Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Pau A, Sabri BA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1733-41.
    PMID: 22743863 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512449855
    Job satisfaction (JS) is considered to be a key factor in workforce retention. This article reports on the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and JS in newly qualified dentistsemployed in the Malaysian 3-year compulsory service. A postal questionnaire survey collected data on sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, EI, and JS. In a sample of 342 (58.9%) respondents, sociodemographic characteristics were not statistically significantly associated with both EI and JS total scores, whereas overseas graduates scored more highly on the EI scale compared with local graduates. Linear regression analysis indicated that EI was the only statistically significant predictor of JS. EI was statistically significantly associated with JS with patient relationships (r = 0.28; P = .001), peer support (r = 0.30; P = .001), professional development (r = 0.21; P = .001), quality of care (r = 0.57; P = .001), supporting staff (r = 0.24;P = .001), overall JS (r = 0.28; P = .001), and total JS score (r = 0.40; P = .001). However, EI was not statistically significantly associated with JS with income (r = 0.06; P = .302). These findings have implications for the development of interventions to enhance EI and JS in order to promote retention of dentists in the public sector.
  2. Wong YC, Mohan M, Pau A
    J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2016 Oct-Dec;34(4):348-53.
    PMID: 27681398 DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.191415
    CONTEXT: To investigate the antibiotic prescribing training received by dental students, clinical experience in treating child patients, awareness of antibiotic prescribing guidelines, preparedness in antibiotic prescribing, and compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines for the management of dental infections in children.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving final year dental students from Malaysian and Asian dental schools. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of five clinical case scenarios was e-mailed to all final year students at selected dental schools. Students' responses were compared for each clinical case scenario with the prescribing guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Dental Association. Compliance in each scenario was tested for association with their preparedness in antibiotic prescribing, previous training on antibiotic prescribing and awareness of antibiotic prescribing guidelines using Chi-square test. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS statistics version 20.
    RESULTS: A total of 108 completed responses were received. About 74 (69%) students were from Malaysian dental schools. The compliance rate with prescribing guidelines ranged from 15.7% to 43.5%. Those attending Malaysian dental schools (47.3%) and those who had treated child patient more often (46.3%) were more likely (P < 0.05) to be aware of the guidelines. Those who had received antibiotic prescribing training (21.3%) were more likely to think they were well prepared in antibiotic prescribing (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Final year dental students had low awareness and compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Further research is needed to investigate how compliance with the guidelines may be enhanced.
  3. Chen CL, Parolia A, Pau A, Celerino de Moraes Porto IC
    Aust Dent J, 2015 Mar;60(1):65-72.
    PMID: 25721280 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12275
    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) occurs on exposed dentine and is dependent on the patency of dentinal tubules. This study compared the effectiveness of red propolis extract (RPE), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Novamin) and arginine-calcium carbonate (ACC) in occluding dentine tubules.
  4. Chua EG, Parolia A, Ahlawat P, Pau A, Amalraj FD
    BMC Oral Health, 2014;14:53.
    PMID: 24886335 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-53
    To investigate the antifungal activity of propolis, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol on Candida albicans-infected root canal dentinal tubules at two different depths (200 μm and 400 μm) and two time intervals (day 1 and 7).
  5. Chong JA, Chew JK, Ravindranath S, Pau A
    J Dent Educ, 2014 Feb;78(2):206-12.
    PMID: 24489028
    This study investigated the impact of clinical audit training on record-keeping behavior of dental students and students' perceptions of the clinical audit training. The training was delivered to Year 4 and Year 5 undergraduates at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It included a practical audit exercise on patient records. The results were presented by the undergraduates, and guidelines were framed from the recommendations proposed. Following this, an audit of Year 4 and Year 5 students' patient records before and after the audit training was carried out. A total of 100 records were audited against a predetermined set of criteria by two examiners. An email survey of the students was also conducted to explore their views of the audit training. Results showed statistically significant improvements in record-keeping following audit training. Responses to the email survey were analyzed qualitatively. Respondents reported that the audit training helped them to identify deficiencies in their record-keeping practice, increased their knowledge in record-keeping, and improved their record-keeping skills. Improvements in clinical audit teaching were also proposed.
  6. Jacob A, Parolia A, Pau A, Davamani Amalraj F
    PMID: 26303848 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0814-1
    To evaluate and compare the effects of ethanolic extracts of Malaysian propolis and Brazilian red propolis at different concentrations on the migration and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
  7. Andiesta NS, Hamid MA, Lee K, Pau A
    JMIR Res Protoc, 2018 Jun 06;7(6):e10053.
    PMID: 29875086 DOI: 10.2196/10053
    BACKGROUND: In 2012, nearly 4000 children in Malaysia were referred to hospital pediatric dental services due to dental caries. Recent research has reported the effectiveness of dental home visits in preventing caries development in young children. Dental home visits (DHVs) are described as an ongoing relationship between the dentist and their patients, providing all aspects of a preventive oral health care program in the presence of the parents at home.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of dental home visits and oral health information, in the form of educational leaflets, in preventing new caries development in young children, compared to those receiving only educational leaflets over a period of two years. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of dental home visits.

