Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 87 in total

  1. Rahman RN, Zakaria II, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(8):9673-91.
    PMID: 22949824 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13089673
    PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products). These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant's active site.
  2. Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M, Wong CF
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5797-814.
    PMID: 22016627 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095797
    Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.
  3. Zakaria II, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Sep;165(2):737-47.
    PMID: 21633820 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9292-1
    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants shown to exhibit health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects. Thus, due to the importance of this compound, several enzymes involved in the flavonoid pathway have been cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. However, the formation of inclusion bodies has become a major disadvantage of this approach. As an alternative, chalcone synthase from Physcomitrella patens was secreted into the medium using a bacteriocin release protein expression vector. Secretion of P. patens chalcone synthase into the culture media was achieved by co-expression with a psW1 plasmid encoding bacteriocin release protein in E. coli Tuner (DE3) plysS. The optimized conditions, which include the incubation of cells for 20 h with 40 ng/ml mitomycin C at OD(600) induction time of 0.5 was found to be the best condition for chalcone synthase secretion.
  4. Shariff FM, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(5):2917-34.
    PMID: 21686158 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12052917
    A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5-99.2%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa) was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55-80 °C and at a pH of 6-10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm) of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100%), whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT) inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% ß-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.
  5. Ebrahimpour A, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jul;102(13):6972-81.
    PMID: 21531550 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.083
    The mature ARM lipase gene was cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector and over-expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 host. The optimum lipase expression was obtained after 18 h post induction incubation with 1.0mM IPTG, where the lipase activity was approximately 1623-fold higher than wild type. A rapid, high efficient, one-step purification of the His-tagged recombinant lipase was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography with 63.2% recovery and purification factor of 14.6. The purified lipase was characterized as a high active (7092 U mg(-1)), serine-hydrolase, thermostable, organic solvent tolerant, 1,3-specific lipase with a molecular weight of about 44 kDa. The enzyme was a monomer with disulfide bond(s) in its structure, but was not a metalloenzyme. ARM lipase was active in a broad range of temperature and pH with optimum lipolytic activity at pH 8.0 and 65°C. The enzyme retained 50% residual activity at pH 6.0-7.0, 50°C for more than 150 min.
  6. Abusham RA, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Microb Cell Fact, 2009 Apr 09;8:20.
    PMID: 19356254 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-20
    BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v) of (AB600 = 0.5) inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0) and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg). The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60 degrees C, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.

  7. Leow TC, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Extremophiles, 2007 May;11(3):527-35.
    PMID: 17426920
    A thermoalkaliphilic T1 lipase gene of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was overexpressed in pGEX vector in the prokaryotic system. Removal of the signal peptide improved protein solubility and promoted the binding of GST moiety to the glutathione-Sepharose column. High-yield purification of T1 lipase was achieved through two-step affinity chromatography with a final specific activity and yield of 958.2 U/mg and 51.5%, respectively. The molecular mass of T1 lipase was determined to be approximately 43 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. T1 lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 70 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C with a half-life of 5 h 15 min at pH 9. It was stable in the presence of 1 mM metal ions Na(+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+ ), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Tween 80 significantly enhanced T1 lipase activity. T1 lipase was active towards medium to long chain triacylglycerols (C10-C14) and various natural oils with a marked preference for trilaurin (C12) (triacylglycerol) and sunflower oil (natural oil). Serine and aspartate residues were involved in catalysis, as its activity was strongly inhibited by 5 mM PMSF and 1 mM Pepstatin. The T(m) for T1 lipase was around 72.2 degrees C, as revealed by denatured protein analysis of CD spectra.
  8. Rahman RN, Baharum SN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Microbiol, 2006 Dec;44(6):583-90.
    PMID: 17205035
    In this study, an organic solvent tolerant bacterial strain was isolated. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain S5, and was shown to degrade BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene). Strain S5 generates an organic solvent-tolerant lipase in the late logarithmic phase of growth. Maximum lipase production was exhibited when peptone was utilized as the sole nitrogen source. Addition of any of the selected carbon sources to the medium resulted in a significant reduction of enzyme production. Lower lipase generation was noted when an inorganic nitrogen source was used as the sole nitrogen source. This bacterium hydrolyzed all tested triglycerides and the highest levels of production were observed when olive oil was used as a natural triglyceride. Basal medium containing Tween 60 enhanced lipase production to the most significant degree. The absence of magnesium ions (Mg2+) in the basal medium was also shown to stimulate lipase production. Meanwhile, an alkaline earth metal ion, Na+, was found to stimulate the production of S5 lipase.
  9. Rahman RN, Ghaza FM, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Microbiol, 2006 Jun;44(3):354-9.
    PMID: 16820766
    This study examined the capacity of immobilized bacteria to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. A mixture of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains was immobilized in alginate and incubated in crude oil-contaminated artificial seawater (ASW). Analysis of hydrocarbon residues following a 30-day incubation period demonstrated that the biodegradation capacity of the microorganisms was not compromised by the immobilization. Removal of n-alkanes was similar in immobilized cells and control cells. To test reusability, the immobilized bacteria were incubated for sequential increments of 30 days. No decline in biodegradation capacity of the immobilized consortium of bacterial cells was noted over its repeated use. We conclude that immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria represent a promising application in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated areas.
