Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

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  1. Rahman RA
    PhytoKeys, 2019;118:65-73.
    PMID: 30863195 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.118.32186
    A new species, Microchiritahairulii Rafidah (Gesneriaceae) from limestone hills in Perlis, Peninsular Malaysia, is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, description, detailed illustrations, geographical distribution, regional provisional conservation status assessment (Endangered) and ecological observations of the new taxon, as well as an updated key to Microchirita species in Peninsular Malaysia, are provided.
  2. Rahman RA, Molla AH, Fakhru'l-Razi A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Jan;21(2):1178-87.
    PMID: 23881591 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1974-5
    Sustainable, environmental friendly, and safe disposal of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge is a global expectation. Bioremediation performance was examined at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in 3-10 days and organic loading rates (OLR) at 0.66-7.81 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter per day, with mixed filamentous fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation by liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique as a continuous process in large-scale bioreactor. Encouraging results were monitored in treated sludge by LSB continuous process. The highest removal of total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, and COD were achieved at 98, 99, and 93%, respectively, at 10 days HRT compared to control. The minimum volatile suspended solid/suspended solid implies the quality of water, which was recorded 0.59 at 10 days and 0.72 at 3 days of HRT. In treated supernatant with 88% protein removal at 10 days of HRT indicates a higher magnitude of purification of treated sludge. The specific resistance to filtration (SRF) quantifies the performance of dewaterability; it was recorded minimum 0.049 × 10(12) m kg(-1) at 10 days of HRT, which was equivalent to 97% decrease of SRF. The lower OLR and higher HRT directly influenced the bioremediation and dewaterability of STP sludge in LSB process. The obtained findings imply encouraging message in continuing treatment of STP sludge, i.e., bioremediation of wastewater for environmental friendly disposal in near future.
  3. Kah TA, Yong KC, Rahman RA
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2011;11:30.
    PMID: 22044440 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-30
    To report a case of disseminated fusariosis with endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Transfusion-associated immune modulation secondary to platelet transfusion could play an important role in the pathophysiology of this case.
  4. Noordin R, Shenoy RK, Rahman RA
    PMID: 15115085
    Brugia malayi infection is endemic in several Asian countries. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibody detection based on BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis. Two formats of the test has been reported ie indirect ELISA (BE) and rapid dipstick test (BR). Since different test formats use different amounts of sample and reagents which may affect its sensitivity and specificity, this study was performed to compare these two test formats in the detection of B. malayi. A total of 264 blinded serum samples from India and Malaysia were employed. Group 1 comprised 164 samples from actively infected individuals and group 2 comprised 100 samples from filaria non-endemic areas. Sensitivity was 96.3% (158/164) and 90.8% (149/164) for rapid test and ELISA respectively; chi-square p=0.00. Both test formats demonstrated 100% specificity. Therefore the rapid test format was equally specific but more sensitive than the ELISA format. The ELISA format would be able to demonstrate decline in IgG4 titer post-treatment while the rapid test would be very useful for screening and diagnosis in the field.
  5. Mohamad I, Zulkifli S, Soleh M, Rahman R
    PMID: 25606258 MyJurnal
    Neck mass is a common condition in primary care. The most common affected area is the cervical lymph node. The neck region is also prone infection as structurally the nodes and spaces are in close contact with the upper respiratory tract and the alimentary tract. Oral cavity is one of the most common route for harbouring infection. Poor oral hygeine and periapical dental problems are the main causes. Thus, it is important to perform a complete oral cavity examination even when trismus is present. Besides dental caries, floor of the mouth should be inspected for oedema that may impose threat to the upper airway. We report a case of Ludwig's angina originating from a periapical lesion of the lower molar stressing the importance of oral examination in patient with neck mass.
  6. Latiff AA, Muhamad J, Rahman RA
    PMID: 31435300 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.07.003
    Objectives: Awareness of body image perception among children and adolescents has been rising during recent years. The objectives of this study were to identify body image dissatisfaction and its associated factors among primary-school students.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven randomly selected primary schools, involving students aged 11 to 12. A guided self-administered questionnaire, which included sociodemographic data, body mass index (BMI) parameters, and body image perception (Childress Contour Drawing Rating Scale), was used.

