Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Murugesu, S., Khatib, A., Ibrahim, Z., Ahmed, Q. U., Uzir, B.F., Nik-Yusoff, N.I., et al.
    Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) is a local plant consumed as tisane in Indonesia and ‘ulam’ in Malaysia. This plant has been claimed for its ability to prevent many diseases including diabetes. However, the scientific proof on this claim is still lacking. Therefore, the present work study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential and antioxidant capacity of C. nutans leaves extracts using in vitro bioassay tests. The 80% methanolic crude extract of this plant was further partitioned using different polarity solvents namely hexane, hexane:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol. All the sub-fractions were analysed for antioxidant effect via 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assays followed by antidiabetic evaluation via α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory assays and glucose uptake experiment. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a good antioxidant potential while the hexane fraction exhibited high α-glucosidase and DPP-IV enzyme inhibition. The hexane fraction also improved glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The present work thus provides an informative data on the potential of C. nutans to be developed as a functional food in preventing diabetes.
  2. Perumal, V., Khoo, W.C., Abdul-Hamid, A., Ismail, A., Saari, K., Murugesu, S., et al.
    Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon or ‘peria katak’ in Malaysia, is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter melon is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals that made it extensively nutritious. Moreover, the seed, fruit and leave of the plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicines in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, infections, obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary metabolite profile of the normal, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and M. charantia treated diabetic rats using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) -based metabolomics profiling. Study had been carried out by inducing diabetes in the rats through injection of streptozotocin, which exhibited type 1 diabetes. M. charantia extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for one week. Blood glucose level after administration was measured to examine hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The results obtained indicated that M. charantia was effective in lowering blood glucose level of the diabetic rats. The loading plot of Partial Least Square (PLS) component 1 showed that diabetic rats had increased levels of lactate and glucose in urine whereas normal and the extract treated diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in urine. While the loading plot of PLS component 2 showed a higher levels of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine, sugars, and hippurate in urine of normal rat compared to the extract treated diabetic rat. Administration of M. charantia extract was found to be able to regulate the altered metabolic processes. Thus, it could be potentially used to treat the diabetic patients.
  3. Gopinath SCB, Perumal V, Xuan S
    3 Biotech, 2020 Jun;10(6):270.
    PMID: 32523864 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-02261-x
    This study correlated and quantified the expression of microRNA-155 with breast cancer to determine breast cancer progression. The target microRNA-155 sequence was identified by complementation on a capture-probe sequence-immobilized interdigitated dual electrode surface. The sensitivity was found to be 1 fM, and the limit of detection fell between 1 and 10 fM. The specific sequence selectivity with single mismatches, triple mismatches, and noncomplementary bases failed to complement the capture-probe sequence. The obtained results demonstrate the selective determination of the microRNA-155 sequence and can help to diagnose breast cancer.
  4. Maulidiani, Abas F, Khatib A, Perumal V, Suppaiah V, Ismail A, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Mar 2;180:60-9.
    PMID: 26775274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.001
    'Pegaga' is a traditional Malay remedy for a wide range of complaints. Among the 'pegaga', Centella asiatica has been used as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. Thus, we decided to validate this claim by evaluating the in vivo antidiabetic property of C. asiatica (CA) on T2DM rat model using the holistic (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach.
  5. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Liu WW, Poopalan P, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144964.
    PMID: 26694656 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144964
    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.
  6. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Poopalan P, Liu WW, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2016 Apr 15;78:14-22.
