METHOD: Participants (N = 110) filled-in the Affiliate Stigma Scale, the Caregiver Burden Inventory, and the CarerQOL scale.
RESULTS: Parents reported low scores on stigma and fair levels of stress and quality of life, indicating that parents do not feel stigmatised by affiliation with a child with ASD nor are they stressed from affiliate stigma. After controlling for demographic factors, both the relationships of affiliate stigma with stress and with quality of life were weak, indicating that stigma may have little to no effect on stress and quality of life.
CONCLUSION: Cultural and religious beliefs may play a part in the acceptance of a child's condition resulting in less impact of stigma on the parents.
Methods: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method.
Results: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy.
Conclusions: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.