Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Eskandari A, Leow TC, Rahman MBA, Oslan SN
    Biomolecules, 2020 12 09;10(12).
    PMID: 33317024 DOI: 10.3390/biom10121649
    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are specific proteins, glycopeptides, and peptides made by different organisms to allow cells to survive in sub-zero conditions. AFPs function by reducing the water's freezing point and avoiding ice crystals' growth in the frozen stage. Their capability in modifying ice growth leads to the stabilization of ice crystals within a given temperature range and the inhibition of ice recrystallization that decreases the drip loss during thawing. This review presents the potential applications of AFPs from different sources and types. AFPs can be found in diverse sources such as fish, yeast, plants, bacteria, and insects. Various sources reveal different α-helices and β-sheets structures. Recently, analysis of AFPs has been conducted through bioinformatics tools to analyze their functions within proper time. AFPs can be used widely in various aspects of application and have significant industrial functions, encompassing the enhancement of foods' freezing and liquefying properties, protection of frost plants, enhancement of ice cream's texture, cryosurgery, and cryopreservation of cells and tissues. In conclusion, these applications and physical properties of AFPs can be further explored to meet other industrial players. Designing the peptide-based AFP can also be done to subsequently improve its function.
  2. Hasan HA, Abdulmalek E, Rahman MBA, Shaari KB, Yamin BM, Chan KW
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Dec 20;12(1):145.
    PMID: 30570683 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0509-z
    BACKGROUND: Although the development of antibiotic and antioxidant manufacturing, the problem of bacterial resistance and food and/or cosmetics oxidation still needs more efforts to design new derivatives which can help to minimize these troubles. Benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines are nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds that possess many pharmaceutical properties such as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, immunoenhancer, and anticancer.

    RESULTS: A comparative study between two methods, (microwave-assisted and conventional heating approaches), was performed to synthesise a new quinazoline derivative from 2-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole and octanal to produce 6-heptyl-5,6-dihydrobenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline (OCT). The compound was characterised using FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, DIMS, as well as X-ray crystallography. The most significant peak in the 13C NMR spectrum is C-7 at 65.5 ppm which confirms the cyclisation process. Crystal structure analysis revealed that the molecule grows in the monoclinic crystal system P21/n space group and stabilised by an intermolecular hydrogen bond between the N1-H1A…N3 atoms. The crystal packing analysis showed that the molecule adopts zig-zag one dimensional chains. Fluorescence study of OCT revealed that it produces blue light when expose to UV-light and its' quantum yield equal to 26%. Antioxidant activity, which included DPPH· and ABTS·+ assays was also performed and statistical analysis was achieved via a paired T-test using Minitab 16 software with P 

  3. Fadilah NIM, Rahman MBA, Yusof LM, Mustapha NM, Ahmad H
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Feb 01;13(2).
    PMID: 33535623 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13020193
    The standard treatment of open wounds via the direct usage of therapeutic agents is not without limitations with respect to healing. Small peptides can create a favorable milieu for accelerating the healing of wounds. This study presents the potential of a novel fatty acid conjugated tetrapeptide (palmitic acid-glycine-aspartic acid-proline-histidine; Palmitoyl-GDPH) in alleviating wound healing. Tetracycline was employed as a standard control drug following its significance in wound healing including biologically active and antimicrobial effects. The peptide in liquid form was applied on to a 4 cm2 full thickness wound surgically induced at the dorsum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The in vivo wound treatment with Palmitoyl-GDPH for eighteen days, histologically demonstrated an almost perfect healing exhibited by increased re-epithelialization, enhanced collagen deposition, and diminished scar formation compared to the controls. In addition, the well-developed epidermal-dermal junction and ultimate stimulation of hair follicle-growth in the Palmitoyl-GDPH treated group indicated the wound to have healed as functionally viable tissues. In general, the much lower hemogram values in the Palmitoyl-GDPH group indicated that the ongoing healing is en route to an earlier recovery. Additionally, the liver, kidney, and pancreas function biomarkers being within normal limits indicated the relatively non-toxic nature of Palmitoyl-GDPH at the used dosage. These results indisputably supported the great potential of this newly synthesized Palmitoyl-GDPH to be used as an effective therapeutic agent for wound healing (this actually means creating a new wound).
  4. Ahmad Nadzirin I, Chor ALT, Salleh AB, Rahman MBA, Tejo BA
    Comput Biol Chem, 2021 Jun;92:107487.
