Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 85 in total

  1. Meramat A, Rajab NF, Shahar S, Sharif RA
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2017;21(5):539-545.
    PMID: 28448084 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-016-0759-1
    BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was conducted in a group of 317 subjects older than 60 in Malaysia, aimed to determine risk factors associated with cognitive impairment in older adults, focusing on trace elements and DNA damage.

    METHOD: Cognitive decline was determined by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde-MDA and superoxide dismutase-SOD) were determined and DNA damage was assayed using Alkaline Comet Assay. Toenail samples were taken and analyzed using ICP-MS to determine trace element levels.

    RESULTS: A total of 62.1 % of subjects had cognitive impairment. Subjects with cognitive impairment had significantly higher levels of MDA and DNA damage as compared to the group with normal cognitive function; MDA (2.07 ± 0.05 nmol/L vs 1.85 ± 0.06 nmol/L) (p<0.05) and DNA damage (% Tail Density, 14.52 ± 0.32 vs 10.31 ± 0.42; Tail Moment, 1.79 ± 0.06 vs 1.28 ± 0.06) (p<0.05 for all parameters). However, the level of SOD among subjects with cognitive impairment (6.67 ± 0.33 u.e/min/mg protein) was lower than the level among those with normal cognitive functions (11.36 ± 0.65 u.e/min/mg protein) (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression revealed the predictors for cognitive impairment among the subjects were DNA damage (Adjusted odd ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.59), level of trace elements in toenails namely, lead (OR, 2.471; CI, 1.535-3.980) and copper (OR, 1.275; CI, 1.047-1.552) (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: High levels of lead and copper can lead to increase in oxidative stress levels and are associated with DNA damage that eventually could be associated with cognitive decline.

  2. Ishak SF, Rajab NF, Basri DF
    Dose Response, 2023;21(2):15593258221098980.
    PMID: 37077718 DOI: 10.1177/15593258221098980
    Colorectal cancer is the most common malignant cancer in developing countries. Canarium odontophyllum, also known as "Dabai" or "Borneo Olive" is among the natural plants that can potentially be used as an anticancer agent. This study aims to determine the antiproliferative activities and cytotoxicity effects of acetone extract from C. odontophyllum stem bark against human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT 116 and HT 29. Acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark exerted a significant cytotoxic effect on HCT 116 and HT 29 cells determined by MTT assay at the concentration of 12.5 μg/mL to 200 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 hours treatment. It was found that acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark inhibited proliferation of HCT 116 with an IC50 value of 184.93 ± .0 μg/mL, 61.24 ± .1 μg/mL, 79.98 ± .029 for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The findings also showed that acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark revealed a lower inhibitory effect against HT-29 with an IC50 value of more than 200 μg/mL for 24, 48 and 72 hours. However, acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark at similar concentrations and time points did not show any cytotoxic effect to normal colorectal fibroblast cell CCD18-Co. In conclusion, the acetone extract of C. odontophyllum stem bark exhibited more sensitivity against HCT 116 than HT 29. Its antiproliferative ability towards HCT 116 and HT 29 cells provides insight that this extract may serve as an anticancer agent against colorectal cancer.
  3. Awang N, Kamaludin NF, Hamid A, Mokhtar NW, Rajab NF
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Sep 01;15(17):833-8.
    PMID: 24163967
    Studies on the discovery of new cancer treatment by using metal-based compounds such as tin (Sn) has now greatly being synthesized and evaluated to identify their effectiveness and suitability to be developed as a new anticancer drug.

    APPROACH: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of triphenyltin(lV) methylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound 1) and triphenyltin(IV) ethylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound (2) on chronic myelogenus leukemia cells. The determination of their cytotoxicity (IC50) at different time of exposure and concentration was carried out through the employment of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

    RESULTS: The IC50 values obtained for compound 1 and 2 following treatment at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.660, 0.223, 0.370 microM and 0.677, 0.306, 0.360 microM, respectively. Cell morphological changes such as apoptotic and necrotic features were also been observed.

    CONCLUSION: The compounds tested were found to give cytotoxic effect against chronic myelogenus leukemia (K-562) cell at a micromolar dose. Thus, further study on their specific mechanism of actions in the human cells should be carried out to elucidate their potential as an anticancer agent.

  4. Sharif R, Ghazali AR, Rajab NF, Haron H, Osman F
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Jan;46(1):368-74.
    PMID: 17900779
    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.
  5. Rosli H, Shahar S, Din NC, Haron H, Rajab NF
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 May;26(3):72-89.
    PMID: 31303852 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.6
    Background: Decline in mental health and cognitive status starts to show its sign during middle-age and is affected by dietary factors, namely the polyphenols intake. Polyphenols have received attention in improving health issues related to aging, including decline in mental health and cognitive. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor mental health and cognitive status among middle-aged adults and its predictors in relation to polyphenols intake.

