Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Lee HS, Park JH, Singh JK, Ismail MA
    Materials (Basel), 2016 Sep 03;9(9).
    PMID: 28773875 DOI: 10.3390/ma9090753
    Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal spraying was used. It is a more convenient and economical method for protecting both concrete and reinforcement steel bar from deterioration in waste water treatment reservoirs. In this study, 316L stainless steel coating was applied to a concrete surface, and different electrochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of coatings in different acidic pH solutions. The coating generated from the arc thermal spraying process significantly protected the concrete surface from corrosion in acidic pH solutions, owing to the formation of a double layer capacitance-a mixture of Cr3+ enriched with Cr₂O₃ and Cr-hydroxide in inner and Fe3+ oxide on the outer layer of the coating. The formation of this passive film is defective owing to the non-homogeneous 316L stainless steel coating surface. In the pH 5 solution, the growth of a passive film is adequate due to the presence of un-dissociated water molecules in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The coated surface is sealed with alkyl epoxide, which acts as a barrier against the penetration of acidic solutions. This coating exhibits higher impedance values among the three studied acidic pH solutions.
  2. Park TH, Park JH, Tirgan MH, Halim AS, Chang CH
    Ann Plast Surg, 2015 Feb;74(2):248-51.
    PMID: 24681623 DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182a2b537
    There is strong evidence of genetic susceptibility in individuals with keloid disorder. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the clinical relevance of our proposed variables on the multiplicity of keloids by further investigating the presence of other keloids and a family history.
  3. Han ET, Song TE, Park JH, Shin EH, Guk SM, Kim TY, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2004 Dec;71(6):745-9.
    PMID: 15642964
    To study the genetic diversity of re-emerging Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea, nucleotide sequence variations at the merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMSP-3alpha) locus were analyzed using 24 re-emerging isolates and 4 isolates from imported cases. Compared with the well known Belem strain (Brazil), a large number of amino acid substitutions, deletions, and insertions were found at the locus of the isolates examined. The Korean isolates were divided into two allelic types; type I (15 isolates), similar to the Belem strain, and type II (9), similar to the Chess strain (New Guinea). Isolates from imported cases were classified into three types; type III (1 from Malaysia), similar to type B from western Thailand, type IV (1 each from Indonesia and India), and type V (1 from Pakistan), both being new types. Our results have shown that the MSP-3alpha locus of re-emerging Korean P. vivax is dimorphic with two allelic types coexisting in the endemic area.
  4. Chan BKK, Xu G, Kim HK, Park JH, Kim W
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0196309.
    PMID: 29715264 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196309
    Corals and their associated fauna are extremely diverse in tropical waters and form major reefs. In the high-latitude temperate zone, corals living near their distribution limit are considered marginal communities because they are particularly extremely sensitive to environmental and climatic changes. In this study, we examined the diversity and host usage of coral-associated barnacles on Jeju Island, Korea, the northern coral distribution limit in the East China Sea. In this study, only three coral-associated barnacles-from two genera in two subfamilies-were collected. The Pyrgomatinid barnacles Cantellius arcuatus and Cantellius cf. euspinulosum were found only on the corals Montipora millepora and Alveopora japonica, respectively. The Megatrematinid barnacle Pyrgomina oulastreae, relatively a generalist, was found on Psammocora spp. (both profundacella and albopicta) and Oulastrea crispata corals. The host usage of these three barnacles does not overlap. DNA barcode sequences of the C. arcuatus specimens collected in the present study matched those collected in Kochi in Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, suggesting that this species has a wide geographical distribution. C. arcuatus covers a wider host range in Taiwan waters, inhabiting Montipora spp. and Porites spp., which suggests that the host specificity of coral-associated barnacles varies with host availability. C. cf. euspinulosum probably has a very narrow distribution and host usage. The sequences of C. cf. euspinulosum on Jeju Island do not match those of any known sequences of Cantellius barnacles in the Indo-Pacific region. P. oulastreae probably prefers cold water because it has been reported in temperate regions. Coral-associated barnacles in marginal communities have considerably lower diversity than their subtropical and tropical counterparts. When host availability is limited, marginal coral-associated barnacles exhibit higher host specificity than those in subtropical and tropical reef systems.