    PMID: 26584078 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.10.083
    Creating novel nanostructures is a primary step for high-performance analytical sensing. Herein, a new worm like nanostructure with Zinc Oxide-gold (ZnO/Au) hybrid was fabricated through an aqueous hydrothermal method, by doping Au-nanoparticle (AuNP) on the growing ZnO lattice. During ZnO growth, fine tuning the solution temperature expedites random curving of ZnO nanorods and forms nano-worms. The nano-worms which were evidenced by morphological, physical and structural analyses, revealed elongated structures protruding from the surface (length: 1 µm; diameter: ~100 nm). The appropriate peaks for the face centred cubic gold were (111) and (200), as seen from X-ray diffractogram. The strong interrelation between Au and ZnO was manifested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The combined surface area increment from the nanoparticle radii and ZnO nanorod random curving gives raise an enhancement in detection sensitivity by increasing bio-loading. 'Au-decorated hybrid nano-worm' was immobilized with a probe DNA from Vibrio Cholera and duplexed with a target which was revealed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Our novel Au-decorated hybrid nano-worm is suitable for high-performance bio-sensing, as evidenced by impedance spectroscopy, having higher-specificity and attained femtomolar (10 fM) sensitivity. Further, higher stability, reproducibility and regeneration on this sensing surface were demonstrated.
  7. Haarindraprasad R, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Perumal V, Liu WW, Balakrishnan SR
    Anal Chim Acta, 2016 Jun 21;925:70-81.
    PMID: 27188319 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2016.04.030
    Diabetes is a metabolic disease with a prolonged elevated level of glucose in the blood leads to long-term complications and increases the chances for cardiovascular diseases. The present study describes the fabrication of a ZnO nanowire (NW)-modified interdigitated electrode (IDE) to monitor the level of blood glucose. A silver IDE was generated by wet etching-assisted conventional lithography, with a gap between adjacent electrodes of 98.80 μm. The ZnO-based thin films and NWs were amended by sol-gel and hydrothermal routes. High-quality crystalline and c-axis orientated ZnO thin films were observed by XRD analyses. The ZnO thin film was annealed for 1, 3 and 5 h, yielding a good-quality crystallite with sizes of 50, 100 and 110 nm, and the band gaps were measured as 3.26, 3.20 and 3.17 eV, respectively. Furthermore, a flower-modeled NW was obtained with the lowest diameter of 21 nm. Our designed ZnO NW-modified IDE was shown to have a detection limit as low as 0.03 mg/dL (correlation coefficient = 0.98952) of glucose with a low response time of 3 s, perform better than commercial glucose meter, suitable to instantly monitor the glucose level of diabetes patients. This study demonstrated the high performance of NW-mediated IDEs for glucose sensing as alternative to current glucose sensors.
  8. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Foo KL, Balakrishnan SR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Jul 16;5:12231.
    PMID: 26178973 DOI: 10.1038/srep12231
    Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected 'spotted NFs' had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2-3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
  9. Ong CC, Gopinath SCB, Rebecca LWX, Perumal V, Lakshmipriya T, Saheed MSM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Sep;116:765-773.
    PMID: 29775720 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.084
    There are different clotting factors present in blood, carries the clotting cascade and excessive bleeding may cause a deficiency in the clotting Diagnosis of this deficiency in clotting drastically reduces the potential fatality. For enabling a sensor to detect the clotting factors, suitable probes such as antibody and aptamer have been used to capture these targets on the sensing surface. Two major clotting factors were widely studied for the diagnosis of clotting deficiency, which includes factor IX and thrombin. In addition, factor IX is considered as the substitute for heparin and the prothrombotic associated with the increased thrombin generation are taking into account their prevalence. The biosensors, surface plasmon resonance, evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensor, metal-enhanced PicoGreen fluorescence and electrochemical aptasensor were well-documented and improvements have been made for high-performance sensing. We overviewed detecting factor IX and thrombin using these biosensors, for the potential application in medical diagnosis.
  10. Perumal V, Saheed MSM, Mohamed NM, Saheed MSM, Murthe SS, Gopinath SCB, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Sep 30;116:116-122.
