Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 59 in total

  1. Wong RS, Radhakrishnan AK
    Nutr Rev, 2012 Sep;70(9):483-90.
    PMID: 22946849 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00512.x
    The vitamin E family consists of eight isomers known as alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienols. Numerous studies focused on the health benefits of these isomers have been performed since the discovery of vitamin E in 1922. Recent discoveries on the potential therapeutic applications of tocotrienols have revolutionized vitamin E research. Nevertheless, despite the abundance of literature, only 1% of vitamin E research has been conducted on tocotrienols. Many new advances suggest that the use of tocotrienols for health improvement or therapeutic purposes is promising. Although the mechanisms of action of tocotrienols in certain disease conditions have been explored, more detailed investigations into the fundamentals of the health-promoting effects of these molecules must be elucidated before they can be recommended for health improvement or for the treatment or prevention of disease. Furthermore, many of the studies on the effects of tocotrienols have been carried out using cell lines and animal models. The effects in humans must be well established before tocotrienols are used as therapeutic agents in various disease conditions, hence the need for more evidence-based human clinical trials.
  2. Appukutty M, Ramasamy K, Rajan S, Vellasamy S, Ramasamy R, Radhakrishnan AK
    Benef Microbes, 2015;6(4):491-6.
    PMID: 25691103 DOI: 10.3920/BM2014.0129
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each (control, exercise alone, LAB12 and LAB12 + exercise). Mice treated with the potential probiotic LAB12 were orally gavaged for 42 days. At autopsy, blood and spleen from the animals were collected. The splenocytes were cultured in the presence of a mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The amount of TNF-α produced by the Con A-stimulated splenocytes was quantified using ELISA, while their proliferation was determined using the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation method. This study shows that LAB12-supplemented and exercise-induced mice showed marked increase (P<0.05) in cell proliferation compared to the control animals. TNF-α production was suppressed (P<0.05) in the LAB12 group compared to the untreated mice. These results demonstrate that supplementation with LAB12 has immunomodulatory effects, under conditions of moderate physical exercise, which may have implications for human athletes. Further investigation in human trials is warranted to confirm and extrapolate these findings.
  3. Radhakrishnan AK, Sim GC, Cheong SK
    Biores Open Access, 2012 Oct;1(5):239-46.
    PMID: 23515111 DOI: 10.1089/biores.2012.0229
    Repetitive vaccinations with dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines over long periods of time can break pre-existing tolerance to tumors and achieve clinically relevant immune response. This requires a large number of DCs to be generated under good manufacturing protocol, which is time- and cost intensive. Thus, producing a large numbers of DCs at one time point and cryopreserving these cells in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application may overcome this constraint. This could also reduce batch-to-batch variations. In this study, we generated DCs from bone marrow obtained from BALB/c mice. Some of the generated DCs were cryopreserved before conducting various tests. There were no significant differences in the morphology and phenotype between cryopreserved and freshly generated DCs. Both types of DCs pulsed with tumor lysate (TL) from 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells (DC+TL) possessed a similar capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T-cells. In addition, cryopreserved and fresh DC pulsed with TL showed similar tumor growth inhibition patterns. Both DCs induced initial retardation of tumor growth (p<0.05) and prolonged the survival (p<0.05) of tumor-bearing mice treated with DC+TL as compared with nontreated control mice. Cryopreserved DCs shared similar therapeutic efficacy to fresh DCs, and this finding lends supports the routine use of cryopreserved DCs in future clinical trials.
  4. Mahalingam D, Radhakrishnan AK, Amom Z, Ibrahim N, Nesaretnam K
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Jan;65(1):63-9.
    PMID: 20859299 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.184
    Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that has been shown to induce favorable effects on animal and human immune systems. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on immune response following tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine challenge in healthy female volunteers.
  5. Montazeri S, Nalliah S, Radhakrishnan AK
    Hereditas, 2010 Apr;147(2):94-102.
