OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the depth and distances from various points of the orbital rim to the fissures and foramina of the orbital apex between genders in the local population.
METHODOLOGY: Linear measurements were conducted on 60 orbits from 30 patients who had undergone head computed tomography scan. These measurements were done utilizing the multiplanar reconstruction modes on computed tomography images with minimum slice thickness of 1 mm.
RESULTS: Males have statistically significant larger orbits than females with higher mean measurements in all parameters, except for the distance from posterior ethmoidal foramen to the optic canal which was the same. However, there were no significant differences in all parameters between the right and left orbits.
CONCLUSION: This study provides the absolute limit of safe internal orbital dissection in respect to the local population. Despite males having larger orbits than females, it is clinically negligible.
Methods: The sample consisted of 11 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans data, evaluated using the Invivo5 (Anatomage) and Romexis (version 3.8.2.R, Planmeca) software which afford image reconstruction, and airway analysis. The measurements were done twice with one week gap between the two measurements. The measurement obtained was analyzed with t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with confidence intervals (CI) was set at 95%.
Results: From the analysis, the mean reading of volume and minimum area is not significantly different between Invivo5 and Romexis. Excellent intrarater reliability values were found for the both measurement on both software, with ICC values ranging from 0.940 to 0.998.
Discussion: The results suggested that both software can be used in further studies to investigate upper airway, thereby contributing to the diagnosis of upper airway obstructions.
METHODS: 15wt% of zirconia (ZrO2) as well as 30, 35, and 40wt% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were compounded with PA 12, followed by the fabrication of filament feedstocks using a single screw extruder. The fabricated filament feedstocks were used to print the impact specimens. The melt flow rate, tensile properties of fabricated filament feedstocks, and 3D printed impact properties of the specimens were assessed using melt flow indexer, universal testing machine, and Izod pendulum tester, respectively. The microstructure of selected filament feedstocks and broken impact specimens were analysed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLF) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the materials by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: Hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 indicated sufficient flowability for FDM 3D printing. The tensile strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstocks slightly reduced as compared to unfilled PA 12. However, the tensile modulus and impact strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 increased by 8%-31% and 98%-181%, respectively. A significant increase was also detected in the cell viability of the developed composites at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml.
SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstock with improved properties is suitable for an FDM-based 3D printer, which enables the creation of patient-specific craniofacial implant at a lower cost to serve low-income patients.
METHODS: The pre- and post-operative CT images of 55 patients undergoing DC surgery were analyzed. The ICV was measured by segmenting every slice of the CT images, and compared with estimated ICV calculated using the 1-in-10 sampling strategy and processed using the SBI method. An independent t test was conducted to compare the ICV measurements between the two different methods. The calculation using this method was repeated three times for reliability analysis using the intraclass correlations coefficient (ICC). The Bland-Altman plot was used to measure agreement between the methods for both pre- and post-operative ICV measurements.
RESULTS: The mean ICV (±SD) were 1341.1±122.1ml (manual) and 1344.11±122.6ml (SBI) for the preoperative CT data. The mean ICV (±SD) were 1396.4±132.4ml (manual) and 1400.53±132.1ml (SBI) for the post-operative CT data. No significant difference was found in ICV measurements using the manual and the SBI methods (p=.983 for pre-op, and p=.960 for post-op). The intrarater ICC showed a significant correlation; ICC=1.00. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the manual and the SBI method.
CONCLUSION: The shape-based interpolation method with 1-in-10 sampling strategy gave comparable results in estimating ICV compared to manual segmentation. Thus, this method could be used in clinical settings for rapid, reliable and repeatable ICV estimations.
METHOD: Medical image data for five types of defects were selected, segmented, converted and decimated to 3D polygon models on a personal computer. The models were transferred to a computer aided design (CAD) software which aided in designing the prosthesis according to the virtual models. Two templates were designed for each defect, one by an OS (free) system and one by CS. The parameters for analyses were the virtual volume, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff's distance (HD) and were executed by the OS point cloud comparison tool.
RESULT: There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between CS and OS when comparing the volume of the template outputs. While HD was within 0.05-4.33 mm, evaluation of the percentage similarity and spatial overlap following the DSC showed an average similarity of 67.7% between the two groups. The highest similarity was with orbito-facial prostheses (88.5%) and the lowest with facial plate prosthetics (28.7%).
CONCLUSION: Although CS and OS pipelines are capable of producing templates which are aesthetically and volumetrically similar, there are slight comparative discrepancies in the landmark position and spatial overlap. This is dependent on the software, associated commands and experienced decision-making. CAD-based templates can be planned on current personal computers following appropriate decimation.