    Results: This study involved 776 primary-school students. Approximately 60.1% of students had body image dissatisfaction, which was significantly (p 
  7. Shahmohammadi HR, Bakar J, Rahman RA, Adzhan NM
    J Food Sci, 2014 Feb;79(2):E178-83.
    PMID: 24410375 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12324
    To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number.
  8. Rahman RA, Ahmad S, Ismail NA, Mahdy ZA
    J Reprod Med, 2012 Sep-Oct;57(9-10):456-8.
    PMID: 23091998
    The incidence of a coexistent normal fetus is quoted in literature as 1 in 22,000 to 100,000 pregnancies and may be associated with multiple complications including persistent trophoblastic neoplasia.
  9. Banga Singh KK, Ojha SC, Deris ZZ, Rahman RA
    Z Gesundh Wiss, 2011 Jun;19(3):231-236.
    PMID: 21654922
    AIMS: In Malaysia, Shigella spp. is the third most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2009. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was used. Stool samples from patients were cultured using a standard culture method. Shigella spp. isolates were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 138 Shigella spp. were isolated from a total of 14,830 routine stool specimens, yielding an isolation rate of 0.93% that corresponded to 9.99% of the 1,381 bacterial pathogens isolated. Of these isolates, S. sonnei was the predominant species, followed by S. flexneri and S. boydii. Seasonal variation was noticed, and no significant differences were detected in the demographic data for S. flexneri and S. sonnei. The susceptibility of all isolated Shigella strains was tested against seven antibiotics. Ceftriaxone (99.1%), ciprofloxacin (98.4%), and nalidixic acid (93.8%) were effective against the Shigella strains, whereas tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole exhibited high frequencies of resistance (58.4% and 53.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is important for public health education aimed at reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Shigella spp. infection. Our results also will be helpful for paediatricians and microbiologists in the selection of appropriate antibiotics for the management of diarrhoea.
  10. Qudsieh HY, Yusof S, Osman A, Rahman RA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2002 Mar 13;50(6):1615-8.
    PMID: 11879045
    A study was conducted to determine the effect of sugarcane maturation on the contents of chlorophyll, tannin, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and on color change of sugarcane juice. The maturation period of the cane studied was between 3 and 10 months after planting. Different parts of the cane, namely, the top, middle, and bottom portions, were analyzed. Results obtained indicated that there were significant (P < 0.01) decreases in total chlorophyll a and b and tannin contents during maturity followed by slower rates of decrease of both parameters at the end of maturity stages. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in chlorophyll and tannin contents between the middle and bottom portions. On the other hand, the top portion of the stem had a significantly (P < 0.01) lower concentration of chlorophyll and a significantly (P < 0.01) higher content of tannin. PPO activity of sugarcane juice was determined using chlorogenic acid as a substrate. There was a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in PPO activity of cane juice during maturity. PPO activity was high at the early development stage, decreased during maturation, and then remained relatively constant at the end of maturity. PPO activity was higher when chlorogenic acid was used as substrate. There were also significant differences (P < 0.01) in juice color (L*, a*, b* values) from different portions at different maturity stages. At the early stages, the color of extracted juice was dark, and then the juice turned to yellowish green during maturity. The decrease in green color or the increase in the yellow color could be associated with the decline in chlorophyll. The overall color change (DeltaE) at maturity indicated that the color of the middle and bottom portions was lower than that of the top portion.
  11. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):19-21.
    PMID: 17378338
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The last part of this series reviews the opportunistic infections that can occur to the perioral structure. Their management is briefly discussed.
  12. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):16-8.
    PMID: 17378337
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The second last part of this series reviews and discusses the management of complication that commonly occur to the oral mucosa, i.e. mucositis.
  13. Chai WL, Ngeow WC, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):4-6.
    PMID: 17378334
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral complications after radiation therapy. The management of xerostomia has been reviewed in Part I of this series. In this article, the management of dental caries, a sequalae of xerostomia following radiation therapy is reviewed.
  14. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):1-3.
    PMID: 17378333
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. Part I of this series reviews the management of xerostomia. The management of the effect of xerostomia to the dentition/oral cavity is discussed in Part II.
  15. Ramli R, Ngeow WC, Rahman RA, Chai WL
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):11-5.
