Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Asha'Ari ZA, Ahmad R, Rahman J, Kamarudin N, Ishlah LW
    J Laryngol Otol, 2011 Aug;125(8):781-5.
    PMID: 21524330 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215111000545
    To study the prevalence and patterns of contrecoup injury in traumatic temporal bone fracture cases.
  2. Zulhabri O, Rahman J, Ismail S, Isa MR, Wan Zurinah WN
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Jan;53(1):26-31.
    PMID: 22252179
    K-ras gene mutations in codons 12 and 13 are one of the earliest events in colon carcinogenesis.
  3. Asha'ari ZA, Ahmad R, Rahman J, Yusof RA, Kamarudin N
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2012 Apr;39(2):151-5.
    PMID: 21592698 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2011.02.010
    To study the relationship pattern of intracranial hemorrhage in cases of traumatic petrous temporal bone fracture.
  4. Eusni RM, Hamidah Hussin N, Zarina AL, Rahman J
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Dec;29(2):113-7.
    PMID: 19108404 MyJurnal
    We report a case of bone marrow necrosis preceding infantile acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Bone marrow necrosis is a rare antemortem event and has been known to be present in many conditions, notably in haematological malignancies like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This case was a 6-month-old Chinese boy who was referred to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for further investigation of pancytopaenia, high-grade fever, bloody diarrhoea and petechial rashes for one week. His first bone marrow aspirate revealed bone marrow necrosis. His clinical condition improved after ten days. However, his full blood picture then revealed the presence of 5% blast cells. His subsequent marrow 2 weeks later revealed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (FAB-L1) and immunophenotyping showed precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-null type. He was started on United Kingdom Acute Lymphoblastic leukaemia (UK ALL) Infantile Leukaemia protocol, however, he defaulted treatment after 3 days. Mode of presentation, mechanism of disease and laboratory investigations and outline of treatment will be discussed.
  5. Ma XR, Edmund Sim UH, Pauline B, Patricia L, Rahman J
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):46-57.
    PMID: 18600204 MyJurnal
    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) arises as a result of mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. Mutations in APC, K-ras and p53 have been commonly reported. In a previous study by our group, the tumour susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) were found to be persistently upregulated in CRC cases. TSG101 was reported to be closely related to cancers of the breast, brain and colon, and its overexpression in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas had previously been reported. The wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2) is potentially important in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and upregulation of WNT2 is not uncommon in human cancers. In this study, we report the investigation for mutation(s) and expression pattern(s) of WNT2 and TSG101, in an effort to further understand their role(s) in CRC tumourigenesis. Our results revealed no mutation in these genes, despite their persistent upregulation in CRC cases studied.
  6. Sharifah NA, Muhaizan WM, Rahman J, Zulfikar A, Zahari Z
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Dec;21(2):105-9.
    PMID: 11068415
    The cytological features of a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver are presented. The cytology smears showed singly dispersed polygonal and spindle cells as well as loose clusters of cells held together in myxoid material. Neoplastic cells were generally large with round, oval or lobulated nuclei. The cytoplasm was variable in amount with ill-defined borders. Occasional multinucleated cells were also present. Hyaline globules were present on sections of the cell block. Immunohistochemical studies performed showed positivity for vimentin, cytokeratin and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the tumour cells.
  7. Zarina AL, Radhiyah R, Hamidah A, Syed Zulkifli SZ, Rahman J
    Medicine & Health, 2012;7(2):73-83.
    Parenting stress is the stress level experienced within the role of a parent (Hoekstra-Weebers et al. 1998). The source of stressors is variable and dependent on the phase of disease and chemotherapy (Sawyer et al. 2000). Failure to cope with these stressors may in turn affect the child’s emotional and social adjustment towards the diagnosis of cancer in addition to poor medical treatment adherence behaviour (Sawyer et al. 1993). The objectives of this study are to determine the level of parenting stress, the risk factors contributing to high parenting stress, and the coping mechanisms used to handle the stress. This single centred, cross-sectional study was done amongst 117 parents at the Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over two years duration. Self-administered questionnaires comprising the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS) were distributed to parents of children who were 12 years old and below. The mean total parenting stress score amongst parents of children diagnosed with acute leukaemia was 91.5±21.1(95% CI). A total of 27.3% of parents experienced a high total parenting stress score (defined as total PSI score ≥ 75th centile, ie ≥ 103). Task-oriented coping mechanism was used by the majority of parents. Emotion-oriented coping mechanism was the only identifiable risk factor for high parenting stress score following multiple logistic regression analysis. A parent who used emotion-oriented coping mechanism was 7.1 times (95% Confidence Interval 1.2 to 41.4) more likely to have a high parenting stress score compared to a parent who used other coping mechanisms. By identifying these at-risk parents, appropriate counselling and psychological support may be offered early to alleviate the stress as well as assist in the coping and adjustment mechanisms of these parents.
  8. Osman A, Wan Chuan T, Ab Rahman J, Via G, Tavazzi G
    Eur J Emerg Med, 2018 Oct;25(5):322-327.
    PMID: 28509710 DOI: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000471
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel pericardiocentesis technique using an in-plane parasternal medial-to-lateral approach with the use of a high-frequency probe in patients with cardiac tamponade.

    BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and tamponade physiology. Ultrasound guidance for pericardiocentesis is currently considered the standard of care. Several approaches have been described recently, which differ mainly on the site of puncture (subxiphoid, apical, or parasternal). Although they share the use of low-frequency probes, there is absence of complete control of needle trajectory and real-time needle visualization. An in-plane and real-time technique has only been described anecdotally.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of 11 patients (63% men, mean age: 37.7±21.2 years) presenting with cardiac tamponade admitted to the tertiary-care emergency department and treated with parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis was carried out. The underlying causes of cardiac tamponade were different among the population. All the pericardiocentesis were successfully performed in the emergency department, without complications, relieving the hemodynamic instability. The mean time taken to perform the eight-step procedure was 309±76.4 s, with no procedure-related complications.

    CONCLUSION: The parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis is a new technique theoretically free of complications and it enables real-time monitoring of needle trajectory. For the first time, a pericardiocentesis approach with a medial-to-lateral needle trajectory and real-time, in-plane, needle visualization was performed in a tamponade patient population.

  9. Wong JL, Tie ST, Lee J, Kannan SK, Rashid Ali MR, Ibrahim A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69(4):195-6.
    PMID: 25500852 MyJurnal
    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign disease caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), characterized by the formation of recurrent, epithelial neoplastic lesions in the airways. While benign, they can cause significant airway obstruction in some cases. Difficulties in treatment arise from the recurrent nature of the lesions despite repeated procedures. Other known procedures that result in deep tissue damage also cause unacceptable collateral damage to the underlying airway mucosa. We describe a case of recurrent papillomatosis that was successfully treated with argon plasma coagulation ( APC) when laser and electrocautery ablation had failed in the past. After the papillomatasis was treated with APC, there is no recurrence on repeat scope at 4 months and 9 months after the initial procedure. The procedure was done as a day case and there is no complication from the procedure. The property of the APC that allows it to cause only superficial thermal damage to the tissue makes it a suitable adjunct therapy to the treatment of papillomas, which are usually superficial lesions.
  10. Tan SY, Poh BK, Nadrah MH, Jannah NA, Rahman J, Ismail MN
    J Hum Nutr Diet, 2013 Jul;26 Suppl 1:23-33.
    PMID: 23701375 DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12074
    The assessment of nutritional status among paediatric patients is important for the planning and execution of nutritional strategies that strive to optimise the quality of life and growth among sick children. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake among children with acute leukaemia.
  11. Hin HS, Ramalingam R, Chunn KY, Ahmad N, Ab Rahman J, Mohamed MS
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2012 Oct;87(4):737-40.
    PMID: 22826499 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0165
    Co-infection of melioidosis and leptospirosis is uncommon. We report here four such cases, confirmed by blood culture for melioidosis and blood polymerase-chain reaction for leptospirosis, which occurred among rescuers involved in a search and rescue operation for a young man who was suspected to have drowned in Lubuk Yu, a recreational forest in Pahang, Malaysia. Despite treatment, three of the patients died from the co-infection.
  12. Asha'ari ZA, Hasmoni MH, Ab Rahman J, Yusof RA, Ahmad RA
    Laryngoscope, 2012 Oct;122(10):2337-42.
    PMID: 22753136 DOI: 10.1002/lary.23379
    To study the association between sleep apnea and hypertension in a younger age group than previously studied, adding upper airway sizes at endoscopy as important compounding variables not often included in the past.
  13. Leong CF, Kalaichelvi AV, Cheong SK, Hamidah NH, Rahman J, Sivagengei K
    Malays J Pathol, 2004 Dec;26(2):111-6.
    PMID: 16329563
    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in azurophilic granules which appear in the promyelocyte stage of differentiation and is expressed in granulomonocytic cells. MPO is usually detected by cytochemistry. The demonstration of peroxidase in at least 3% of bone marrow blasts defines an acute leukaemia as acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML). MPO is important in distinguishing acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). It is difficult to diagnose AML with minimal evidence of myeloid differentiation (AML- M0) by conventional light microscopy. However, these AML-M0 blasts can be detected by monoclonal antibodies. Anti-MPO recognizes the enzymatically inactive precursor forms of MPO. There are a few commercially available monoclonal antibodies against MPO. In this study, we evaluated two monoclonal antibodies against MPO from different commercial sources.