    PMID: 29879537 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.05.042
    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic and infectious airborne disease which requires a diagnosing system with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the traditional gold standard method for TB detection remains unreliable with low specificity and sensitivity. Nanostructured composite materials coupled with impedimetric sensing utilised in this study offered a feasible solution. Herein, novel gold (Au) nanorods were synthesized on 3D graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. The irregularly spaced and rippled morphology of 3D graphene provided a path for Au nanoparticles to self-assemble and form rod-like structures on the surface of the 3D graphene. The formation of Au nanorods were showcased through scanning electron microscopy which revealed the evolution of Au nanoparticle into Au islets. Eventually, it formed nanorods possessing lengths of ~ 150 nm and diameters of ~ 30 nm. The X-ray diffractogram displayed appropriate peaks suitable to defect-free and high crystalline graphene with face centered cubic Au. The strong optical interrelation between Au nanorod and 3D graphene was elucidated by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Furthermore, the anchored Au nanorods on 3D graphene nanocomposite enables feasible bio-capturing on the exposed Au surface on defect free graphene. The impedimetric sensing of DNA sequence from TB on 3D graphene/Au nanocomposite revealed a remarkable wide detection linear range from 10 fM to 0.1 µM, displays the capability of detecting femtomolar DNA concentration. Overall, the novel 3D graphene/Au nanocomposite demonstrated here offers high-performance bio-sensing and opens a new avenue for TB detection.
  11. Ong CC, Sundera Murthe S, Mohamed NM, Perumal V, Mohamed Saheed MS
    ACS Omega, 2018 Nov 30;3(11):15907-15915.
    PMID: 31458235 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01566
    This article demonstrates a novel nanoscale surface modification method to enhance the selectivity of porous poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in removing oil from water. The surface modification method is simple and low cost by using sugar as a sacrificial template for temporal adhering of carbon nanotubes (CNT) before addition of PDMS prepolymer to encapsulate the CNT on its surface once polymerized. The PDMS-CNT demonstrated a tremendous increase in absorption capacity up to 3-fold compared to previously reported absorbents composed solely of PDMS. Besides showcasing excellent absorption capacity, the PDMS-CNT also shows a faster absorption rate (25 s) as compared to that of pure PDMS (40 s). The enhanced absorption rate is due to the incorporation of CNT, which roughens the surface of the polymer at the nanoscale and lowers the surface energy of porous PDMS while at the same time increasing the absorbent hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. This property makes the absorbent unique in absorbing only oil but repelling water at the same time. The PDMS-CNT is an excellent absorbent material with outstanding recyclability and selectivity for removing oil from water.
  12. Lv Q, Wang Y, Su C, Lakshmipriya T, Gopinath SCB, Pandian K, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Aug 01;134:354-360.
    PMID: 31078598 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.044
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a double-standard DNA virus, as well as the source of infection to the mucous membrane. It is a sexually transmitted disease that brings the changes in the cervix cells. Oncogenes, E6 and E7 play a pivotal role in the HPV infection. Identifying these genes to detect HPV strains, especially a prevalent HPV16 strain, will bring a great impact. Among different sensing strategies for pathogens, the dielectric electrochemical biosensor shows the potential due to its higher sensitivity. In this research, HPV16-E7 DNA sequence was detected on the carbodiimidazole-modified interdigitated electrode (IDE) surface with the detection limit of 1 fM. To enhance the sensitivity, the target sequence was conjugated on gold nanoparticle (GNP) and attained detection to the level of 10 aM. This produced ~100 folds improvement in detecting HPV16-E7 gene and 4 folds increment in the current flow. The stability of HPV16-E7 DNA sequences on GNP was verified by the salt-induced GNP aggregation. The current system has shown the higher specificity by comparing against non-complementary and triple-mismatched DNA sequences of HPV16-E7. This demonstration in detecting HPV16-E7 using dielectric IDE sensing system with a higher sensitivity can be recommended for detecting a wide range of disease-causing DNA-markers.
  13. Li Z, Gopinath SCB, Lakshmipriya T, Anbu P, Perumal V, Wang X
    Biomed Microdevices, 2020 Sep 17;22(4):67.