  5. Lee SY, Park ME, Kim RH, Ko MK, Lee KN, Kim SM, et al.
    Vaccine, 2015 Jan 29;33(5):664-9.
    PMID: 25528521 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.007
    Of the seven known serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), type A has the most diverse variations. Genetic variations also occur frequently at VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 because these proteins constitute the viral capsid. The structural proteins of FMDV, which are closely related to immunologic correlations, are the most easily analyzed because they have highly accessible information. In this study we analyzed the type A vaccine viruses by alignment of available sequences in order to find appropriate vaccine strains. The matching rate of ASIA topotype-specific sites (20 amino acids) located on the viral surface, which are mainly VP1 and VP2, was highly related to immunologic reactivity. Among the available vaccines analyzed in this study, we suggest that A Malaysia 97 could be used as a vaccine virus as it has the highest genetic similarity and immunologic aspects to field strains originating in East Asia.
  6. Duong CN, Ra JS, Cho J, Kim SD, Choi HK, Park JH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2010 Jan;78(3):286-93.
    PMID: 19931116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.048
    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
  7. Weinberg RP, Koledova VV, Shin H, Park JH, Tan YA, Sinskey AJ, et al.
    Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2018;2018:7608038.
    PMID: 29666700 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7608038
    Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) into toxic oligomers which activate microglia and astrocytes causing acute neuroinflammation. Multiple studies show that the soluble oligomers of Aβ42 are neurotoxic and proinflammatory, whereas the monomers and insoluble fibrils are relatively nontoxic. We show that Aβ42 aggregation is inhibited in vitro by oil palm phenolics (OPP), an aqueous extract from the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis). The data shows that OPP inhibits stacking of β-pleated sheets, which is essential for oligomerization. We demonstrate the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation by (1) mass spectrometry; (2) Congo Red dye binding; (3) 2D-IR spectroscopy; (4) dynamic light scattering; (5) transmission electron microscopy; and (6) transgenic yeast rescue assay. In the yeast rescue assay, OPP significantly reduces the cytotoxicity of aggregating neuropeptides in yeast genetically engineered to overexpress these peptides. The data shows that OPP inhibits (1) the aggregation of Aβ into oligomers; (2) stacking of β-pleated sheets; and (3) fibrillar growth and coalescence. These inhibitory effects prevent the formation of neurotoxic oligomers and hold potential as a means to reduce neuroinflammation and neuronal death and thereby may play some role in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
  8. Muh F, Lee SK, Hoque MR, Han JH, Park JH, Firdaus ER, et al.
    Malar J, 2018 Jul 27;17(1):272.
    PMID: 30049277 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-018-2420-4
    BACKGROUND: The rapid process of malaria erythrocyte invasion involves ligand-receptor interactions. Inducing antibodies against specific ligands or receptors that abrogate the invasion process is a key challenge for blood stage vaccine development. However, few candidates were reported and remain to be validated for the discovery of new vaccine candidates in Plasmodium knowlesi.

    METHODS: In order to investigate the efficacy of pre-clinical vaccine candidates in P. knowlesi-infected human cases, this study describes an in vitro invasion inhibition assay, using a P. knowlesi strain adapted to in vitro growth in human erythrocytes, PkA1-H.1. Recombinant proteins of P. knowlesi Duffy binding protein alpha (PkDBPα) and apical membrane antigen 1 (PkAMA1) were produced in Escherichia coli system and rabbit antibodies were generated from immune animals.