  10. Rahman RN, Geok LP, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Mar;96(4):429-36.
    PMID: 15491823
    The physical factors affecting the production of an organic solvent-tolerant protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was investigated. Growth and protease production were detected from 37 to 45 degrees C with 37 degrees C being the optimum temperature for P. aeruginosa. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved at static conditions with 4.0% (v/v) inoculum. Shifting the culture from stationary to shaking condition decreased the protease production (6.0-10.0% v/v). Extracellular organic solvent-tolerant protease was detected over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. However, the highest yield of protease was observed at pH 7.0. Neutral media increased the protease production compared to acidic or alkaline media.
  11. Rahman RN, Leow TC, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2005 Apr;40(2):411-6.
    PMID: 15766884
    The extracellular production of T1 lipase was performed by co-expression of pJL3 vector encoding bacteriocin release protein in prokaryotic system. Secretory expression was optimized by considering several parameters, including host strains, inducer (IPTG) concentration, media, induction at A(600 nm), temperature, and time of induction. Among the host strains tested, Origami B excreted out 18,100 U/ml of lipase activity into culture medium when induced with 50 microM IPTG for 12 h. The Origami B harboring recombinant plasmid pGEX/T1S and pJL3 vector was chosen for further study. IPTG at 0.05 mM, YT medium, induction at A(600 nm) of 1.25, 30 degrees C, and 32 h of induction time were best condition for T1 lipase secretion with Origami B as a host.
  12. Rahman RN, Baharum SN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Anal Biochem, 2005 Jun 15;341(2):267-74.
    PMID: 15907872
    An organic solvent-tolerant S5 lipase was purified by affinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the lipase was estimated to be 60 kDa with 387 purification fold. The optimal temperature and pH were 45 degrees C and 9.0, respectively. The purified lipase was stable at 45 degrees C and pH 6-9. It exhibited the highest stability in the presence of various organic solvents such as n-dodecane, 1-pentanol, and toluene. Ca2+ and Mg2+ stimulated lipase activity, whereas EDTA had no effect on its activity. The S5 lipase exhibited the highest activity in the presence of palm oil as a natural oil and triolein as a synthetic triglyceride. It showed random positional specificity on the thin-layer chromatography.
  13. Masomian M, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0149851.
    PMID: 26934700 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149851
    Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+)-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.
  14. Rahman RN, Chin JH, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Mol Genet Genomics, 2003 May;269(2):252-60.
    PMID: 12756537
    A Bacillus sphaericus strain (205y) that produces an organic solvent-tolerant lipase was isolated in Port Dickson, Malaysia. The gene for the lipase was recovered from a genomic library and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on an alignment of thirteen microbial lipase sequences obtained from the NCBI database. The analysis suggested that the B. sphaericus lipase gene is a novel gene, as it is distinct from other lipase genes in Families I.4 and I.5 reported so far. Expression in Escherichia coli under the control of the lacZ promoter resulted in an eight-fold increase in enzyme activity after a 3-h induction with 1 mM IPTG. The crude enzyme thus obtained showed a slight (10%) enhancement in activity after a 30-min incubation in 25% (v/v) n-hexane at 37 degrees C, and retained 90% of its activity after a similar period in 25% (v/v) p-xylene.
  15. Rahman RN, Mahamad S, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2007 Jul;34(7):509-17.
    PMID: 17492323
    Five out of the nine benzene-toulene-ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding the organic solvent tolerant protease was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. The polypeptide composed of 29 residues of signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27,846 Da. This is the only report available to date on organic solvent tolerant protease from B. pumilus.
  16. Leow TC, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2004 Jan;68(1):96-103.
    PMID: 14745170
    A thermostable extracellular lipase of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was cloned in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,251 bp in length which codes for a polypeptide of 416 amino acid residues. The polypeptide was composed of a signal peptide (28 amino acids) and a mature protein of 388 amino acids. Instead of Gly, Ala was substituted as the first residue of the conserved pentapeptide Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. Successful gene expression was obtained with pBAD, pRSET, pET, and pGEX as under the control of araBAD, T7, T7 lac, and tac promoters, respectively. Among them, pGEX had a specific activity of 30.19 Umg(-1) which corresponds to 2927.15 Ug(-1) of wet cells after optimization. The recombinant lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 65 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C at pH 7 and active over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). This study presents a rapid cloning and overexpression, aimed at improving the enzyme yield for successful industrial application.
  17. Maiangwa J, Ali MS, Salleh AB, Rahman RN, Shariff FM, Leow TC
    Extremophiles, 2015 Mar;19(2):235-47.