    PMID: 32940771 DOI: 10.1007/s10544-020-00522-3
    Nanoscale materials have been employed in the past 2 decades in applications such as biosensing, therapeutics and medical diagnostics due to their beneficial optoelectronic properties. In recent years, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained attention due to their higher plasmon excitation efficiency than gold nanoparticles, as proved by sharper and stronger plasmon resonance peaks. The current work is focused on utilizing self-assembled DNA-AgNPs on microdevices for the detection of gynecological cancers. Human papilloma virus (HPV) mostly spreads through sexual transmittance and can cause various gynecological cancers, including cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers. In particular, oncogene E7 from the HPV strain 16 (HPV-16 E7) is responsible for causing these cancers. In this research, the target sequence of HPV-16 E7 was detected by an AgNP-conjugated capture probe on a dielectrode sensor. The detection limit was in the range between 10 and 100 aM (by 3σ estimation). The sensitivity of the AgNP-conjugated probe was 10 aM and similar to the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle conjugation sensors, and the mismatched control DNA failed to detect the target, proving selective HPV detection. Morphological assessments on the AgNPs and the sensing surfaces by high-resolution microscopy revealed the surface arrangement. This sensing platform can be expanded to develop sensors for the detection various clinically relevant targets.
  14. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Rajintra Prasad H, Wei-Wen L, Balakrishnan SR, et al.
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2016 Dec;11(1):31.
    PMID: 26787050 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-016-1245-8
    Generation of hybrid nanostructures has been attested as a promising approach to develop high-performance sensing substrates. Herein, hybrid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod dopants with different gold (Au) thicknesses were grown on silicon wafer and studied for their impact on physical, optical and electrical characteristics. Structural patterns displayed that ZnO crystal lattice is in preferred c-axis orientation and proved the higher purities. Observations under field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the coverage of ZnO nanorods by Au-spots having diameters in the average ranges of 5-10 nm, as determined under transmission electron microscopy. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of Au-sputtered ZnO nanorods was carried out in the frequency range of 1 to 100 MHz with applied AC amplitude of 1 V RMS. The obtained results showed significant changes in the electrical properties (conductance and dielectric constant) with nanostructures. A clear demonstration with 30-nm thickness of Au-sputtering was apparent to be ideal for downstream applications, due to the lowest variation in resistance value of grain boundary, which has dynamic and superior characteristics.
  15. Alam MA, Zaidul IS, Ghafoor K, Sahena F, Hakim MA, Rafii MY, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Mar 31;17(1):181.
    PMID: 28359331 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1684-5
    BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with a subsequent analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid content of methanol extract and its derived fractions from Clinacanthus nutans accompanied by comprehensive phytochemical profiling.

    METHODS: Liquid-liquid partition chromatography was used to separate methanolic extract to get hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and residual aqueous fractions. The total antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The antidiabetic activity of methanol extract and its consequent fractions were examined by α-glucosidase inhibitory bioassay. The chemical profiling was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC Q-TOF MS).

    RESULTS: The total yield for methanol extraction was (12.63 ± 0.98) % (w/w) and highest fractionated value found for residual aqueous (52.25 ± 1.01) % (w/w) as compared to the other fractions. Significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract (63.07 ± 0.11) % and (79.98 ± 0.31) % for ethyl acetate fraction among all the fractions evaluated. Methanol extract was the most prominent in case of FRAP (141.89 ± 0.87 μg AAE/g) whereas most effective reducing power observed in ethyl acetate fraction (133.6 ± 0.2987 μg AAE/g). The results also indicated a substantial α-glucosidase inhibitory activity for butanol fraction (72.16 ± 1.0) % and ethyl acetate fraction (70.76 ± 0.49) %. The statistical analysis revealed that total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the samples had the significant (p 

  16. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  17. Easmin S, Sarker MZI, Ghafoor K, Ferdosh S, Jaffri J, Ali ME, et al.
    J Food Drug Anal, 2017 Apr;25(2):306-315.