    RESULTS: PkDBPα and PkAMA1 recombinant proteins were expressed as insoluble and produced as a functional refolded form for this study. Antibodies against PkDBPα and PkAMA1 specifically recognized recombinant proteins and native parasite proteins in schizont-stage parasites on the merozoite organelles. Single and combination of anti-PkDBPα and anti-PkAMA1 antibodies elicited strong growth inhibitory effects on the parasite in concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, IgG prevalence of PkDBPα and PkAMA1 were observed in 13.0 and 46.7% in human clinical patients, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: These data provide support for the validation of in vitro growth inhibition assay using antibodies of DBPα and AMA1 in human-adapted P. knowlesi parasite PkA1-H.1 strain.

  9. Abidin MSZ, Matsumura R, Anisuzzaman M, Park JH, Muta S, Mahmood MR, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2013 Nov 06;6(11):5047-5057.
    PMID: 28788375 DOI: 10.3390/ma6115047
    We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl₄:C₃H₈O₂) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm(-1) corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm(-1) corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.
  10. Park JH, Lee J, Hakim NA, Kim HY, Kang SW, Jeong JJ, et al.
    Head Neck, 2015 Dec;37(12):1705-11.
    PMID: 24986508 DOI: 10.1002/hed.23824
    This study assessed the results of robotic thyroidectomy by fellowship-trained surgeons in their initial independent practice, and whether standard fellowship training for robotic surgery shortens the learning curve.
  11. Le VP, Nguyen T, Lee KN, Ko YJ, Lee HS, Nguyen VC, et al.
    Vet Microbiol, 2010 Jul 29;144(1-2):58-66.
    PMID: 20097490 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.12.033
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in Vietnam in recent years. In this work, six serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), collected from endemic outbreaks during January and February of 2009 in four different provinces in Vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. Genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic and deduced aa analysis of the capsid coding gene VP1 showed that the six Vietnamese strains were all classified into the genotype IX from a total of 10 major genotypes worldwide, sharing 98.1-100% aa identity each other. They were most closely related to the type A strains recently isolated in Laos (A/LAO/36/2003, A/LAO/1/2006, A/LAO/6/2006, A/LAO/7/2006, and A/LAO/8/2006), Thailand (A/TAI/2/1997 and A/TAI/118/1987), and Malaysia (A/MAY/2/2002), sharing 88.3-95.5% nucleotide (nt) identities. In contrast, Vietnamese type A strains showed low nt identities with the two old type A FMDVs, isolated in 1960 in Thailand (a15thailand iso43) and in 1975 in the Philippines (aphilippines iso50), ranging from 77.3 to 80.9% nt identity. A multiple alignment based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid VP1 coding gene of type A FMDV revealed three amino acid substitutions between Vietnamese strains and the strains of other Southeast Asian countries (Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). Alanine was replaced by valine at residue 24, asparagine by arginine at residue 85, and serine by threonine at residue 196. Furthermore, type A FMDV strains recently isolated in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Malaysia all have one amino acid deletion at residue 140 of the capsid VP1 protein compared with the two old type A FMDV strains from Thailand and the Philippines as well as most other type A representatives worldwide. This article is the first to report on the comprehensive genetic characterization of type A FMDV circulating in Vietnam.
  12. Abidin MSZ, Morshed T, Chikita H, Kinoshita Y, Muta S, Anisuzzaman M, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Feb 24;7(2):1409-1421.
    PMID: 28788521 DOI: 10.3390/ma7021409
    The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in Si
    x
    Ge1-x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm-1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of Si
    x
    Ge1-x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance.
  13. Muh F, Kim N, Nyunt MH, Firdaus ER, Han JH, Hoque MR, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 06;14(6):e0008323.