    Methods: Subjects' food intakes were calculated by using dietary history questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire for polyphenols. The subjects' mental health and cognitive status were measured by general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Rey's auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT).

    Results: More than 40% of middle-aged adults were identified as having signs of poor mental health. A total of 67.9% of the subjects had poor cognitive status according to RAVLT immediate recall. Hierarchical binary logistic regression indicated that fat intake was associated with somatic symptoms for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.04; P < 0.05] and women (AOR = 1.06; P < 0.05). Intake of lignan (AOR = 1.071; P < 0.05) was associated with better RAVLT immediate recall among women. Additionally, high cholesterol (AOR = 3.14; P < 0.05) was associated with poor score of RAVLT delayed recall for women.

    Conclusions: Early detection of poor mental health and cognitive is crucial to prevent Alzheimer's disease in old age.

  6. Rosli H, Shahar S, Rajab NF, Che Din N, Haron H
    Nutr Neurosci, 2021 Mar 05.
    PMID: 33666540 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2021.1880312
    Objectives: Polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have received attention in improving health issues during old age, including decline in cognitive function and other health parameters. We aimed to determine the effects of polyphenols-rich tropical fruit TP 3-in-1™ juice towards improving cognitive function, oxidative stress and metabolomics profiles among middle-aged women.Methods: This clinical trial involved 31 subjects with signs of poor cognitive function, as assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). They were randomized to receive either TP 3-in-1™ juice (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15). Study subjects consumed 500 ml of beverages for three times per day, three days per week, for a period of ten weeks. Juice supplementation provided 9135 mg GAE of total phenolic content and 194.1 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside of total anthocyanin monomer.Results: There was a significant interaction effects on RAVLT immediate recall (p 
  7. Ooi TC, Yaacob M, Rajab NF, Shahar S, Sharif R
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 May;28(5):2987-2994.
    PMID: 34025176 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.039
    Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and unresolved inflammation are the predisposing factors of many chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer. Stingless bee honey (SBH) is recognized to have high medicinal value by traditional medicine practitioners and has been used to treat various illnesses traditionally. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genoprotective effects of SBH by using in vitro cell culture models. The sugar content, total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of SBH were determined in this study. Then, the protective effect of SBH against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death and DNA damage was studied by using WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line, while the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages cell line was used to study the anti-inflammatory effects of SBH. Results from this present study showed that the major sugar contents of SBH were fructose (19.39 + 0.01%) and glucose (14.03 ± 0.03%). Besides, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging activity, and the FRAP value of SBH were 15.38 ± 0.02 mg GAE/100 g of honey, 34.04 ± 0.21%, and 206.77 + 1.76 μM AAE/100 g honey respectively. Pretreatment with SBH protected WIL2-NS cells from H2O2-induced cell death and DNA damage (p 
  8. Sharif R, Shahar S, Rajab NF, Fenech M
    Nutr Cancer, 2021 Jul 20.
    PMID: 34282666 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2021.1952627
    The incidence of cancer globally is increasing, partly due to lifestyle factors. Despite a better understanding of cancer biology and advancement in cancer management and therapies, current strategies in cancer treatment remain costly and cause socioeconomic burden especially in Asian countries. Hence, instead of putting more efforts in searches for new cancer cures, attention has now shifted to understanding how to mitigate cancer risk by modulating lifestyle factors. It has been established that carcinogenesis is multifactorial, and the important detrimental role of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genomic instability is evident. To date, there is no study linking dietary pattern and genomic stability in cancer risk in the Asian food landscape. Thus, this present review article discusses recent literature on dietary pattern and genomic stability and its relationship with cancer risk in Asia.
  9. Dewi R, Hamid ZA, Rajab NF, Shuib S, Razak SA
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2020 May;39(5):577-595.
    PMID: 31884827 DOI: 10.1177/0960327119895570
    Benzene is a known hematotoxic and leukemogenic agent with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) niche being the potential target. Occupational and environmental exposure to benzene has been linked to the incidences of hematological disorders and malignancies. Previous studies have shown that benzene may act via multiple modes of action targeting HSCs niche, which include induction of chromosomal and micro RNA aberrations, leading to genetic and epigenetic modification of stem cells and probable carcinogenesis. However, understanding the mechanism linking benzene to the HSCs niche dysregulation is challenging due to complexity of its microenvironment. The niche is known to comprise of cell populations accounted for HSCs and their committed progenitors of lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid lineages. Thus, it is fundamental to address novel approaches via lineage-directed strategy to elucidate precise mechanism involved in benzene-induced toxicity targeting HSCs and progenitors of different lineages. Here, we review the key genetic and epigenetic factors that mediate hematotoxicological effects by benzene and its metabolites in targeting HSCs niche. Overall, the use of combined genetic, epigenetic, and lineage-directed strategies targeting the HSCs niche is fundamental to uncover the key mechanisms in benzene-induced hematological disorders and malignancies.
  10. Lau H, Mat Ludin AF, Rajab NF, Shahar S
    Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2017;2017:4218756.
    PMID: 29109736 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4218756
    The increase of ageing population has raised public attention on the concept of successful ageing. Studies have shown that vitamin D, telomere length, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with cognitive function. Therefore, this study aimed to identify neuroprotective factors for cognitive decline in different ageing groups. A total of 300 older adults aged 60 years and above were recruited in this population based cross-sectional study. Participants were categorized into three groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 100), usual ageing (UA) (n = 100), and successful ageing (SA) (n = 100). Dietary vitamin D intake was assessed through Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Out of the 300 participants, only 150 were subjected to fasting blood sample collection. These samples were used for serum vitamin D and plasma BDNF measurements. Whole blood telomere length was measured using RT-PCR method. The results show that the reduction of the risk of MCI was achieved by higher serum vitamin D level (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, p < 0.05), higher plasma BDNF level (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30-0.88,  p < 0.05), and longer telomere (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99,  p < 0.001). In conclusion, participants with higher vitamin D level, higher BDNF level, and longer telomere length were more likely to age successfully.
