METHOD: Cognitive decline was determined by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde-MDA and superoxide dismutase-SOD) were determined and DNA damage was assayed using Alkaline Comet Assay. Toenail samples were taken and analyzed using ICP-MS to determine trace element levels.
RESULTS: A total of 62.1 % of subjects had cognitive impairment. Subjects with cognitive impairment had significantly higher levels of MDA and DNA damage as compared to the group with normal cognitive function; MDA (2.07 ± 0.05 nmol/L vs 1.85 ± 0.06 nmol/L) (p<0.05) and DNA damage (% Tail Density, 14.52 ± 0.32 vs 10.31 ± 0.42; Tail Moment, 1.79 ± 0.06 vs 1.28 ± 0.06) (p<0.05 for all parameters). However, the level of SOD among subjects with cognitive impairment (6.67 ± 0.33 u.e/min/mg protein) was lower than the level among those with normal cognitive functions (11.36 ± 0.65 u.e/min/mg protein) (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression revealed the predictors for cognitive impairment among the subjects were DNA damage (Adjusted odd ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.59), level of trace elements in toenails namely, lead (OR, 2.471; CI, 1.535-3.980) and copper (OR, 1.275; CI, 1.047-1.552) (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: High levels of lead and copper can lead to increase in oxidative stress levels and are associated with DNA damage that eventually could be associated with cognitive decline.
APPROACH: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of triphenyltin(lV) methylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound 1) and triphenyltin(IV) ethylisopropyldithiocarbamate (compound (2) on chronic myelogenus leukemia cells. The determination of their cytotoxicity (IC50) at different time of exposure and concentration was carried out through the employment of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: The IC50 values obtained for compound 1 and 2 following treatment at 24, 48 and 72 h were 0.660, 0.223, 0.370 microM and 0.677, 0.306, 0.360 microM, respectively. Cell morphological changes such as apoptotic and necrotic features were also been observed.
CONCLUSION: The compounds tested were found to give cytotoxic effect against chronic myelogenus leukemia (K-562) cell at a micromolar dose. Thus, further study on their specific mechanism of actions in the human cells should be carried out to elucidate their potential as an anticancer agent.
Methods: Subjects' food intakes were calculated by using dietary history questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire for polyphenols. The subjects' mental health and cognitive status were measured by general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Rey's auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT).
Results: More than 40% of middle-aged adults were identified as having signs of poor mental health. A total of 67.9% of the subjects had poor cognitive status according to RAVLT immediate recall. Hierarchical binary logistic regression indicated that fat intake was associated with somatic symptoms for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.04; P < 0.05] and women (AOR = 1.06; P < 0.05). Intake of lignan (AOR = 1.071; P < 0.05) was associated with better RAVLT immediate recall among women. Additionally, high cholesterol (AOR = 3.14; P < 0.05) was associated with poor score of RAVLT delayed recall for women.
Conclusions: Early detection of poor mental health and cognitive is crucial to prevent Alzheimer's disease in old age.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer.
DESIGN: A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.
RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p < 0.05). Mean intakes of fruits and vegetables (3.11 ± 1.01 servings/d)(p < 0.05), fruits (1.23 ± 0.59 servings/d) (p<0.05) and vegetables (1.97 ± 0.94 servings/d) were higher in controls than cases (2.53 ± 1.01, 0.91 ∓ 0.69, 1.62 ± 0.82 servings/d). A total of 71% of cases did not met the recommendation of a minimum of three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, as compared to 34% of controls (p < 0.05) (adjusted OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.3-17.8)) (p < 0.05). Estimated lycopene intake among cases (2,339 ∓ 1,312 mcg/d) were lower than controls (3881 ∓ 3120 mcg/d) (p< 0.01). Estimated lycopene intake of less than 2,498 mcg/day (50th percentile) increased risk of prostate cancer by double [Adjusted OR 2.5 (95%CI 0.99-6.31)]. Intake of tomatoes, watermelon, guava, pomelo, papaya, mango, oranges, dragon fruit, carrot, tomato sauce and barbeque sauce were higher in controls compared to cases. Intake of tomato sauce of more than 2.24 g/d (25th percentile), papaya more than 22.7 g/d (50th percentile) and oranges more than 19.1g/h (50th percentile) reduced prostate cancer risk by 7.4 (Adjusted OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.17-46.8)), 2.7 (adjusted OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.03-7.39)) and 2.6 times (adjusted OR = 2.6 (95% CI=1.01-6.67)), respectively (p < 0.05 for all parameters). No oxidative damage was observed among subjects. Past history of not engaging with any physical activities at the age of 45 to 54 years old increased risk of prostate cancer by approximately three folds (Adjusted OR 2.9(95% CI = 0.8-10.8)) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low fat diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.