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  1. Puvanesuaran VR, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61730.
    PMID: 23613920 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061730
    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects nearly one-third of the world population. The present study was done to isolate and genotype T. gondii from wild boar from forests of Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 30 wild boars' blood, heads and hearts were obtained for this study and 30 (100.0%) were found to be seropositive when assayed with modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 6). The positive samples were inoculated into mice and T. gondii was only isolated from samples that had strong seropositivity (MAT ≥ 1:24).The isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis and all the Peninsular Malaysia isolates of T. gondii are of clonal type I.
  2. Puvanesuaran VR, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    Avian Dis., 2013 Mar;57(1):128-32.
    PMID: 23678741
    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects nearly one-third of humans. The present study was performed to isolate and genotype T. gondii from free-range ducks in Malaysia. Sera, heads, and hearts from 205 ducks were obtained from four states in Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 (14.63%) sera were found to be seropositive when assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT > or = 1:6). All the positive samples were inoculated into mice, and T. gondii was successfully isolated from four individual duck samples (1.95%), which were initially found to be strongly seropositive (MAT > or = 1:24). The isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis, and two T. gondii strains were identified: type I and type II. This is the first reported study on the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from free-range farm animals in Southeast Asia.
  3. Puvanesuaran VR, Nowroji K, Sreenivasan S, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2012 Aug;16(8):1028-32.
    PMID: 22913152
    AIM: To determine the usefulness of prednisolone in increasing the number of Toxoplasma (T.) gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in mice.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were water-fasted prior to being immunosuppressed with oral inoculation of prednisolone. Tachyzoites of 7T gondii RH strain were inoculated into mice and the number of the parasites in the intraperitoneal fluids was then determined at 96 hs post-infection. In addition, tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strains were orally introduced into mice and the number of brain cysts formed was observed by microscopic observation at 45 days post-infection.
    RESULTS: T. gondii propagation was found to be significantly improved by introduction of the prednisolone (p = 0.0004); and the number of parasite showed positive correlation with the increment in dosage of prednisolone (r = 0.9051).
    CONCLUSIONS: The use of prednisolone greatly improved the number of parasite formed in mice: both tachyzoite and cyst forms.
  4. Puvanesuaran VR, Ibrahim N, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2012 Sep;16(9):1179-83.
    PMID: 23047500
    AIM: A method was developed to separate contaminant-free viable Toxoplasma gondii cysts from brain samples of infected mice for molecular biology studies and reinfection.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice brains were homogenized and washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) Tween 80 prior to fractionation using 19-22% dextran solution. Finally, the supernatant was purified by two-step membrane filtration (100-160 microm and < 10 microm) to obtain pure T. gondii cyst. The isolates were analyzed through microscopic observation, qPCR and by reinfection of new batch of mice.
    RESULTS: T. gondii cysts were best isolated with 21% dextran solution and two step filtration.
    CONCLUSIONS: The method was observed not to disrupt the integrity of the cysts containing bradyzoites. In addition, the isolated cysts in the filtrate were found to be contaminant-free, viable and able to infect healthy mice when introduced orally; which, mimics the natural infectivity pathway.
  5. Hossain MS, Rahman NN, Balakrishnan V, Puvanesuaran VR, Sarker MZ, Kadir MO
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013 Feb;10(2):556-67.
    PMID: 23435587 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10020556
    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.
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