    PMID: 17378336
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Pretreatment dental assessment should be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally and, as a result, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a severe debilitating condition that impairs healing due to reduction in vascularity and osteocyte population in the affected bone. This article reviews methods of treatment used to treat ORN such as antibiotics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, surgery, and other modalities.
  16. Rahman RA, Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):7-10.
    PMID: 17378335
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Pretreatment dental assessment should be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally and, as a result, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The management of radiation-induced caries, a sequelae of xerostomia has been reviewed in Part II of this series. In this article, the management of difficulty with dentures, another sequelae of xerostomia following radiation therapy is reviewed.
  17. Nor MM, Yushar A, Razali M, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Dentomaxillofac Radiol, 2006 Nov;35(6):473-4.
    PMID: 17082343
    Susuk, or charm needles, are inserted and worn subcutaneously in the face and other parts of the body, as they are believed to enhance beauty and youth, and for many other reasons such as treatment of headache, aches and pains in the joints, back or abdomen. The practice of inserting susuk is a traditional belief, genuinely cultural and superstitious, and common in the south-east Asian region. We present 13 cases of susuk, which was found incidentally on the radiographs as the patients came for various types of treatment at our centre.
  18. Chew C, Rahman RA, Shafie SM, Mohamad Z
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, 2005 May-Jun;42(3):166-73.
    PMID: 15977870
    To determine the mydriatic regimen that provides optimal dilation of the pupil with minimal systemic side effects for screening of retinopathy of prematurity.
  19. Miskandar MS, Man YC, Yusoff MS, Rahman RA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):387-95.
    PMID: 16326646
    Optimum processing conditions on palm oil-based formulations are required to produce the desired quality margarine. As oils and fats contribute to the overall property of the margarine, this paper will review the importance of beta' tending oils and fats in margarine formulation, effects of the processing parameters -- emulsion temperature, flow-rate, product temperature and pin-worker speed -- on palm oil margarines produced and their subsequent behaviour in storage. Palm oil, which contributes the beta' crystal polymorph and the best alternative to hydrogenated liquid fats, and the processing conditions can affect the margarine consistency by influencing the solid fat content (SFC) and the types of crystal polymorph formed during production as well as in storage. Palm oil, or hydrogenated palm oil and olein, in mixture with oils of beta tending, can veer the product to the beta' crystal form. However, merely having beta' crystal tending oils is not sufficient as the processing conditions are also important. The emulsion temperature had no significant effect on the consistency and polymorphic changes of the product during storage, even though differences were observed during processing. The consistency of margarine during storage was high at low emulsion flow-rates and low at high flow rates. The temperature of the scraped-surface tube-cooler is the most important parameter in margarine processing. High temperature will produce a hardened product with formation of beta-crystals during storage. The speed of the pin-worker is responsible for inducing crystallization but, at the same time, destroys the crystal agglomerates, resulting in melting.
  20. Singh J, Rahman RA, Rajion ZA, Abdullah J, Mohamad I
    J Craniofac Surg, 2017 Jan;28(1):e64-e70.
    PMID: 27922969 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003218
    INTRODUCTION: The human orbit is a complex anatomic region, which plays predominant role in the evaluation of craniofacial complex. A thorough understanding of the relationship of the distance from orbital rim to the important vital structures of the orbital apex is required for the surgeon to perform safe and effective surgery.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the depth and distances from various points of the orbital rim to the fissures and foramina of the orbital apex between genders in the local population.

    METHODOLOGY: Linear measurements were conducted on 60 orbits from 30 patients who had undergone head computed tomography scan. These measurements were done utilizing the multiplanar reconstruction modes on computed tomography images with minimum slice thickness of 1 mm.

    RESULTS: Males have statistically significant larger orbits than females with higher mean measurements in all parameters, except for the distance from posterior ethmoidal foramen to the optic canal which was the same. However, there were no significant differences in all parameters between the right and left orbits.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides the absolute limit of safe internal orbital dissection in respect to the local population. Despite males having larger orbits than females, it is clinically negligible.

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