BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and tamponade physiology. Ultrasound guidance for pericardiocentesis is currently considered the standard of care. Several approaches have been described recently, which differ mainly on the site of puncture (subxiphoid, apical, or parasternal). Although they share the use of low-frequency probes, there is absence of complete control of needle trajectory and real-time needle visualization. An in-plane and real-time technique has only been described anecdotally.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of 11 patients (63% men, mean age: 37.7±21.2 years) presenting with cardiac tamponade admitted to the tertiary-care emergency department and treated with parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis was carried out. The underlying causes of cardiac tamponade were different among the population. All the pericardiocentesis were successfully performed in the emergency department, without complications, relieving the hemodynamic instability. The mean time taken to perform the eight-step procedure was 309±76.4 s, with no procedure-related complications.
CONCLUSION: The parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis is a new technique theoretically free of complications and it enables real-time monitoring of needle trajectory. For the first time, a pericardiocentesis approach with a medial-to-lateral needle trajectory and real-time, in-plane, needle visualization was performed in a tamponade patient population.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 47 patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower limb. Functional outcome was assessed using the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), and quality of life was assessed using the validated Malay version of Short Form-36 version 2.
RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 4.6 (range 2.3-9.5) years. Median age was 44 years. Osteomyelitis was located in the tibia for 26 patients and in the femur for 21 patients. Osteomyelitis was consequent to internal infection in 38 patients and due to infected open fractures in nine patients. 42 (89.4%) patients had fracture union and control of infection. Bone defect was found to be a significant contributing factor for treatment failure (p = 0.008). The median LEFS for the success group was 65 when compared to 49 for the failure group. Although the success group showed better scores with regard to quality of life, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The success rate for post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower limb was high. The presence of a bone defect was associated with treatment failure. Successfully treated patients had significantly better functional outcomes than failed ones.
Methods: This study comprised of two phases namely discovery and verification. In the discovery phase, proteins in the pooled plasma samples from young male adults between 18 and 45 years (10 AMI patients and 10 controls) were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The protein spots that were expressed differently in the AMI patients were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of these proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the verification phase (40 AMI patients and 80 controls).
Results: Haptoglobin (Hp), apolipoprotein AI (Apo AI) and apolipoprotein AIV (Apo AIV) were up-regulated in the discovery phase. In the verification phase, the plasma concentration of Hp was significantly higher in AMI patients than the controls (P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed an association between Hp and AMI in young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016, 95% CI: 1.002-1.030, P = 0.025) independent of other AMI risk factors. Hp was significantly correlated with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = 0.424, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: In young adults with AMI, plasma Hp concentrations were elevated and it is independently associated with AMI. A positive correlation with hs-CRP suggests Hp could be a potential biomarker of AMI in young adults.