    PMID: 25472009 DOI: 10.1007/s00792-014-0710-5
    Psychrophilic microorganisms are cold-adapted with distinct properties from other thermal classes thriving in cold conditions in large areas of the earth's cold environment. Maintenance of functional membranes, evolving cold-adapted enzymes and synthesizing a range of structural features are basic adaptive strategies of psychrophiles. Among the cold-evolved enzymes are the cold-active lipases, a group of microbial lipases with inherent stability-activity-flexibility property that have engaged the interest of researchers over the years. Current knowledge regarding these cold-evolved enzymes in psychrophilic bacteria proves a display of high catalytic efficiency with low thermal stability, which is a differentiating feature with that of their mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Improvement strategies of their adaptive structural features have significantly benefited the enzyme industry. Based on their homogeneity and purity, molecular characterizations of these enzymes have been successful and their properties make them unique biocatalysts for various industrial and biotechnological applications. Although, strong association of lipopolysaccharides from Antarctic microorganisms with lipid hydrolases pose a challenge in their purification, heterologous expression of the cold-adapted lipases with affinity tags simplifies purification with higher yield. The review discusses these cold-evolved lipases from bacteria and their peculiar properties, in addition to their potential biotechnological and industrial applications.
  18. Alias N, Ahmad Mazian M, Salleh AB, Basri M, Rahman RN
    Enzyme Res, 2014;2014:197938.
    PMID: 25093119 DOI: 10.1155/2014/197938
    Psychrophilic basidiomycete yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica strain PI12, was shown to be a protease-producer. Isolation of the PI12 protease gene from genomic and mRNA sequences allowed determination of 19 exons and 18 introns. Full-length cDNA of PI12 protease gene was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2892 bp, coded for 963 amino acids. PI12 protease showed low homology with the subtilisin-like protease from fungus Rhodosporidium toruloides (42% identity) and no homology to other psychrophilic proteases. The gene encoding mature PI12 protease was cloned into Pichia pastoris expression vector, pPIC9, and positioned under the induction of methanol-alcohol oxidase (AOX) promoter. The recombinant PI12 protease was efficiently secreted into the culture medium driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal sequence. The highest protease production (28.3 U/ml) was obtained from P. pastoris GS115 host (GpPro2) at 20°C after 72 hours of postinduction time with 0.5% (v/v) of methanol inducer. The expressed protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and activity staining with a molecular weight of 99 kDa.
  19. Ranjani V, Janeček S, Chai KP, Shahir S, Abdul Rahman RN, Chan KG, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5850.
    PMID: 25069018 DOI: 10.1038/srep05850
    The α-amylases from Anoxybacillus species (ASKA and ADTA), Bacillus aquimaris (BaqA) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (GTA, Pizzo and GtamyII) were proposed as a novel group of the α-amylase family GH13. An ASKA yielding a high percentage of maltose upon its reaction on starch was chosen as a model to study the residues responsible for the biochemical properties. Four residues from conserved sequence regions (CSRs) were thus selected, and the mutants F113V (CSR-I), Y187F and L189I (CSR-II) and A161D (CSR-V) were characterised. Few changes in the optimum reaction temperature and pH were observed for all mutants. Whereas the Y187F (t1/2 43 h) and L189I (t1/2 36 h) mutants had a lower thermostability at 65°C than the native ASKA (t1/2 48 h), the mutants F113V and A161D exhibited an improved t1/2 of 51 h and 53 h, respectively. Among the mutants, only the A161D had a specific activity, k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) higher (1.23-, 1.17- and 2.88-times, respectively) than the values determined for the ASKA. The replacement of the Ala-161 in the CSR-V with an aspartic acid also caused a significant reduction in the ratio of maltose formed. This finding suggests the Ala-161 may contribute to the high maltose production of the ASKA.
  20. Kamarudin NH, Rahman RN, Ali MS, Leow TC, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Mol Biotechnol, 2014 Aug;56(8):747-57.
    PMID: 24771007 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-014-9753-1
    Terminal moieties of most proteins are long known to be disordered and flexible. To unravel the functional role of these regions on the structural stability and biochemical properties of AT2 lipase, four C-terminal end residues, (Ile-Thr-Arg-Lys) which formed a flexible, short tail-like random-coil segment were targeted for mutation. Swapping of the tail-like region had resulted in an improved crystallizability and anti-aggregation property along with a slight shift of the thermostability profile. The lipolytic activity of mutant (M386) retained by 43 % compared to its wild-type with 18 % of the remaining activity at 45 °C. In silico analysis conducted at 25 and 45 °C was found to be in accordance to the experimental findings in which the RMSD values of M386 were more stable throughout the total trajectory in comparison to its wild-type. Terminal moieties were also observed to exhibit large movement and flexibility as denoted by high RMSF values at both dynamics. Variation in organic solvent stability property was detected in M386 where the lipolytic activity was stimulated in the presence of 25 % (v/v) of DMSO, isopropanol, and diethyl ether. This may be worth due to changes in the surface charge residues at the mutation point which probably involve in protein-solvent interaction.
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