    PMID: 20536548 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.2009.02134.x
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as carbohydrate intolerance diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy, affects both maternal and fetal health. Possession of a specific genetic polymorphism can be a predisposing factor for susceptibility to some diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter gene of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) with the development of GDM. Two hundred and twelve consecutive series of eligible normal pregnant women (controls) and gestational diabetes mellitus women were selected based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped for IL-10 at three positions and TNF alpha for gene polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Plasma levels of IL-10 and TNF alpha at different gestational periods as well as postpartum were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of the study showed that the difference in the frequency of SNP at position -597 in the promoter of the human IL-10 gene between the control and GDM groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the frequency of SNP at the other two sites in the promoter region of the human IL-10 gene (-824 and -1082) as well as position -308 in the promoter of the human TNF-alpha (p > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of plasma levels of IL-10 as well as TNF alpha in different stages of pregnancy. SNP at position -597 was significantly associated with the development of GDM and shows potential for use as a predictive marker for GDM.
  6. Kumar SS, Radhakrishnan AK, Cheong SK
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Apr 01;13(7):303-15.
    PMID: 20836285
    The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mammary carcinoma metastasis to discern the in vivo effects of growth and spread of breast cancer. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Mice weight and primary tumour mass volume were regularly recorded to study the physical effects of a vigorously growing and spreading of cancer cell line. Gross and histological studies were carried out to determine the approximate day of metastatic onset. Production of IFN-gamma was assessed by ELISA to understand its role in tumour growth and metastasis. Lymphocyte markers such as CD8+, CD25 and CD49b were analysed to elucidate its role in tumour growth and progression. Present study showed that the metastatic onset occurs approximately 11 days after the mice were inoculated with the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Gross studies showed hepatosplenomegaly. The breast cancer cells from primary tumour were found to spread rapidly to the liver on day 11. IFN-gamma production was higher in inoculated mice serum compared to control mice serum. Higher numbers of CD8+, CD25 and CD49b cells were observed in the peripheral blood of inoculated mice, compared to control mice. In conclusion, the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells can migrate and metastasise rapidly to the liver, eliciting various immune responses.
  7. Hafid SR, Radhakrishnan AK, Nesaretnam K
    BMC Cancer, 2010;10:5.
    PMID: 20051142 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-5
    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours.
  8. Montazeri S, Nalliah S, Radhakrishnan AK
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2010 May;88(2):139-45.
    PMID: 20189261 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.01.028
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate if an association exists between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta genes.
    METHODS: The DNA was extracted and SNP in the human TNF-alpha and TNF-beta genes at positions -308 (G/A) and 252 (A/G), respectively, was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha in different stages of pregnancy were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in genotype and allele frequency of SNP at position -308 (G/A) in the promoter region of the human TNF-alpha gene as well as the SNP at position 252 (A/G) in the human TNF-beta gene between the GDM and control subjects. Using the logistic regression model, it was found that the SNP in the TNF-alpha as well as TNF-beta were not associated with development of GDM. In addition, the TNF-alpha levels in the plasma of GDM and control mothers were not significantly different.
    CONCLUSIONS: In the population studied, the SNP in position -308 (G/A) of the human TNF-alpha or in position 252 (A/G) of the human TNF-beta gene is not an independent risk factor or a predictor for GDM.
  9. Er HM, Cheng EH, Radhakrishnan AK
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007 Sep 25;113(3):448-56.
    PMID: 17698306
    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in 4T1 cells and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whereas the methanol extract did not show any notable anti-proliferative effect in these cell lines, at any of the concentrations tested. Under the sub-optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whilst the methanol extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in both cell lines. An upward trend of apoptosis was observed in both 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells treated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extract. The level of apoptosis observed at all the concentrations of the aqueous extract tested was consistently higher than necrosis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of necrosis observed in the 4T1 cells treated with 300 microg/mL of the methanol extract. Generally, the level of necrosis was noted to be higher than that of apoptosis in the methanol extract-treated cells. The mutagenicity assay performed showed that in the absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the extract was not mutagenic up to the concentration of 165 microg/mL . However, in the presence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the aqueous extract was mutagenic at all the concentrations tested. This study shows that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.
  10. Magalingam KB, Radhakrishnan AK, Haleagrahara N
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015;2015:314560.