    PMID: 28911672 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.09.007
    Phaleria macrocarpa, known as "Mahkota Dewa", is a widely used medicinal plant in Malaysia. This study focused on the characterization of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa extracts using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based metabolomics. P. macrocarpa and its extracts contain thousands of compounds having synergistic effect. Generally, their variability exists, and there are many active components in meager amounts. Thus, the conventional measurement methods of a single component for the quality control are time consuming, laborious, expensive, and unreliable. It is of great interest to develop a rapid prediction method for herbal quality control to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa by multicomponent analyses. In this study, a rapid and simple analytical method was developed using FTIR spectroscopy-based fingerprinting. A total of 36 extracts of different ethanol concentrations were prepared and tested on inhibitory potential and fingerprinted using FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) at the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and resolution of 4 cm-1. The OPLS model generated the highest regression coefficient with R2Y = 0.98 and Q2Y = 0.70, lowest root mean square error estimation = 17.17, and root mean square error of cross validation = 57.29. A five-component (1+4+0) predictive model was build up to correlate FTIR spectra with activity, and the responsible functional groups, such as -CH, -NH, -COOH, and -OH, were identified for the bioactivity. A successful multivariate model was constructed using FTIR-attenuated total reflection as a simple and rapid technique to predict the inhibitory activity.
  18. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:8386065.
    PMID: 29318154 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8386065
    The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical, and FRAP assays and improved both α-glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
  19. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Uzir BF, Nik Yusoff NI, Perumal V, et al.
    J Pharm Anal, 2019 Apr;9(2):91-99.
    PMID: 31011465 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpha.2018.11.001
    The present study used in vitro and in silico techniques, as well as the metabolomics approach to characterise α-glucosidase inhibitors from different fractions of Clinacanthus nutans. C. nutans is a medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family, and is traditionally used to treat diabetes in Malaysia. n-Hexane, n-hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol fractions were obtained via partitioning of the 80% methanolic crude extract. The in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was analyzed using all the fractions collected, followed by profiling of the metabolites using liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The partial least square (PLS) statistical model was developed using the SIMCA P+14.0 software and the following four inhibitors were obtained: (1) 4,6,8-Megastigmatrien-3-one; (2) N-Isobutyl-2-nonen-6,8-diynamide; (3) 1',2'-bis(acetyloxy)-3',4'-didehydro-2'-hydro-β, ψ-carotene; and (4) 22-acetate-3-hydroxy-21-(6-methyl-2,4-octadienoate)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid. The in silico study performed via molecular docking with the crystal structure of yeast isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A) involved a hydrogen bond and some hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and protein. The residues that interacted include ASN259, HID295, LYS156, ARG335, and GLY209 with a hydrogen bond, while TRP15, TYR158, VAL232, HIE280, ALA292, PRO312, LEU313, VAL313, PHE314, ARG315, TYR316, VAL319, and TRP343 with other forms of bonding.
  20. Vasudevan M, Tai MJY, Perumal V, Gopinath SCB, Murthe SS, Ovinis M, et al.
    PMID: 33140493 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2060
    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Cardiac troponin I (cTn1) is a commonly used biomarker for the diagnosis of AMI. Although there are various detection methods for the rapid detection of cTn1 such as optical, electrochemical, and acoustic techniques, electrochemical aptasensing techniques are commonly used because of their ease of handling, portability, and compactness. In this study, an electrochemical cTn1 biosensor, MoS2 nanoflowers on screen-printed electrodes assisted by aptamer, was synthesized using hydrothermal technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct 2D nanosheets and jagged flower-like 3D MoS2 nanoflower structure, with X-ray diffraction analysis revealing well-stacked MoS2  layers. Voltammetry aptasensing of cTn1 ranges from 10 fM to 1 nM, with a detection limit at 10 fM and a sensitivity of 0.10 nA µM-1  cm-2 . This is a ∼fivefold improvement in selectivity compared with the other proteins and human serum. This novel aptasensor retained 90% of its biosensing activity after 6 weeks with a 4.3% RSD and is a promising high-performance biosensor for detecting cTn1.
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