    PMID: 32559186 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008323
    Malaria is caused by multiple different species of protozoan parasites, and interventions in the pre-elimination phase can lead to drastic changes in the proportion of each species causing malaria. In endemic areas, cross-reactivity may play an important role in the protection and blocking transmission. Thus, successful control of one species could lead to an increase in other parasite species. A few studies have reported cross-reactivity producing cross-immunity, but the extent of cross-reactive, particularly between closely related species, is poorly understood. P. vivax and P. knowlesi are particularly closely related species causing malaria infections in SE Asia, and whilst P. vivax cases are in decline, zoonotic P. knowlesi infections are rising in some areas. In this study, the cross-species reactivity and growth inhibition activity of P. vivax blood-stage antigen-specific antibodies against P. knowlesi parasites were investigated. Bioinformatics analysis, immunofluorescence assay, western blotting, protein microarray, and growth inhibition assay were performed to investigate the cross-reactivity. P. vivax blood-stage antigen-specific antibodies recognized the molecules located on the surface or released from apical organelles of P. knowlesi merozoites. Recombinant P. vivax and P. knowlesi proteins were also recognized by P. knowlesi- and P. vivax-infected patient antibodies, respectively. Immunoglobulin G against P. vivax antigens from both immune animals and human malaria patients inhibited the erythrocyte invasion by P. knowlesi. This study demonstrates that there is extensive cross-reactivity between antibodies against P. vivax to P. knowlesi in the blood stage, and these antibodies can potently inhibit in vitro invasion, highlighting the potential cross-protective immunity in endemic areas.
  14. Kim T, Hong JK, Oem JK, Lee KN, Lee HS, Kim YJ, et al.
    Vaccine, 2019 03 14;37(12):1702-1709.
    PMID: 30712811 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.080
    After massive foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks originated from Jincheon County from Dec. 2014 to Apr. 2015, the effectiveness of the previous FMD vaccine containing only the O1 Manisa as the O antigen, O1 Manisa + A Malaysia 97 + Asia 1 Sharmir trivalent vaccine, was questioned in South Korea, and a change in the O antigen in FMD vaccines was demanded to control the FMD caused by FMDV O/Jincheon/SKR/2014, the O Jincheon strain. Therefore, the efficacies of O1 Manisa + O 3039 bivalent vaccine and O 3039 monovalent vaccine were studied for cross-protection against heterologous challenge with the O Jincheon strain. In this study, the efficacy of the O1 Manisa + O 3039 bivalent vaccine was better than that of the O 3039 monovalent vaccine, even though the serological relationship (r1 value) between O Jincheon and O 3039 was matched according to the OIE Terrestrial Manual. According to serological test results from vaccinated specific pathogen free pigs, virus neutralization test titers against Jincheon were good estimates for predicting protection against challenge. A field trial of the O1 Manisa + O 3039 bivalent vaccine was performed to estimate the possibility of field application in conventional pig farms, especially due to concerns about the effect of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) in field application of the FMD vaccine. According to the result of the field trial, the O1 Manisa + O 3039 bivalent vaccine was considered to overcome MDA. The results of the efficacy and field trials indicated that the O1 Manisa + O3039 vaccine could be suitable to replace previous FMD vaccines to control the FMD field situation caused by O Jincheon FMDV.
  15. Jalilian AR, Gizawy MA, Alliot C, Takacs S, Chakarborty S, Rovais MRA, et al.
    Curr Radiopharm, 2021;14(4):306-314.
    PMID: 32988359 DOI: 10.2174/1874471013999200928162322
    Despite interesting properties, the use of 67Cu, 186Re and 47Sc theranostic radionuclides in preclinical studies and clinical trials is curtailed by their limited availability due to a lack of widely established production methods. An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was initiated to identify important technical issues related to the production and quality control of these emerging radionuclides and related radiopharmaceuticals, based on the request from IAEA Member States. The international team worked on targetry, separation, quality control and radiopharmaceutical aspects of the radionuclides obtained from research reactors and cyclotrons leading to preparation of a standard recommendations for all Member States. The CRP was initiated in 2016 with fourteen participants from thirteen Member States from four continents. Extraordinary results on the production, quality control and preclinical evaluation of selected radionuclides were reported in this project that was finalized in 2020. The outcomes, outputs and results of this project achieved by participating Member States are described in this minireview.
  16. ASCI Practice Guideline Working Group, Beck KS, Kim JA, Choe YH, Sim KH, Hoe J, et al.
    Korean J Radiol, 2017 Nov-Dec;18(6):871-880.