    PMID: 26576219 DOI: 10.1155/2015/314560
    Parkinson's disease is a chronic, debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region in human midbrain. To date, oxidative stress is the well accepted concept in the etiology and progression of Parkinson's disease. Hence, the therapeutic agent is targeted against suppressing and alleviating the oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Within the past decades, an explosion of research discoveries has reported on the protective mechanisms of flavonoids, which are plant-based polyphenols, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease using both in vitro and in vivo models. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the neuroprotective mechanisms of flavonoids in protecting the dopaminergic neurons hence reducing the symptoms of this movement disorder. The mechanism reviewed includes effect of flavonoids in activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suppressing the lipid peroxidation, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, flavonoids as a mitochondrial target therapy, and modulation of gene expression in neuronal cells.
  11. Low JH, Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK
    Blood Cells Mol. Dis., 2015 Dec;55(4):351-7.
    PMID: 26460259 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2015.07.017
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have drawn much attention amongst stem cell researchers in the past few decades. The ability of the MSC to differentiate into cells of mesodermal and non-mesodermal origins has made them an attractive approach for cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine. The MSCs have immunosuppressive activities that may have considerable therapeutic values in autoimmune diseases. However, despite the many beneficial effects reported, there is a growing body of evidence, which suggests that MSCs could be a culprit of enhanced tumour growth, metastasis and drug resistance in leukaemia, via some modulatory effects. Many controversies regarding the interactions between MSCs and leukaemia still exist. Furthermore, the role of MSCs in leukemogenesis and its progression remain largely unknown. Hence it is important to understand how the MSCs modulate leukaemia before these cells could be safely used in the treatment of leukaemia patients.
  12. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Cell Prolif, 2013 Apr;46(2):203-13.
    PMID: 23510475 DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12014
    OBJECTIVES: Tocotrienols and tocopherols are members of the vitamin E family, with similar structures; however, only tocotrienols have been reported to achieve potent anti-cancer effects. The study described here has evaluated anti-cancer activity of vitamin E to elucidate mechanisms of cell death, using human breast cancer cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-cancer activity of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and a tocotrienol-enriched fraction (TEF) isolated from palm oil, as well as pure vitamin E analogues (α-tocopherol, α-, δ- and γ-tocotrienols) were studied using highly aggressive triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells and oestrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells, both of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell population growth was evaluated using a Coulter particle counter. Cell death mechanism, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and levels of NF-κB were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

    RESULTS: Tocotrienols exerted potent anti-proliferative effects on both types of cell by inducing apoptosis, the underlying mechanism of cell death being ascertained using respective IC50 concentrations of all test compounds. There was marked induction of apoptosis in both cell lines by tocotrienols compared to treatment with Paclitaxel, which was used as positive control. This activity was found to be associated with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (a DNA repair protein), demonstrating involvement of the apoptotic cell death signalling pathway. Tocotrienols also inhibited expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn can increase sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienols induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in association with DNA fragmentation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and NF-κB inhibition in the two human breast cancer cell lines.

  13. Subramaniam S, Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan AK
    Biomolecules, 2019 11 21;9(12).
    PMID: 31766399 DOI: 10.3390/biom9120758
    Cancer is a devastating disease that has claimed many lives. Natural bioactive agents from plants are gaining wide attention for their anticancer activities. Several studies have found that natural plant-based bioactive compounds can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, and in some cases ameliorate some of the side-effects of drugs used as chemotherapeutic agents. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the anticancer effects of four plant-based bioactive compounds namely, curcumin, myricetin, geraniin and tocotrienols (T3) to provide an overview on some of the key findings that are related to this effect. The molecular mechanisms through which the active compounds may exert their anticancer properties in cell and animal-based studies also discussed.
  14. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Malays J Nutr, 2010 Aug;16(2):309-22.
    PMID: 22691935 MyJurnal
    The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.
  15. Sumera A, Radhakrishnan AK, Aziz Baba A, George E
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Dec;42(3):323-332.