    PMID: 33957477 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107487
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting about 0.24 % of the world population. Protein arginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4) is believed to be responsible for the occurrence of RA by catalyzing citrullination of proteins. The citrullinated proteins act as autoantigens by stimulating an immune response. Citrullinated α-enolase has been identified as one of the autoantigens for RA. Hence, α-enolase serves as a suitable template for design of potential peptide inhibitors against PAD4. The binding affinity of α-enolase-derived peptides and PAD4 was virtually determined using PatchDock and HADDOCK docking programs. Synthesis of the designed peptides was performed using a solid phase peptide synthesis method. The inhibitory potential of each peptide was determined experimentally by PAD4 inhibition assay and IC50 measurement. PAD4 assay data show that the N-P2 peptide is the most favourable substrate among all peptides. Further modification of N-P2 by changing the Arg residue to canavanine [P2 (Cav)] rendered it an inhibitor against PAD4 by reducing the PAD4 activity to 35 % with IC50 1.39 mM. We conclude that P2 (Cav) is a potential inhibitor against PAD4 and can serve as a starting point for the development of even more potent inhibitors.
  5. Arbain NH, Salim N, Wui WT, Basri M, Rahman MBA
    J Oleo Sci, 2018 Aug 01;67(8):933-940.
    PMID: 30012897 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17253
    In this research, the palm oil ester (POE)- based nanoemulsion formulation containing quercetin for pulmonary delivery was developed. The nanoemulsion formulation was prepared by high energy emulsification method and then further optimized using D-optimal mixture design. The concentration effects of the mixture of POE:ricinoleic acid (RC), ratio 1:1 (1.50-4.50 wt.%), lecithin (1.50-2.50 wt.%), Tween 80 (0.50-1.00 wt.%), glycerol (1.50-3.00 wt.%), and water (88.0-94.9 wt.%) towards the droplet size were investigated. The results showed that the optimum formulation with 1.50 wt.% POE:RC, 1.50 wt.% lecithin, 1.50 wt.% Tween 80, 1.50 wt.% glycerol and 93.90 % water was obtained. The droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of the optimized formulation were 110.3 nm, 0.290 and -37.7 mV, respectively. The formulation also exhibited good stability against storage at 4℃ for 90 days. In vitro aerosols delivery evaluation showed that the aerosols output, aerosols rate and median mass aerodynamic diameter of the optimized nanoemulsion were 99.31%, 0.19 g/min and 4.25 µm, respectively. The characterization of physical properties and efficiency for aerosols delivery results suggest that POE- based nanoemulsion containing quercetin has the potential to be used for pulmonary delivery specifically for lung cancer treatment.
  6. Eskandari A, Nezhad NG, Leow TC, Rahman MBA, Oslan SN
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2023 Dec 08;40(1):39.
    PMID: 38062216 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-023-03851-6
    Yeasts serve as exceptional hosts in the manufacturing of functional protein engineering and possess industrial or medical utilities. Considerable focus has been directed towards yeast owing to its inherent benefits and recent advancements in this particular cellular host. The Pichia pastoris expression system is widely recognized as a prominent and widely accepted instrument in molecular biology for the purpose of generating recombinant proteins. The advantages of utilizing the P. pastoris system for protein production encompass the proper folding process occurring within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as the subsequent secretion mediated by Kex2 as a signal peptidase, ultimately leading to the release of recombinant proteins into the extracellular environment of the cell. In addition, within the P. pastoris expression system, the ease of purifying recombinant protein arises from its restricted synthesis of endogenous secretory proteins. Despite its achievements, scientists often encounter persistent challenges when attempting to utilize yeast for the production of recombinant proteins. This review is dedicated to discussing the current achievements in the usage of P. pastoris as an expression host. Furthermore, it sheds light on the strategies employed in the expression system and the optimization and development of the fermentative process of this yeast. Finally, the impediments (such as identifying high expression strains, improving secretion efficiency, and decreasing hyperglycosylation) and successful resolution of certain difficulties are put forth and deliberated upon in order to assist and promote the expression of complex proteins in this prevalent recombinant host.
  7. Ang SS, Salleh AB, Chor LT, Normi YM, Tejo BA, Rahman MBA, et al.
    Protein J, 2018 04;37(2):180-193.
    PMID: 29508210 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9764-z
    The bioconversion of vitamin D3 catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) requires 25-hydroxylation and subsequent 1α-hydroxylation to produce the hormonal activated 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase catalyses the first step in the vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway, essential in the de novo activation of vitamin D3. A CYP known as CYP107CB2 has been identified as a novel vitamin D hydroxylase in Bacillus lehensis G1. In order to deepen the understanding of this bacterial origin CYP107CB2, its detailed biological functions as well as biochemical characteristics were defined. CYP107CB2 was characterized through the absorption spectral analysis and accordingly, the enzyme was assayed for vitamin D3 hydroxylation activity. CYP-ligand characterization and catalysis optimization were conducted to increase the turnover of hydroxylated products in an NADPH-regenerating system. Results revealed that the over-expressed CYP107CB2 protein was dominantly cytosolic and the purified fraction showed a protein band at approximately 62 kDa on SDS-PAGE, indicative of CYP107CB2. Spectral analysis indicated that CYP107CB2 protein was properly folded and it was in the active form to catalyze vitamin D3 reaction at C25. HPLC and MS analysis from a reconstituted enzymatic reaction confirmed the hydroxylated products were 25-hydroxyitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 when the substrates vitamin D3 and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 were used. Biochemical characterization shows that CYP107CB2 performed hydroxylation activity at 25 °C in pH 8 and successfully increased the production of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 up to four fold. These findings show that CYP107CB2 has a biologically relevant vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase activity and further suggest the contribution of CYP family to the metabolism of vitamin D3.