  14. Masroor N, Ab Rahman J, Han TM, Khattak MAK, Aye A
    Malays J Nutr, 2014;20(2):197-207.
    Introduction: This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of children below 24 months in the district of Pekan, Pahang, and identify the contributing factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional methodology, a total of 910 children was selected by random sampling from four public health clinics. Anthropometric measurements were taken and weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for- height were calculated in Z scores. Immediate caregivers of children were interviewed by using a pretested validated questionnaire to assess their socio- economic, demographic, educational and occupational status. Results: Of the 910 children who participated in the study, the majority were Malay (70.1%), while the remaining comprised indigenous or Orang-Asli (OA) children. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight were 28.7 %, 15.6 % and 19.0% respectively. There were more underweight males than females. Wasting was most common among children aged below 6 months. Stunting was more prevalent in children between 12 to 24 months. Obesity was seen in 7.3% of the sample. Maternal education, employment and socio-economic status had a significant influence on wasting and underweight. Children were vulnerable to stunting as age advanced, whereas prevalence of wasting tended to decrease. Conclusion: Malnutrition exists in significant proportions among children below 24 months in the Pekan district. This study identified low birth weight along with age, race, gender, large family size and socio-economic status as important risk factors of malnutrition.
  15. Zayzan KR, Yusof NM, Sulong AF, Zakaria Z, Ab Rahman J
    Singapore Med J, 2020 Dec 02.
    PMID: 33264560 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2020164
    INTRODUCTION: The clinical outcomes and factors associated with treatment failure of post-traumatic osteomyelitis have been investigated by many studies. However, limb functionality and quality of life following treatment for this condition have not been thoroughly studied.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 47 patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower limb. Functional outcome was assessed using the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), and quality of life was assessed using the validated Malay version of Short Form-36 version 2.

    RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 4.6 (range 2.3-9.5) years. Median age was 44 years. Osteomyelitis was located in the tibia for 26 patients and in the femur for 21 patients. Osteomyelitis was consequent to internal infection in 38 patients and due to infected open fractures in nine patients. 42 (89.4%) patients had fracture union and control of infection. Bone defect was found to be a significant contributing factor for treatment failure (p = 0.008). The median LEFS for the success group was 65 when compared to 49 for the failure group. Although the success group showed better scores with regard to quality of life, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION: The success rate for post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower limb was high. The presence of a bone defect was associated with treatment failure. Successfully treated patients had significantly better functional outcomes than failed ones.

  16. Mohamed Bakrim N, Mohd Shah ANS, Talib NA, Ab Rahman J, Abdullah A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Mar;27(2):64-76.
    PMID: 32788843 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.8
    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) molecular research in young adults is still limited. The aim of this study is to identify AMI proteomic biomarker(s) in young adults.

    Methods: This study comprised of two phases namely discovery and verification. In the discovery phase, proteins in the pooled plasma samples from young male adults between 18 and 45 years (10 AMI patients and 10 controls) were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The protein spots that were expressed differently in the AMI patients were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of these proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the verification phase (40 AMI patients and 80 controls).

    Results: Haptoglobin (Hp), apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI) and apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV) were up-regulated in the discovery phase. In the verification phase, the plasma concentration of Hp was significantly higher in AMI patients than the controls (P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed an association between Hp and AMI in young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016, 95% CI: 1.002-1.030, P = 0.025) independent of other AMI risk factors. Hp was significantly correlated with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = 0.424, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: In young adults with AMI, plasma Hp concentrations were elevated and it is independently associated with AMI. A positive correlation with hs-CRP suggests Hp could be a potential biomarker of AMI in young adults.