  11. Ooi TC, Ahmad A, Rajab NF, Sharif R
    Nutrients, 2023 Jul 18;15(14).
    PMID: 37513601 DOI: 10.3390/nu15143184
    Senescence is a normal biological process that is accompanied with a series of deteriorations in physiological function. This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum milk supplementation on metabolic changes and the expression of various biomarkers on inflammation, antioxidant and oxidative damage, nutrient metabolism, and genomic stability among older adults. Older adults (50-69 years old) who participated in the 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial were instructed to consume the IgCo bovine colostrum-enriched skim milk or regular skim milk (placebo) twice daily. Following 12 weeks of intervention, participants in the intervention group had lower expression levels in pro-inflammatory mediators (CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α), with significant (p < 0.05) interaction effects of the group and time observed. However, no significant interaction effect was observed in the vitamin D, telomerase, 8-OHdG, MDA, and SOD activities. UPLC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that 22 metabolites were upregulated and 11 were downregulated in the intervention group compared to the placebo group. Glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with cysteine and methionine metabolism were identified as the potential metabolic pathways that are associated with bovine colostrum milk consumption. In conclusion, consuming bovine colostrum milk may induce metabolic changes and reduce the expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators, thus improving the immune function in older adults.
  12. Chow PW, Abdul Hamid Z, Chan KM, Inayat-Hussain SH, Rajab NF
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2015 Apr 1;284(1):8-15.
    PMID: 25645895 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.01.016
    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sensitive targets for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemogenesis. The impact of benzene exposure on the complex microenvironment of HSCs and HPCs remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the mechanism linking benzene exposure to targeting HSCs and HPCs using phenotypic and clonogenic analyses. Mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were exposed ex vivo to the benzene metabolite, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), for 24h. Expression of cellular surface antigens for HSC (Sca-1), myeloid (Gr-1, CD11b), and lymphoid (CD45, CD3e) populations were confirmed by flow cytometry. The clonogenicity of cells was studied using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay for multilineage (CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM) and single-lineage (CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M) progenitors. 1,4-BQ demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in mouse BM cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased (p < 0.05) following 1,4-BQ exposure. Exposure to 1,4-BQ showed no significant effect on CD3e(+) cells but reduced the total counts of Sca-1(+), CD11b(+), Gr-1(+), and CD45(+) cells at 7 and 12 μM (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CFU assay showed reduced (p < 0.05) clonogenicity in 1,4-BQ-treated cells. 1,4-BQ induced CFU-dependent cytotoxicity by significantly inhibiting colony growth for CFU-E, BFU-E, CFU-G, and CFU-M starting at a low concentration of exposure (5μM); whereas for the CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM, the inhibition of colony growth was remarkable only at 7 and 12μM of 1,4-BQ, respectively. Taken together, 1,4-BQ caused lineage-related cytotoxicity in mouse HPCs, demonstrating greater toxicity in single-lineage progenitors than in those of multi-lineage.
  13. Tengku Ahmad TA, Jaafar F, Jubri Z, Abdul Rahim K, Rajab NF, Makpol S
    PMID: 24655584 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-108
    The interaction between ionizing radiation and substances in cells will induce the production of free radicals. These free radicals inflict damage to important biomolecules such as chromosomes, proteins and lipids which consequently trigger the expression of genes which are involved in protecting the cells or repair the oxidative damages. Honey has been known for its antioxidant properties and was used in medical and cosmetic products. Currently, research on honey is ongoing and diversifying. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Gelam honey as a radioprotector in human diploid fibroblast (HDFs) which were exposed to gamma-rays by determining the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death.
  14. Teng NI, Shahar S, Rajab NF, Manaf ZA, Johari MH, Ngah WZ
    Aging Male, 2013 Dec;16(4):177-83.
    PMID: 24044618 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2013.832191
    Calorie restriction and intermittent fasting are two dietary interventions that can improve aging. Religious fasting also suggested having similar benefit; however, such studies are still scarce. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of fasting calorie restriction (FCR) on metabolic parameters and DNA damage among healthy older adult men.
  15. Naqeebullah, Farina Y, Chan KM, Mun LK, Rajab NF, Ooi TC
    Molecules, 2013 Jul 22;18(7):8696-711.
    PMID: 23881054 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18078696
    Three diorganotin(IV) complexes of the general formula R2Sn[RcC(O)N(RN)O] (Rc = aryl, RN = Alkyl) have been synthesized by refluxing in toluene the corresponding diorganotin(IV) oxides with the free ligand N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid, using a Dean and Stark water separator. The ligand was derived from the reaction of the corresponding p-fluorobenzoyl chloride and N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The isolated free ligand and its respective diorganotin compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H-, 13C-, 119Sn-NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structures of the diorganotin complexes have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The investigations carried out on the diorganotin(IV) complexes of N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid confirmed a 1:2 stoichiometry. The complex formation took place through the O,O-coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and subsequent deprotonated hydroxyl group to the tin atom. The crystal structures of three diorganotin complexes were determined and were found to adopt six coordination geometries at the tin centre with coordination to two ligand moieties.
  16. Shahar S, Shafurah S, Hasan Shaari NS, Rajikan R, Rajab NF, Golkhalkhali B, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(3):605-11.
    PMID: 21627352
    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer.