    PMID: 33361713
    The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most prevalent and functionally diverse member of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA). The lncRNA has previously been considered to be a form of transcriptional "noise" but recent studies have found that the lncRNA to be associated with various disease conditions. It has also been found to play important roles in various physiological processes such as haemopoiesis, where lncRNA is reported to act as a fine-tuner of this very important process. To date, the effects of dysregulated lncRNA in thalassaemia has not been fully explored. This review article focuses on the possible roles of dysregulated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of thalassaemia.
  16. Chu WL, Quynh le V, Radhakrishnan AK
    J Diet Suppl, 2013 Sep;10(3):229-40.
    PMID: 23927690 DOI: 10.3109/19390211.2013.822452
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model.
  17. Abdul Hafid SR, Chakravarthi S, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    PLoS One, 2013;8(9):e74753.
    PMID: 24069344 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074753
    Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil is reported to possess anti-cancer and immune-enhancing effects. In this study, TRF supplementation was used as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-cancer effects of dendritic cells (DC)-based cancer vaccine in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in mammary pad to induce tumor. When the tumor was palpable, the mice in the experimental groups were injected subcutaneously with DC-pulsed with tumor lysate (TL) from 4T1 cells (DC+TL) once a week for three weeks and fed daily with 1 mg TRF or vehicle. Control mice received unpulsed DC and were fed with vehicle. The combined therapy of using DC+TL injections and TRF supplementation (DC+TL+TRF) inhibited (p<0.05) tumor growth and metastasis. Splenocytes from the DC+TL+TRF group cultured with mitomycin-C (MMC)-treated 4T1 cells produced higher (p<0.05) levels of IFN-γ and IL-12. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay also showed enhanced tumor-specific killing (p<0.05) by CD8(+) T-lymphocytes isolated from mice in the DC+TL+TRF group. This study shows that TRF has the potential to be used as an adjuvant to enhance effectiveness of DC-based vaccines.
  18. Radhakrishnan AK, Mahalingam D, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:782067.
    PMID: 23936847 DOI: 10.1155/2013/782067
    This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response.
  19. Wong RS, Radhakrishnan AK, Ibrahim TA, Cheong SK
    Microsc. Microanal., 2012 Jun;18(3):462-9.
    PMID: 22640960 DOI: 10.1017/S1431927612000177
    Tocotrienols are isomers of the vitamin E family, which have been reported to exert cytotoxic effects in various cancer cells. Although there have been some reports on the effects of tocotrienols in leukemic cells, ultrastructural evidence of tocotrienol-induced apoptotic cell death in leukemic cells is lacking. The present study investigated the effects of three isomers of tocotrienols (alpha, delta, and gamma) on a human T lymphoblastic leukemic cell line (CEM-SS). Cell viability assays showed that all three isomers had cytotoxic effects (p < 0.05) on CEM-SS cells with delta-tocotrienol being the most potent. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the cytotoxic effects by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols were through the induction of an apoptotic pathway as demonstrated by the classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes characterized by peripheral nuclear chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. These findings were confirmed biochemically by the demonstration of phosphatidylserine externalization via flow cytometry analysis. This is the first study showing classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes induced by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols in human T lymphoblastic leukemic cells.
  20. Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan AK, Kutty MK, Nesaretnam K
    J. Interferon Cytokine Res., 2010 Dec;30(12):909-16.
    PMID: 21121862 DOI: 10.1089/jir.2010.0021
    Several mechanisms have been postulated for the anticancer effects of tocotrienols. In this study, for the first time, the anticancer effect of tocotrienols is linked to increased expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) mRNA, a cytokine reported to have antitumor effects in many cancer models. Tocotrienol isomers (α-T3, γ-T3, and δ-T3) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) inhibited the growth of the 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells (P  γ-T3 > TRF > α-T3 > α-T, which was similar to their antiproliferative effects. The IL-24 mRNA levels in tumor tissues of BALB/c mice supplemented with TRF increased 2-fold when compared with control mice. Increased levels of IL-24 have been associated with inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of 4T1 cells with TRF and δ-T3 significantly decreased IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. Hence, we report that tocotrienols have potent antiangiogenic and antitumor effects that is associated with increased levels of IL-24 mRNA.
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