    METHODS: This is a collaborative project with the Oral Health Division of the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The Oral Health Division will provide access to a subsample from the National Oral Health of Preschoolers Survey which was carried out in 2015. The population of interest is children aged 5 and 6 years from kindergartens in the Selangor state of Malaysia. The study adopted a societal perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis and all types of resources that are of value to society will be included in analyzing the costs; such as cost to the patient, cost to the provider or institution, and indirect costs because of loss of productivity.

    RESULTS: The trial has been approved by the International Medical University Malaysia's Joint Research and Ethics Committee (Project ID: IMU R157-2014 [File III - 2016]). This trial is currently recruiting participants.

    CONCLUSIONS: The number of young children in Malaysia who have been referred to the hospital children's dentistry service for severe caries is disturbing. The cost of dental treatment in young children is high due to the severity of the caries which require an aggressive treatment, and the need for general anesthesia or sedation. This study will provide information on the cost and effectiveness of DHVs in caries prevention of young children in Malaysia.


  8. Chong JA, Syed Mohamed AMF, Marizan Nor M, Pau A
    J Forensic Sci, 2020 Nov;65(6):2000-2007.
    PMID: 32692413 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14507
    Although there is clinical applicability of the palatal rugae as an identification tool in forensic odontology, controversy exists whether the palatal rugae patterns are stable or variable. The greater the genetic component, the higher the probability that palatal rugae patterns are stable. The aim of this study was to compare the palatal rugae morphology between full siblings and the proportion of variability due to genetic component. This cross-sectional study was conducted on digital models of 162 siblings aged 15-30 years old. The palatal rugae patterns were assessed with Thomas and Kotze (1983) classification using Geomagic Studio software (3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC). The palatal rugae morphology between siblings showed significantly similar characteristics for total number of left rugae (p = 0.001), left primary rugae (p = 0.017), secondary rugae for right (p = 0.024) and left sides (p = 0.001), right straight rugae (p = 0.010), and right convergent rugae (p = 0.005) accounting for at least 6.25%-12.8% of the variability due to heredity. Despite the similarities found, the palatal rugae patterns showed significant differences between siblings of at least 46.9% (p = 0.001). Zero heritability was found in 9 of the 14 rugae patterns. Meanwhile, total number of rugae, primary, backward, and convergent rugae showed moderate heritability (h2  > 0.3) and total number of secondary rugae showed high heritability (h2  > 0.6). In conclusion, despite the individuality characteristics, an appreciable hereditary component is observed with significant similarities found between sibling pairs and the palatal rugae patterns were both environmentally and genetically influenced.
  9. Parolia A, Kumar H, Ramamurthy S, Davamani F, Pau A
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 11 25;20(1):339.
    PMID: 33238961 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01330-0
    BACKGROUND: The successful outcome of endodontic treatment depends on controlling the intra-radicular microbial biofilm by effective instrumentation and disinfection using various irrigants and intracanal medicaments. Instrumentation alone cannot effectively debride the root canals specially due to the complex morphology of the root canal system. A number of antibiotics and surfactants are being widely used in the treatment of biofilms however, the current trend is towards identification of natural products in disinfection. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial effect of chitosan-propolis nanoparticle (CPN) as an intracanal medicament against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal.

