Toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in magnitude and frequency worldwide. However, this issue has not been adequately addressed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to better understand eutrophication levels, cyanobacteria diversity, and microcystin concentrations in ten Malaysian freshwater lakes. The results revealed that most lakes were eutrophic, with total phosphorus and total chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 15 to 4270 µg L(-1) and 1.1 to 903.1 µg L(-1), respectively. Cyanobacteria were detected in all lakes, and identified as Microcystis spp., Planktothrix spp., Phormidium spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Lyngbya spp. Microcystis spp. was the most commonly observed and most abundant cyanobacteria recorded. Semi-quantitative microcystin analysis indicated the presence of microcystin in all lakes. These findings illustrate the potential health risk of cyanobacteria in Malaysia freshwater lakes, thus magnifying the importance of cyanobacteria monitoring and management in Malaysian waterways.
Msb069 primer pairs encompassed region is believed to be associated with a quantitative trait loci (QTL) of dorsal fin length in subgenus Poecilia. However, detailed investigation on Msb069 which originated from Xiphophorus on subgenus Poecilia remains unexplored. In this study, full sequence of Msb069 was characterized by sequencing bioinformatics analysis and gene expression. The sequence analysis of Msb069 primer pairs encompassed region on three species of Poecilia revealed higher number of microsatellite tandem repeats in Poecilia latipinna (ATG 16 ) compared to P. sphenops (ATG 13-14 ). There is no notable pattern of ATGtandem repeats discovered in the hybrids. The full sequence of Msb069 is 734 bp in length and showed a 233 bp conserved region between Xiphophorus and Poecilia. BLAST search performed on this sequence revealed no significant similarities. Nonquantitative RT-PCR exhibited the presence of Msb069 transcripts in three different tissues in subgenus Poecilia. Meanwhile, quantitative RTPCR expression on two different tissues showed relatively higher expression of Msb069 transcript in P. latipinna dorsal fin tissues in both male and female fishes, suggesting a repressive function of this transcript with respect to dorsal fin length. However the exact gene expression event of Msb069 is still unknown and requires further investigation.