Proper education, guidelines, and support for health care providers are required to help them assist women with histories of domestic violence.
  13. Wahab S, Md Rani SA, Sharis Othman S
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:90-4.
    PMID: 23857843 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12050
    Neurosyphilis may presents with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This report illustrates a case of neurosyphilis in a man who presented with psychosis and cognitive dysfunction. Clinical findings and investigations done in the present case showed positive results for syphilis. Reduction of symptoms was noted after treatment with antibiotic. This case further highlights the importance of having high index of suspicion for neurosyphilis in patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms.
  14. Othman S, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Virus Res., 2012 Jan;163(1):238-45.
    PMID: 22001567 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2011.09.040
    Despite aggressive efforts in dengue research, the control of dengue diseases and discovery of therapeutics against them await complete elucidation of its complex immune-pathogenesis. Unlike many viruses that escape the host's immune responses by suppressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I pathway, many Flaviviruses up-regulate the cell surface expression of MHC Class I complex. We recently reported MHC Class I HLA-A2 promoter activation by all serotypes of dengue virus (DV). The mechanism by which DV regulates this is further explored here in HepG2 human liver cell line. Using real-time PCR, evidence that, similar to infections by other Flaviviruses, DV infection has the ability to up-regulate the MHC Class I transcription and mRNA synthesis, is presented. The region responsive towards DV infection of all serotypes was mapped to the Class I Regulatory Complex (CRC) of the HLA-A2 promoter. Competition electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with NFκB probe established the presence of specific DNA-protein complex in DV-infected nuclear extracts. Antibody-supershift assays identified the MHC Class I promoter activation by DV to occur through binding of p65/p50 heterodimers and p65 homodimers to κB1 and κB2 cis-acting elements, respectively, within the CRC, and not with the interferon consensus sequence (ICS). This study presents evidence of MHC Class I gene modulation by DV, hence providing a better understanding of dengue immune-pathogenesis that would consequently facilitate the discovery of antiviral therapeutics against dengue.
  15. Othman S, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2010 Dec;104(12):806-8.
    PMID: 20800252 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2010.07.004
    In contrast to many viruses that escape the host's immune responses by suppressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway, flaviviruses have been shown to up-regulate the cell surface expression of MHC class I complex. The mechanism by which dengue virus (DV) achieves this up-regulation remains unclear. Our investigation on the HLA-A2 gene in human liver cells demonstrated that all four serotypes of dengue virus, DV1 to DV4, resulted in variable degrees of promoter induction. This illustrates the importance of MHC class I transcription regulation in primary infections by different DV serotypes that may have even greater impact in secondary infections, associated with increased disease severity.
  16. Ishak IH, Low WY, Othman S
    J Sex Med, 2010 Sep;7(9):3080-7.
    PMID: 20584130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01848.x
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level.
    AIM: This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice.
    METHODS: A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD.
    RESULTS: Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD.
    CONCLUSION: Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  17. Mohamad Zaid SS, Kassim NM, Othman S
    PMID: 26788107 DOI: 10.1155/2015/202874
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties.
  18. Zain NM, Low WY, Othman S
    PMID: 26521527
    Pregnancy among unmarried women may have negative social and health implications in Malaysia. The number of pregnancies among unmarried women has increased in Malaysia, but the socio-demographic profile of these women is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of unmarried pregnant women and the factors associated with unmarried pregnancies among young women in Malaysia. We conducted a cross sectional study at six hospitals and six women's shelters in Peninsular Malaysia during 2011-2012. Unmarried pregnant women were compared with married pregnant women. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire asking for socio-demographic data, family background, risky sexual behavior, social support and pregnancy details. A total of 484 women (239 unmarried and 245 married) were included in the study. Most unmarried subjects were adolescents, from urban areas, from a low socioeconomic group, and lived with parents prior to pregnancy. Age (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.61-0.74), studying status (OR=17.33; 95% CI: 2.65-113.19), alcohol use (OR=40.46; 95% CI: 2.51-652.38) exposure to pornographic material (OR=13.48; 95% CI: 3.24-56.01), contraceptive use (OR=0.20; 95% CI: 0.08-0.51), and social support (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94) were all associated with unmarried pregnancy. These factors need to be considered when.designing an intervention program.
  19. Othman S, Chia YC, Ng CJ
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(4):206-212.
    Aim: To determine the accuracy of urinalysis in the detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in symptomatic patients at primary care level. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken on 100 patients with symptoms of UTI presenting at the Primary Care Clinic of University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during the months of August to November 1999. Their urine samples were tested simultaneously using urine dipstick, urine microscopy and urine culture. Urine culture was used as the gold standard and UTI was diagnosed when the urine culture showed a bacteria count of >= 105 organisms per mL. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was calculated. Results: The prevalence of UTI was 25% in symptomatic patients. The urine dipstick for leukocyte esterase, nitrite and red blood cell had sensitivities of 76, 56 and 76%, respectively. Their specificities were 60, 81 and 61%, respectively. Urine microscopy for leukocytes, red blood cells and bacterial count had sensitivities of 80, 52 and 84%, while their specificities were 76, 80 and 54%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI in the present study was low despite reported symptoms of UTI. Urinalysis is needed to support the diagnosis of UTI. In the present study, while there is accuracy in the urinalysis (as the sensitivities and specificities of various tests are comparable with other studies); lack of precision in each test because of the wide range of 95% confidence interval make it less reliable. Caution should be made in interpreting each test.
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