    METHODS: 240 extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 30) according to the intracanal medicament placed: group I: saline, group II: chitosan, group III: propolis100 µg/ml (P100), group IV: propolis 250 µg/ml (P250), group V: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/ml (CPN100), group VI: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 250 µg/ml (CPN250), group VII: calcium hydroxide(CH) and group VIII: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel. Dentine shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of day one, three and seven. The non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction of CFUs between all groups and probability values of p 

  10. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

  11. Mohan M, Lin KH, Parolia A, Pau A
    Int J Dent, 2021;2021:4573459.
    PMID: 34608391 DOI: 10.1155/2021/4573459
    Objectives: The research aimed to investigate if emotional intelligence (EI) scores of dental undergraduates influenced their patients' satisfaction with the treatment received.

    Methods: A 33-item EI questionnaire was completed by 46 dental undergraduates in a cross-sectional study. Responses, measured on a five-point Likert scale, were summed to yield EI scores. Patients treated by the same undergraduates were invited to complete a patient satisfaction (PS) questionnaire. EI and PS scores were calculated and compared by undergraduates' gender and the patients' age and education status. The four EI factors (optimism/mood regulation, appraisal of emotions, utilization of emotions, and social skills of students) were correlated with PS using Spearman's correlation test with a significance level set at p < 0.05.

    Results: EI scores did not differ significantly between male (N = 23) and female (N = 23) undergraduates (p=0.218). PS was not associated with patients' gender, but those educated to the secondary school level were more likely to be satisfied compared to those educated to the college/university level (p=0.022). Of the four EI factors, optimism/mood regulation was positively correlated with PS (p=0.049).

    Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the EI of the students can influence PS. Practical Implications. Interventions to enhance EI can be developed to improve the patient experience.

