Formation of foams is critical for tailoring the texture and mouthfeel of fat-based products. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is regarded as a preferable alternative structurant to hydrogenated lipid. Effect of DAG concentration (2-10 wt%) on the characteristics of oleogels and foams including crystal polymorphisms, size and distribution, rheological and thermodynamic properties was investigated. Oleogel prepared with 10 wt% DAG had comparable whipping and foaming stability to that of 6 wt% fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO). DAG formed small plate-crystals which tend to occur at the bubble surface, whereas FHPO showed needle-like crystals that were formed mainly in the continuous phase. For the 2 wt% FHPO-8 wt% DAG-based oil foams, interfacial templating crystallization effect contributed to the smaller bubble size and improved rheological properties whereby less oil drainage and foam breakdown occurred. Hence, the non-aqueous foam formed by DAG has broad application prospect because of the thermoresponsive properties and the desirable health benefits.
The influence of diacylglycerol (DAG) combined with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) was studied. Polarized light microscope revealed that DAG promoted HPO to crystallize at the water-oil interface, providing the combination of Pickering and network stabilization effects. It was proposed that the molecular compatibility of fatty acids in DAG with HPO accounted for the promotional effect. The interfacial crystallization of DAG together with the surface activity of PGPR led to the formation of emulsions with uniform small droplets and high freeze-thaw stability. Further exploration of physical properties indicated that the combination of DAG and PGPR dramatically improved the emulsion's viscoelasticity and obtained a larger deformation yield. Water droplets in DAG-based emulsions acted as active fillers to improve the network rigidity. Therefore, DAG is a promising material to be used as emulsifier to enhance the physical stability of W/O emulsions.
High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) show promising application in food and cosmetic industries. In this work, diacylglycerol (DAG) was applied to fabricate water-in-oil (W/O) HIPEs. DAG-based emulsion can hold 60% water and the emulsion rigidity increased with water content, indicating the water droplets acted as "active fillers". Stable HIPE with 80% water fraction was formed through the combination of 6 wt% DAG with 1 wt% polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The addition of 1 w% kappa (κ)-carrageenan and 0.5 M NaCl greatly reduced the droplet size and enhanced emulsion rigidity, and the interfacial tension of the internal phase was reduced. Benefiting from the Pickering crystals-stabilized interface by DAG as revealed by the microscopy and enhanced elastic modulus of emulsions with the gelation agents, the HIPEs demonstrated good retaining ability for anthocyanin and β-carotene. This study provides insights for the development of W/O HIPEs to fabricate low-calories margarines, spread or cosmetic creams.
Pickering water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions were fabricated by using medium-long chain diacylglycerol (MLCD)-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and the connection between the characteristics of the SLNs and the colloidal stability of the emulsions was established. Via melt-emulsification and ultrasonication, MLCD-based SLNs with particle sizes of 120-300 nm were obtained with or without other surfactants. The particle size of the SLNs was influenced by the chemical properties of the surfactants, and surfactants decreased the contact angle of SLNs at the oil-water interface. Gelation was observed in SLNs modified by sodium stearoyl lactylate and lecithin, whereas the addition of Tween 20 resulted in a homogeneous SLN solution. The adsorption of surfactants onto SLN surfaces caused the production of higher amounts of α crystals accompanied by delayed crystallization onset which contributed to the reduction of particle size, interfacial tension and oil wetting ability. The W/O emulsions with higher rigidity and physical stability can be obtained by varying surfactant types and by increasing SLN mass ratios to 60%, whereby more SLNs are adsorbed at the droplet surface as a Pickering stabilizer. This study provides useful insights for the development of diacylglycerol-based SLNs and Pickering W/O emulsions which have great potential for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently the leading cause of death globally, and the prevalence of this disease is growing more rapidly in the Asia-Pacific region than in Western countries. Although the use of metal coronary stents has rapidly increased thanks to the advancement of safety and efficacy of newer generation drug eluting stent (DES), patients are still negatively affected by some the inherent limitations of this type of treatment, such as stent thrombosis or restenosis, including neoatherosclerosis, and the obligatory use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with unknown optimal duration. Drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment is based on a leave-nothing-behind concept and therefore it is not limited by stent thrombosis and long-term DAPT; it directly delivers an anti-proliferative drug which is coated on a balloon after improving coronary blood flow. At present, DCB treatment is recommended as the first-line treatment option in metal stent-related restenosis linked to DES and bare metal stent. For de novo coronary lesions, the application of DCB treatment is extended further, for conditions such as small vessel disease, bifurcation lesions, and chronic total occlusion lesions, and others. Recently, several reports have suggested that fractional flow reserve guided DCB application was safe for larger coronary artery lesions and showed good long-term outcomes. Therefore, the aim of these recommendations of the consensus group was to provide adequate guidelines for patients with CAD based on objective evidence, and to extend the application of DCB to a wider variety of coronary diseases and guide their most effective and correct use in actual clinical practice.
In the past decade a large body of evidence has accumulated on risk factors for dementia, primarily from Europe and North America. Drawing on recent integrative reviews and a consensus workshop, the International Research Network on Dementia Prevention developed a consensus statement on priorities for future research. Significant gaps in geographical location, representativeness, diversity, duration, mechanisms, and research on combinations of risk factors were identified. Future research to inform dementia risk reduction should fill gaps in the evidence base, take a life-course, multi-domain approach, and inform population health approaches that improve the brain-health of whole communities.