    DESIGN: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.

    RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.

  17. Chan KM, Rajab NF, Siegel D, Din LB, Ross D, Inayat-Hussain SH
    Toxicol. Sci., 2010 Aug;116(2):533-48.
    PMID: 20498002 DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq151
    Goniothalamin (GN), a styryl-lactone isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, has been demonstrated to possess antirestenostic properties by inducing apoptosis on coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). In this study, the molecular mechanisms of GN-induced CASMCs apoptosis were further elucidated. Apoptosis assessment based on the externalization of phosphatidylserine demonstrated that GN induces CASMCs apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. The GN-induced DNA damage occurred with concomitant elevation of p53 as early as 2 h, demonstrating an upstream signal for apoptosis. However, the p53 elevation in GN-treated CASMCs was independent of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 and Mdm-2 expression. An increase in hydrogen peroxide and reduction in free thiols confirmed the role for oxidative stress in GN treatment. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (z-VAD-FMK) that significantly abrogated GN-induced CASMCs apoptosis suggested the involvement of caspase(s). The role of apical caspase-2, -8, and -9 was then investigated, and sequential activation of caspase-2 and -9 but not caspase-8 leading to downstream caspase-3 cleavage was observed in GN-treated CASMCs. Reduction of ATP level and decrease in oxygen consumption further confirmed the role of mitochondria in GN-induced apoptosis in CASMCs. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c was seen without mitochondrial membrane potential loss and was independent of cardiolipin. These data provide insight into the mechanisms of GN-induced apoptosis, which may have important implications in the development of drug-eluting stents.
  18. Kong KW, Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Tan CP, Rajab NF
    Molecules, 2010 Feb 23;15(2):959-87.
    PMID: 20335956 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15020959
    By-products derived from food processing are attractive source for their valuable bioactive components and color pigments. These by-products are useful for development as functional foods, nutraceuticals, food ingredients, additives, and also as cosmetic products. Lycopene is a bioactive red colored pigment naturally occurring in plants. Industrial by-products obtained from the plants are the good sources of lycopene. Interest in lycopene is increasing due to increasing evidence proving its preventive properties toward numerous diseases. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that lycopene-rich foods are inversely associated to diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and others. This paper also reviews the properties, absorption, transportation, and distribution of lycopene and its by-products in human body. The mechanism of action and interaction of lycopene with other bioactive compounds are also discussed, because these are the crucial features for beneficial role of lycopene. However, information on the effect of food processing on lycopene stability and availability was discussed for better understanding of its characteristics.
  19. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2009 Dec;91(3):786-94.
    PMID: 19051306 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32290
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
  20. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
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