  12. Pau A, Jeevaratnam K, Chen YS, Fall AA, Khoo C, Nadarajah VD
    Med Teach, 2013 Dec;35(12):1027-41.
    PMID: 24050709 DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.829912
    The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) has been used increasingly for selection of students to health professions programmes.
  13. Rowland ML, Naidoo S, AbdulKadir R, Moraru R, Huang B, Pau A
    Int Dent J, 2010 Apr;60(2):106-12.
    PMID: 20476716
    OBJECTIVES: To determine first year dental students' perceptions of intimidation by instructors and bullying by fellow students.
    METHODS: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of first year dental students from seven dental schools representing five countries; one each from Romania, South Africa, Australia and the U.S.A., and three from Malaysia. Self-report questionnaires were administered to participants at least six months after they had commenced their dental degree course during 2005-6.
    RESULTS: Over a third (34.6%) reported that they had been intimidated or badly treated by their tutors/instructors and 17% reported that they had been bullied or badly treated by their fellow students in the recent past. There were statistically significant differences in reports of intimidation by instructors between the different dental schools. Intimidation by instructors was associated with a history of medication use for stress, anxiety and depression, and perceived stress in the past month. There were no statistically significant variations in reports of bullying by fellow students between different dental schools. Bullying by fellow students was associated with dieting to lose weight, self-reported general health and perceived stress.
    CONCLUSIONS: This multi-national study highlights that intimidation and bullying is prevalent within dental teaching and training environments. Future research is needed to explore their impact on students' wellbeing and academic progress as well as on patient care.
    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists are the best recruiters for the profession. If the dental school experience is a negative one it can have significant impact on the future of the profession
  14. Pau A, Rowland ML, Naidoo S, AbdulKadir R, Makrynika E, Moraru R, et al.
    J Dent Educ, 2007 Feb;71(2):197-204.
    PMID: 17314380
    This multinational survey investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and perceived stress (PS) in seven countries. First-year dental undergraduates attending a dental school in England, Greece, Romania, South Africa, Australia, and the United States and three schools in Malaysia were invited to complete a set of questionnaires on age, gender, academic background, satisfaction with career choice, EI, and PS. Of 860 questionnaires distributed, 596 were fully completed--a response rate of 69.3 percent. Mean EI score was 123.8 (95 percent CI 122.7-124.9), and mean PS score was 19.1 (95 percent CI 18.6-19.7). Significant differences in EI and PS scores were detected between different countries. Females (p<0.05), younger students (p<0.001), those without a previous higher education qualification (p<0.001), and those not satisfied with their decision to study dentistry (p<0.001) were more likely to report PS when compared to their counterparts. A significant inverse relationship (coefficient=-0.29, p=0.001) between EI and PS was detected. Independent significant predictors of PS identified were gender (beta=0.22, t=5.71, p=0.001), previous higher education qualification (beta=-0.14, t=-2.42, p=0.010), satisfaction with decision to study dentistry (beta=-0.20, t=-5.11, p=0.001), and EI (beta=-0.24, t=-6.09, p=0.001), with the latter being relatively the most important predictor. In conclusion, the inverse relationship between EI and PS has been confirmed in this heterogeneous sample representing diverse sociocultural and academic contexts of dental undergraduates.
  15. Pau A, Chen YS, Lee VK, Sow CF, Alwis R
    Med Educ Online, 2016 Jan;21(1):29874.
    PMID: 28165931 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v21.29874
    Introduction This paper compares the panel interview (PI) performance with the multiple mini interview (MMI) performance and indication of behavioural concerns of a sample of medical school applicants. The acceptability of the MMI was also assessed. Materials and methods All applicants shortlisted for a PI were invited to an MMI. Applicants attended a 30-min PI with two faculty interviewers followed by an MMI consisting of ten 8-min stations. Applicants were assessed on their performance at each MMI station by one faculty. The interviewer also indicated if they perceived the applicant to be a concern. Finally, applicants completed an acceptability questionnaire. Results From the analysis of 133 (75.1%) completed MMI scoresheets, the MMI scores correlated statistically significantly with the PI scores (r=0.438, p=0.001). Both were not statistically associated with sex, age, race, or pre-university academic ability to any significance. Applicants assessed as a concern at two or more stations performed statistically significantly less well at the MMI when compared with those who were assessed as a concern at one station or none at all. However, there was no association with PI performance. Acceptability scores were generally high, and comparison of mean scores for each of the acceptability questionnaire items did not show statistically significant differences between sex and race categories. Conclusions Although PI and MMI performances are correlated, the MMI may have the added advantage of more objectively generating multiple impressions of the applicant's interpersonal skill, thoughtfulness, and general demeanour. Results of the present study indicated that the MMI is acceptable in a multicultural context.
  16. Pau A, Omar H, Khan S, Jassim A, Seow LL, Toh CG
    Singapore Dent J, 2017 12;38:45-54.
    PMID: 29229074 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2017.08.001
    BACKGROUND: To quantify participation in dental research activities in Malaysia, and investigate its association with socio-demographic and professional characteristics, and perceptions of research and development (R&D) culture.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental academics in Malaysian dental schools were invited to complete a questionnaire by email and post. The survey comprised questions on research activities in the past 12 months, socio-demographic and professional characteristics, and the R&D Culture Index. Principal components factor analysis was carried out to confirm the factor structure of the R&D Culture Index. Chi-square test was used to identify association of research activities with R&D culture, and socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Binary logistic regression was carried to identify predicators of research activities.

    RESULTS: Of 256 potential participants contacted, 128 (50%) useable responses were returned. Three R&D Culture factors accounting for 57.4% of variance were extracted. More positive perception of R&D Support was associated with Malaysians (0.025) and those employed in Government schools (0.017). R&D Skills and Aptitude were associated with older respondents (0.050), PhD qualification (0.014) and more years in academia (0.014). R&D Intention was associated with any of the socio-demographic characteristics. Thirty (23.4%) respondents reported a peer-review research publication in the past 12 months, which was associated with having a PhD (OR 12.79, CI 1.28-127.96), after adjustment in regression analyses.

    DISCUSSION: Postgraduate research training should be encouraged to promote participation in research activities. R&D culture did not appear to impact on research productivity. Other factors such as individual attitudinal interests should be studied.

  17. Pan JYY, Parolia A, Chuah SR, Bhatia S, Mutalik S, Pau A
    BMC Oral Health, 2019 01 14;19(1):14.
    PMID: 30642318 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0710-z
    BACKGROUND: To determine the root canal morphology of human permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in a Malaysian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    METHODS: A total of 208 CBCT images were examined retrospectively. Prevalence of an extra root/canal and internal morphology based on Vertucci's classification were observed in human maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth. Variations in the external and internal morphology were compared in relation to gender and tooth side (left vs right) using Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with significance level set at p 

  18. Tay K, Beh CLJ, Babar MG, Kweh TJ, Priya E, Pau A
    BDJ Open, 2021 Jan 19;7(1):2.
    PMID: 33469006 DOI: 10.1038/s41405-021-00058-5
    OBJECTIVE: Tooth pain among adolescents is a common event that impacts substantially on quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of race in the tooth pain experience and associated care-seeking.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 14-18 years from four different public schools in Kuala Lumpur. Socio-demographic, pain symptoms, and social impacts data were collected as well as medication use and visiting a dentist for tooth pain.

    RESULTS: Of 1473 questionnaires distributed, 1452 (98.6%) completed questionnaires were returned, with 269 (18.5%) reported having experienced tooth pain in the past 1 month. Those who identified as Indian (26.1%) were more likely to report tooth pain compared to Chinese (16.5%) and Malay (20.9%). In regression analysis, no factors were identified as independently associated with medication use, but Chinese and Indians compared to Malays, and those expressing difficulty sleeping were more likely to report visiting a dentist for treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Racial variations in the tooth pain experience and care-seeking have been identified. This may be related to socio-economic status, but further research is needed on the role of culture-related care-seeking and accessibility of dental services.

  19. Bilal S, Abdulla AM, Andiesta NS, Babar MG, Pau A
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2021 Aug 03;19(1):192.
    PMID: 34344379 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-021-01828-3
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of family functioning on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and dental caries status among 4- to 6-year-old Chinese pre-school children in Malaysia.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was approved by the institutional Joint Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University, Malaysia (number 373/2016); consisted of 180 eligible pre-school children from a private school. Study tools included demographic, clinical oral health data form, the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and family functioning-12-item general functioning subscale. Written consent was sought prior to data collection. Data were analysed by SPSS v.22.0; descriptive statistics for socio-demographic details, clinical information, HRQoL and FAD scores. The parametric tests included independent sample t test and ANOVA to evaluate the associations between the dependent variable. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the impacts on OHRQoL (P value 

  20. Fong JYM, Tan VJH, Lee JR, Tong ZGM, Foong YK, Tan JME, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2018 Aug;22(3):160-166.
    PMID: 29266663 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12297
    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of clinical audit-feedback cycle as an educational tool in improving the technical quality of root canal therapy (RCT) and compliance with record keeping performed by dental undergraduates.

    METHODS: Clinical audit learning was introduced in Year 3 of a 5-year curriculum for dental undergraduates. During classroom activities, students were briefed on clinical audit, selected their audit topics in groups of 5 or 6 students, and prepared and presented their audit protocols. One chosen topic was RCT, in which 3 different cohorts of Year 3 students conducted retrospective audits of patients' records in 2012, 2014 and 2015 for their compliance with recommended record keeping criteria and their performance in RCT. Students were trained by and calibrated against an endodontist (κ ≥ 0.8). After each audit, the findings were reported in class, and recommendations were made for improvement in performance of RCT and record keeping. Students' compliance with published guidelines was presented and their RCT performances in each year were compared using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: Overall compliance with of record keeping guidelines was 44.1% in 2012, 79.6% in 2014 and 94.6% in 2015 (P = .001). In the 2012 audit, acceptable extension, condensation and the absence of mishap were observed in 72.4, 75.7% and 91.5%; in the 2014 audit, 95.1%, 64.8% and 51.4%; and in 2015 audit, 96.4%, 82.1% and 92.8% of cases, respectively. In 2015, 76.8% of root canal fillings met all 3 technical quality criteria when compared to 48.6% in 2014 and 44.7% in 2012 (P = .001).

    CONCLUSION: Clinical audit-feedback cycle is an effective educational tool for improving dental undergraduates' compliance with record keeping and performance in the technical quality of RCT.

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