  17. Iftikhar M, Shahnawaz, Saleem M, Riaz N, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Ahmed I, et al.
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2019 Dec;352(12):e1900095.
    PMID: 31544284 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201900095
    A series of new N-aryl/aralkyl derivatives of 2-methyl-2-{5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2ylthiol}acetamide were synthesized by successive conversions of 4-chlorobenzoic acid (a) into ethyl 4-chlorobenzoate (1), 4-chlorobenzoylhydrazide (2) and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (3), respectively. The required array of compounds (6a-n) was obtained by the reaction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole (3) with various electrophiles (5a-n) in the presence of DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide) and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. The structural determination of these compounds was done by infrared, 1 H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 13 C-NMR, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and high-resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. Compounds 6a, 6c-e, 6g, and 6i were found to be promising inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 81.72 ± 1.18, 52.73 ± 1.16, 62.62 ± 1.15, 56.34 ± 1.17, 86.35 ± 1.17, 52.63 ± 1.16 µM, respectively. Molecular modeling and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) predictions supported the findings. The current synthesized library of compounds was achieved by utilizing very common raw materials in such a way that the synthesized compounds may prove to be promising drug leads.
  18. Ab Rahman J, Mohd Yusoff MF, Nik Mohamed MH, Mahadir Naidu B, Lim KH, Tee GH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 10;31(7_suppl):9S-21S.
    PMID: 30880403 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519834735
    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new method for the consumption of nicotine. A nationwide survey among 4288 Malaysian adults was conducted in 2016 to measure the prevalence and to describe the population characteristics of e-cigarette users. A complex sampling design was used, and data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of current, ever, former, and dual users of e-cigarettes in Malaysia were 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.5-4.1), 11.9% (95% CI = 10.5-13.5), 8.6% (95% CI = 7.5-9.8), and 2.3% (95% CI = 1.8-3.1), respectively. The prevalence of all type of e-cigarette use was higher in urban than in rural areas. Current e-cigarette users were likely to be younger, males, and with higher education level. Among current e-cigarette users, 74% (95% CI = 64-82) also smoked conventional cigarettes (dual user). E-cigarette use is prevalent in Malaysia. It is common among younger adults, males, and cigarette smokers.
  19. Tan SY, Poh BK, Chong HX, Ismail MN, Rahman J, Zarina AL, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2013 Jan;37(1):14-20.
    PMID: 23099236 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2012.09.005
    This study aimed to assess the physical activity levels of pediatric patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-eight pediatric patients and matched controls, aged 3-12 years old, were measured for weight, height, and other anthropometric parameters. Physical activity was assessed using actical accelerometer and activity log book. Patients recorded significantly lower mean total activity counts (26.2±30.2 cpm vs. 192.2±68.8 cpm; p<0.01) and spent more time in sedentary activities (1301±121 min vs. 1020±101 min; p<0.001) compared to controls. They also achieved fewer 1-5-min bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to controls (1.50±5.95 vs. 37.38±40.36; p<0.001). In conclusion, patients had lower physical activity level and intensity; and simple exercise intervention programs may be needed to minimize the detrimental effects of prolonged sedentary behaviors.
  20. Chan CMH, Ab Rahman J, Tee GH, Wee LH, Ho BK, Robson NZMH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 10;31(7_suppl):32S-43S.
    PMID: 31328531 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519860730
    Little is known about the perceptions of harm and benefit associated with the use of e-cigarettes in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample comprising 1987 males (≥18 years of age). Current, former, and never users of conventional cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes participated in a questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face interviews. The relationship between participant characteristics and perceptions of harm and benefit of e-cigarettes were determined with multivariable logistic regression. There were 950 current, 377 former, and 660 never users of e-cigarettes. Government employees (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.66, P = .001), private sector employees (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.27-2.18, P = .001), and the self-employed people (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31-2.17, P = .001) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as more harmful than conventional cigarettes compared with respondents who were not wage earners. All current users in the form of e-cigarette users (OR = 7.87, 95% CI = 3.23-19.18), conventional cigarette smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.33), and dual users (OR = 8.59, 95% CI = 4.76-15.52) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as useful in quitting conventional cigarette smoking compared with former and never users. Our findings constitute an important snapshot into the perceptions of e-cigarette harms and benefits, which could inform targeted public health messaging strategies.
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