  8. Khan MS, Ibrahim SM, Adamu AA, Rahman MBA, Bakar MZA, Noordin MM, et al.
    Cryobiology, 2020 02 01;92:26-33.
    PMID: 31580830 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.09.012
    A number of living creatures in the Antarctic region have developed characteristic adaptation of cold weather by producing antifreeze proteins (AFP). Antifreeze peptide (Afp1m) fragment have been designed in the sequence of strings from native proteins. The objectives of this study were to assess the properties of Afp1m to cryopreserve skin graft at the temperature of -10 °C and -20 °C and to assess sub-zero injuries in Afp1m cryopreserved skin graft using light microscopic techniques. In the present study, a process was developed to cryopreserve Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat skin grafts with antifreeze peptide, Afp1m, α-helix peptide fragment derived from Glaciozyma antractica yeast. Its viability assessed by different microscopic techniques. This study also described the damages caused by subzero temperatures (-10 and -20 °C) on tissue cryopreserved in different concentrations of Afp1m (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 72 h. Histological scores of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis of cryopreserved skin grafts showed highly significant difference (p 
  9. Ibrahim SM, Kareem OH, Saffanah KM, Adamu AA, Khan MS, Rahman MBA, et al.
    Cryobiology, 2018 06;82:27-36.
    PMID: 29679551 DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2018.04.012
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Afp1m as a cryopreservative agent for skin by examining the transplanted skin histological architecture and mechanical properties following subzero cryopreservation. Thirty four (34) rats with an average weight of 208 ± 31 g (mean ± SD), were used. Twenty four (n = 24) rats were equally divided into four groups: (i) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto same site), (ii) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto different sites), (iii) skin autografts cryopreserved with glycerol for 72 h and (iv) skin autografts cryopreserved with Afp1m for 72 h at -4 °C. Rounded shaped full-thickness 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter skin was excised from backs of rats for the autograft transplantation. Non-cryopreserved or cryopreserved auto skin graft were positioned onto the wound defects and stitched. Non-transplanted cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved skin strips from other ten rats (n = 10) were allowed for comparative biomechanical test. All skin grafts were subjected to histological and mechanical examinations at the end of day 21. Histological results revealed that tissue architecture especially the epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal junction of the Afp1m cryopreserved skin grafts exhibited better histological appearance, good preservation of tissue architecture and structural integrity than glycerolized skin. However, there was no significant difference among these groups in other histological criteria. There were no significant differences among the 4 groups in skin graft mechanical properties namely maximum load. In conclusion, Afp1m were found to be able to preserve the microstructure as well as the viability and function of the skin destined for skin transplantation when was kept at -4 °C for 72 h.
  10. Yusoh NA, Leong SW, Chia SL, Harun SN, Rahman MBA, Vallis KA, et al.
    ACS Chem. Biol., 2020 02 21;15(2):378-387.
    PMID: 31898884 DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00843
    There is a need to improve and extend the use of clinically approved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi), including for BRCA wild-type triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The demonstration that ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (RPC) metallointercalators can rapidly stall DNA replication fork progression provides the rationale for their combination alongside DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors to achieve synergism in cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, PIP = (2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Ru-PIP) alongside the PARPi olaparib and NU1025. Cell proliferation and clonogenic survival assays indicated a synergistic relationship between Ru-PIP and olaparib in MDA-MB-231 TNBC and MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Strikingly, low dose Ru-PIP renders both cell lines hypersensitive to olaparib, with a >300-fold increase in olaparib potency in TNBC, the largest nongenetic PARPi enhancement effect described to date. A negligible impact on the viability of normal human fibroblasts was observed for any combination tested. Increased levels of DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage and olaparib abrogation of Ru-PIP-activated pChk1 signaling are consistent with PARPi-facilitated collapse of Ru-PIP-associated stalled replication forks. This results in enhanced G2/M cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and decreased cell motility for the combination treatment compared to single-agent conditions. This work establishes that an RPC metallointercalator can be combined with PARPi for potent synergy in BRCA-proficient breast cancer cells, including TNBC.
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