    PMID: 29089819 DOI: 10.3348/kjr.2017.18.6.871
    In 2010, the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASCI) provided recommendations for cardiac CT and MRI, and this document reflects an update of the 2010 ASCI appropriate use criteria (AUC). In 2016, the ASCI formed a new working group for revision of AUC for noninvasive cardiac imaging. A major change that we made in this document is the rating of various noninvasive tests (exercise electrocardiogram, echocardiography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography/angiography), compared side by side for their applications in various clinical scenarios. Ninety-five clinical scenarios were developed from eight selected pre-existing guidelines and classified into four sections as follows: 1) detection of coronary artery disease, symptomatic or asymptomatic; 2) cardiac evaluation in various clinical scenarios; 3) use of imaging modality according to prior testing; and 4) evaluation of cardiac structure and function. The clinical scenarios were scored by a separate rating committee on a scale of 1-9 to designate appropriate use, uncertain use, or inappropriate use according to a modified Delphi method. Overall, the AUC ratings for CT were higher than those of previous guidelines. These new AUC provide guidance for clinicians choosing among available testing modalities for various cardiac diseases and are also unique, given that most previous AUC for noninvasive imaging include only one imaging technique. As cardiac imaging is multimodal in nature, we believe that these AUC will be more useful for clinical decision making.
  17. Siah KTH, Rahman MM, Ong AML, Soh AYS, Lee YY, Xiao Y, et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2020 07 30;26(3):299-310.
    PMID: 32606253 DOI: 10.5056/jnm20107
    During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.
  18. Han JH, Cho JS, Ong JJY, Park JH, Nyunt MH, Sutanto E, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 07;14(7):e0008202.
    PMID: 32645098 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008202
    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and difficult to treat cause of human malaria. The development of vaccines against the blood stages of P. vivax remains a key objective for the control and elimination of vivax malaria. Erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) protein family members such as Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) are of critical importance to erythrocyte invasion and have been the major target for vivax malaria vaccine development. In this study, we focus on another member of EBL protein family, P. vivax erythrocyte binding protein (PvEBP). PvEBP was first identified in Cambodian (C127) field isolates and has subsequently been showed its preferences for binding reticulocytes which is directly inhibited by antibodies. We analysed PvEBP sequence from 316 vivax clinical isolates from eight countries including China (n = 4), Ethiopia (n = 24), Malaysia (n = 53), Myanmar (n = 10), Papua New Guinea (n = 16), Republic of Korea (n = 10), Thailand (n = 174), and Vietnam (n = 25). PvEBP gene exhibited four different phenotypic clusters based on the insertion/deletion (indels) variation. PvEBP-RII (179-479 aa.) showed highest polymorphism similar to other EBL family proteins in various Plasmodium species. Whereas even though PvEBP-RIII-V (480-690 aa.) was the most conserved domain, that showed strong neutral selection pressure for gene purifying with significant population expansion. Antigenicity of both of PvEBP-RII (16.1%) and PvEBP-RIII-V (21.5%) domains were comparatively lower than other P. vivax antigen which expected antigens associated with merozoite invasion. Total IgG recognition level of PvEBP-RII was stronger than PvEBP-RIII-V domain, whereas total IgG inducing level was stronger in PvEBP-RIII-V domain. These results suggest that PvEBP-RII is mainly recognized by natural IgG for innate protection, whereas PvEBP-RIII-V stimulates IgG production activity by B-cell for acquired immunity. Overall, the low antigenicity of both regions in patients with vivax malaria likely reflects genetic polymorphism for strong positive selection in PvEBP-RII and purifying selection in PvEBP-RIII-V domain. These observations pose challenging questions to the selection of EBP and point out the importance of immune pressure and polymorphism required for inclusion of PvEBP as a vaccine candidate.
  19. Jung HK, Hong SJ, Lee OY, Pandolfino J, Park H, Miwa H, et al.
    J Neurogastroenterol Motil, 2020 04 30;26(2):180-203.
    PMID: 32235027 DOI: 10.5056/jnm20014
    Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the "2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines") were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.
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