METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.
RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.
CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.
Methods: Excitotoxic retinal injury was induced with intravitreal injection of NMDA in Sprague-Dawley rats. All treatments were given as pre-, co-, and post-treatment with NMDA. Seven days post-injection, the retinas were processed for measurement of the expression of NOS isoforms using immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), retinal 3-NT content using ELISA, retinal histopathological changes using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and retinal cell apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining.
Results: As observed on immunohistochemistry, the treatment with NMDA caused a 4.53-fold increase in retinal nNOS expression compared to the PBS-treated rats (p<0.001). Among the MgAT-treated groups, only the pretreatment group showed significantly lower nNOS expression than the NMDA-treated group with a 2.00-fold reduction (p<0.001). Among the TAU-treated groups, the pre- and cotreatment groups showed 1.84- and 1.71-fold reduction in nNOS expression compared to the NMDA-treated group (p<0.001), respectively, but remained higher compared to the PBS-treated group (p<0.01). Similarly, iNOS expression in the NMDA-treated group was significantly greater than that for the PBS-treated group (2.68-fold; p<0.001). All MgAT treatment groups showed significantly lower iNOS expression than the NMDA-treated groups (3.58-, 1.51-, and 1.65-folds, respectively). However, in the MgAT co- and post-treatment groups, iNOS expression was significantly greater than in the PBS-treated group (1.77- and 1.62-folds, respectively). Pretreatment with MgAT caused 1.77-fold lower iNOS expression compared to pretreatment with TAU (p<0.05). In contrast, eNOS expression was 1.63-fold higher in the PBS-treated group than in the NMDA-treated group (p<0.001). Among all treatment groups, only pretreatment with MgAT caused restoration of retinal eNOS expression with a 1.39-fold difference from the NMDA-treated group (p<0.05). eNOS expression in the MgAT pretreatment group was also 1.34-fold higher than in the TAU pretreatment group (p<0.05). The retinal NOS expression as measured with ELISA was in accordance with that estimated with immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, among the MgAT treatment groups, only the pretreated group showed 1.47-fold lower retinal 3-NT than the NMDA-treated group, and the difference was significant (p<0.001). The H&E-stained retinal sections in all treatment groups showed statistically significantly greater numbers of retinal cell nuclei than the NMDA-treated group in the inner retina. However, the ganglion cell layer thickness in the TAU pretreatment group remained 1.23-fold lower than that in the MgAT pretreatment group (p<0.05). In line with this observation, the number of apoptotic cells as observed after TUNEL staining was 1.69-fold higher after pretreatment with TAU compared to pretreatment with MgAT (p<0.01).
Conclusions: MgAT and TAU, particularly with pretreatment, reduce retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress. Pretreatment with MgAT caused greater improvement in NMDA-induced changes in iNOS and eNOS expression and retinal 3-NT levels than pretreatment with TAU. The greater reduction in retinal nitrosative stress after pretreatment with MgAT was associated with lower retinal cell apoptosis and greater preservation of the ganglion cell layer thickness compared to pretreatment with TAU.
METHODS: The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging. At the end of the experimental period, the lenses were removed and subjected to analysis for oxidative and nitrosative stress, Ca and Mg levels, ATP content, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and calpain II activities.
RESULTS: The LTau and LMgT groups showed significantly lower opacity index values at all time points compared to the corresponding vehicle groups (p<0.001). However, the opacity index in the LMgT group was lower than that in the LTau group (p<0.05). Significantly reduced oxidative and nitrosative stress was observed in the LTau and LMgT groups. The lens Ca/Mg ratio in LMgT group was decreased by 1.15 times compared to that in the LVh group. Calpain II activity in the LMgT group was decreased by 13% compared to the LVh group. The ATP level and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were significantly increased in the LMgT group compared to the LVh group (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Topical liposomal MgT delays cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats by maintaining the lens mineral homeostasis and reducing lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress.