METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study focused on the health education component derived from a complex enhanced primary health care intervention. Participants were purposively selected from patients who attended regular NCD treatment at 8 primary healthcare facilities in rural and urban areas of Johor and Selangor. Data collection was conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on 4 to 5 patients at each intervention clinic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.
RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes emerged; Perceived Suitability and Preferred HCPs. Under Perceived Suitability theme, increased waiting time and unsuitable location emerged as sub-themes. Under Preferred HCPs, emerging sub-themes were professional credibility, continuity of care, message fatigue, and interpersonal relationship. There are both positive and adverse acceptances toward health education delivered by HCPs. It should be noted that acceptance level for health information received from doctors are much more positively accepted compared to other HCPs.
CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to engage with health educators when their needs are addressed. Revision of current location, process and policy of health education delivery is needed to capture patients' attention and increase awareness of healthy living with NCDs. HCPs should continuously enhance knowledge and skills, which are essential to improve development and progressively becoming the expert educator in their respective specialized field.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the acceptance of the ChildSafe smartphone app intervention by parents/guardians.
METHODS: This study was conducted using a qualitative exploratory approach on selected participants of the ChildSafe intervention app study. A total of 27 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out among parents or guardians who have at least one child between the age of 0 and 59 months in the area of Sungai Buloh, Selangor, between November 2017 and March 2018. Interview questions were developed from the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and data were thematically analyzed guided by CFIR.
RESULTS: The study revealed users' perception on usability, feasibility, and acceptability toward the ChildSafe app. Three CFIR domains were identified: intervention characteristics, inner setting, and characteristics of individuals. A total of 5 constructs were revealed under intervention characteristics: evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, adaptability, trialability, and design quality and packaging; 2 under inner setting: implementation climate and readiness for implementation; and 4 under characteristics of individuals: knowledge and beliefs about the intervention, self-efficacy, individual stage of change, and other personal attributes. In general, participants felt the app is extremely useful and effective, easy to use, and purposeful in achieving home safety assessment via reminders. The app replaces the need for participants to search for information on home safety and dangers, as the app itself was designed as a tool to assess for this specific purpose. Even at the nascent stage and despite its limitations, the app has prompted users to consider and make changes around their own home. However, future versions of the app should be expanded to make it more attractive to users as it lacks interactive feedback and additional features.
CONCLUSIONS: Parents/guardians are accepting the use of the ChildSafe app to prevent child injury at home. However, further expansion and improvements are needed to increase the acceptability of this app by parents/guardians.
METHODS: The study applied mixed-method embedded design to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative approach was used to evaluate sustainability perception from 20 intervention clinics via self-reported assessment form whereas qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interview (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGDs) 14 health care professionals participated in IDI session and were either care coordinators, liaison officers (LOs)/clinic managers, or medical officers-in-charge for the clinic's intervention. Nine FGDs conducted comprised 58 HCPs from various categories.
RESULTS: HCPs from all the 20 clinics involved responded to each listed Enhanced Primary Healthcare (EnPHC) intervention components as being implemented but the perceived sustainability of these implementation varies between them. Quantitative feedback showed sustainable interventions included risk stratification, non-communicable disease (NCD) screening form, referral within clinics and hospitals, family health team (FHT), MTAC services and mechanisms and medical adherence status. Qualitative feedback highlighted implementation of each intervention components comes with its challenges, and most of it are related to inadequate resources and facilities in clinic. HCPs made initiatives to adapt based on clinical setting to implement the interventions at best level possible, whereby this seems to be one of the core values for sustainability.
CONCLUSION: Overall perceptions among HCPs on sustainability of EnPHC interventions are highly influenced by current experiences with existing resources. Components perceived to have inadequate resources are seen as a challenge to sustain. It's crucial for stakeholders to understand implications affecting implementation process if concerns raised are not addressed and allocation of needed resources to ensure overall successfulness and long term sustainability.
DESIGN: Two-arm cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial across 19 sites with follow-up at 4-week, 3-month, and 6-month.
SETTING: Stop smoking services operating in public hospitals in Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and two smokers [mean ± standard deviation (SD), age 45.6 (13.4) years; 97.4% male] attending stop smoking services in hospital settings in Malaysia: 330 in 10 hospitals in the intervention condition and 172 in nine hospitals in the control condition.
INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention consisted of training stop-smoking practitioners to deliver support and follow-up according to the NCSCT Standard Treatment Programme. The comparator was usual care (brief support and follow-up).
MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was continuous tobacco smoking abstinence up to 6 months in smokers who received smoking cessation treatment, verified by expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) concentration. Secondary outcomes were continuous CO-verified tobacco smoking abstinence up to 4 weeks and 3 months.
RESULTS: Follow-up rates at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months were 80.0, 70.6 and 53.3%, respectively, in the intervention group and 48.8, 30.8 and 23.3%, respectively, in the control group. At 6-month follow-up, 93 participants in the intervention group and 19 participants in the control group were abstinent from smoking, representing 28.2 versus 11.0% in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis assuming that participants with missing data had resumed smoking, and 52.8 versus 47.5% in a follow-up-only (FUO) analysis. Unadjusted odds ratios (accounting for clustering) were 5.04, (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-20.77, P = 0.025) and 1.70, (95% CI = 0.25-11.53, P = 0.589) in the ITT and FUO analyses, respectively. Abstinence rates at 4 week and 3 month follow-ups were significantly higher in the intervention versus control group in the ITT but not the FUO analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: On an intention-to-treat analysis with missing-equals-smoking imputation, training Malaysian stop smoking service providers in the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training standard treatment programme appeared to increase 6 month continuous abstinence rates in smokers seeking help with stopping compared with usual care. However, the effect may have been due to increasing follow-up rates.
METHODS: This paper covers detailed explanation on the various developmental and validation process stages of the CAB zoonotic disease questionnaire development. The development phase comprised thorough literature search, focus group discussion, expert panel assessment and review. The validation process included pre-test and pilot testing, data analysis of results, analysis of internal consistency and the development of the final version of the questionnaire. Participants selected represented main ethnicities, gender, levels of education and population type (urban/rural) in the Klang Valley area.
RESULTS: The items in the questionnaire has undergone various changes in structurally and linguistically. The final refined CAB questionnaire consists of 14 items cognitive (no items removed at pilot phase), nine items affective (one item removed at pilot phase) and five items behaviour (no items removed from pre-test phase), respectively. Reliability analysis revealed Cronbach's alpha values were 0.700 (cognitive) and 0.606 (affective) which indicated good internal consistency after item reduction.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed questionnaire has proved its feasibility in assessing the Malaysian general population cognitive, affective and behavior regarding the household pets' zoonotic diseases.
METHOD: This is a multi-site cross-sectional study. The authors conducted a survey based on a translated self-administered questionnaire to participants from seven core hospital departments.
RESULTS: While most health-care workers regardless of department and specialty took their duty to prevent suicide seriously, a large majority of them expressed negative attitudes such as finding suicidal behavior irritating, and more than half believed suicidal attempts were a way of making others sorry. However, psychiatric workers were less likely to have judgmental attitudes that included believing suicide attempters as being selfish or trying to get sympathy from others.
CONCLUSIONS: As there were more similarities than differences in health-care workers' attitudes toward suicide, recommendations on basic and continuous suicide prevention and management training among hospital workers were made. The interventions focused on improving knowledge, affective, and skill-based areas that were aimed to correct the wrongful understanding of and to minimize the negative attitudes toward suicidal individuals indicated by the study results.
METHOD: This study was conducted using an exploratory qualitative approach on purposely selected healthcare providers at primary healthcare clinics. Twenty focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Consent was obtained prior to interviews and for audio-recordings. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a framework comprised of five major domains promoting implementation theory development and verification across multiple contexts.
RESULTS: The study revealed via CFIR that most primary healthcare providers were receptive towards any proposed changes or intervention for the betterment of NCD care management. However, many challenges were outlined across four CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics-that included perceived barriers to implementation. Perception of issues that triggered proposed changes reflected the current situation, including existing facilitating aspects that can support the implementation of any future intervention. The importance of strengthening the primary healthcare delivery system was also expressed.
CONCLUSION: Understanding existing situations faced at the primary healthcare setting is imperative prior to implementation of any intervention. Healthcare providers' receptiveness to change was explored, and using CFIR framework, challenges or perceived barriers among healthcare providers were identified. CFIR was able to outline the clinics' setting, individual behaviour and external agency factors that have direct impact to the organisation. These are important indicators in ensuring feasibility, effectiveness and sustainability of any intervention, as well as future scalability considerations.
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