Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Anderson PJ, Yong R, Surman TL, Rajion ZA, Ranjitkar S
    Aust Dent J, 2014 Jun;59 Suppl 1:174-85.
    PMID: 24611727 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12154
    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research.
  2. Hussein KW, Rajion ZA, Hassan R, Noor SN
    Aust Orthod J, 2009 Nov;25(2):163-8.
    PMID: 20043553
    To compare the mesio-distal tooth sizes and dental arch dimensions in Malay boys and girls with Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions.
  3. Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Int J Orthod Milwaukee, 2006;17(4):17-20.
    PMID: 17256439
    Facial soft tissues are a major determinant of treatment choice. When Class I and Class II malocclusions were compared using finite-element analysis, morphologic differences were localized and quantified. This study highlights the importance of determining the timing, magnitude and direction offacial growth prior to treatment to achieve stable results.
  4. Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin R, Singh GD
    Aust Orthod J, 2006 Nov;22(2):99-103.
    PMID: 17203572
    To quantify and localise differences in Class I and Class II dental arches in Malay schoolchildren.
  5. Singh J, Rahman RA, Rajion ZA, Abdullah J, Mohamad I
    J Craniofac Surg, 2017 Jan;28(1):e64-e70.
    PMID: 27922969 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003218
    INTRODUCTION: The human orbit is a complex anatomic region, which plays predominant role in the evaluation of craniofacial complex. A thorough understanding of the relationship of the distance from orbital rim to the important vital structures of the orbital apex is required for the surgeon to perform safe and effective surgery.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the depth and distances from various points of the orbital rim to the fissures and foramina of the orbital apex between genders in the local population.

    METHODOLOGY: Linear measurements were conducted on 60 orbits from 30 patients who had undergone head computed tomography scan. These measurements were done utilizing the multiplanar reconstruction modes on computed tomography images with minimum slice thickness of 1 mm.

    RESULTS: Males have statistically significant larger orbits than females with higher mean measurements in all parameters, except for the distance from posterior ethmoidal foramen to the optic canal which was the same. However, there were no significant differences in all parameters between the right and left orbits.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides the absolute limit of safe internal orbital dissection in respect to the local population. Despite males having larger orbits than females, it is clinically negligible.

  6. Genisa M, Shuib S, Rajion ZA, Arief EM, Hermana M
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2018 Oct 11.
    PMID: 30309283 DOI: 10.1177/0954411918806333
    The aim of this study is to investigate the estimation of density from the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography data in dental imaging, especially for dental implant application. A jaw phantom with various known densities of anatomical parts (e.g. soft tissue, cortical bone, trabecular bone, tooth enamel, tooth dentin, sinus cavity, spinal cord and spinal disc) has been used to test the accuracy of the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography in estimating the mechanical density (true density). The Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography data was evaluated via the MIMICS software using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods, and the results showed correlation with the true density of the object. In addition, the results revealed that the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography and bone density had a logarithmic relation, rather than a linear one. To this end, the correlation coefficient of logarithmic correlation (R2 = 0.95) is higher than the linear one (R2 = 0.77).
  7. Zheng P, Belaton B, Liao IY, Rajion ZA
    PLoS One, 2017;12(11):e0187558.
    PMID: 29121077 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187558
    Landmarks, also known as feature points, are one of the important geometry primitives that describe the predominant characteristics of a surface. In this study we proposed a self-contained framework to generate landmarks on surfaces extracted from volumetric data. The framework is designed to be a three-fold pipeline structure. The pipeline comprises three phases which are surface construction, crest line extraction and landmark identification. With input as a volumetric data and output as landmarks, the pipeline takes in 3D raw data and produces a 0D geometry feature. In each phase we investigate existing methods, extend and tailor the methods to fit the pipeline design. The pipeline is designed to be functional as it is modularised to have a dedicated function in each phase. We extended the implicit surface polygonizer for surface construction in first phase, developed an alternative way to compute the gradient of maximal curvature for crest line extraction in second phase and finally we combine curvature information and K-means clustering method to identify the landmarks in the third phase. The implementations are firstly carried on a controlled environment, i.e. synthetic data, for proof of concept. Then the method is tested on a small scale data set and subsequently on huge data set. Issues and justifications are addressed accordingly for each phase.
  8. Kamaruddin N, Daud F, Yusof A, Aziz ME, Rajion ZA
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6319.
    PMID: 30697493 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6319
    Background: Visualization and calculation of the airway dimensions are important because an increase of airway resistance may lead to life-threatening emergencies. The visualization and calculation of the airway are possible using radiography technique with their advance software. The aim of this study was to compare and to test the reliability of the measurement of the upper airway volume and minimum area using airway analysis function in two software.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 11 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans data, evaluated using the Invivo5 (Anatomage) and Romexis (version 3.8.2.R, Planmeca) software which afford image reconstruction, and airway analysis. The measurements were done twice with one week gap between the two measurements. The measurement obtained was analyzed with t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with confidence intervals (CI) was set at 95%.

    Results: From the analysis, the mean reading of volume and minimum area is not significantly different between Invivo5 and Romexis. Excellent intrarater reliability values were found for the both measurement on both software, with ICC values ranging from 0.940 to 0.998.

    Discussion: The results suggested that both software can be used in further studies to investigate upper airway, thereby contributing to the diagnosis of upper airway obstructions.

  9. Martin AG, Abdullah JY, Jaafar A, Ghani AR, Rajion ZA, Abdullah JM
    J Clin Neurosci, 2015 Apr;22(4):735-9.
    PMID: 25564264 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.09.021
    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a surgical option in managing uncontrolled raised intracranial pressure refractory to medical therapy. The authors evaluate the addition of zygomatic arch (ZA) resection with standard DC and analyze the resulting increase in brain volume using three-dimensional volumetric CT scans. Measurements of brain expansion dimension morphometrics from CT images were also analyzed. Eighteen patients were selected and underwent DC with ZA resection. The pre- and post-operative CT images were analyzed for volume and dimensional changes. CT images of 29 patients previously operated on at the same center were retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and were similarly studied. The findings obtained from the two groups were compared and analyzed. Analysis from three-dimensional CT volumetric techniques revealed an significant increase of 27.97ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.98-180.36; p=0.048) when compared with standard DC. Brain expansion analysis of maximum hemicraniectomy diameter revealed a mean difference of 0.82cm (95% CI: 0.25-1.38; p=0.006). Analysis of the ratio of maximum hemicraniectomy diameter to maximum anteroposterior diameter gave a mean difference of 0.04 (95% CI: 0.05-0.07; p=0.026). The addition of ZA resection to standard DC may prove valuable in terms of absolute brain volume gain. This technique is comparable to other maneuvers used to provide maximum brain expansion in the immediate post-operative period.
  10. Al-Khatib AR, Rajion ZA, Masudi SM, Hassan R, Townsend GC
    Homo, 2013 Aug;64(4):296-311.
    PMID: 23755965 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchb.2013.04.002
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of selected facial measurements with mesio-distal crown widths and dental arch dimensions in individuals with normal occlusions. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 276 subjects with Angle's Class I normal occlusions. Three-dimensional images of the face and dental casts were captured and analyzed using stereophotogrammetric systems. Significant correlations were found between the sagittal facial variables and both upper and lower dental arch dimensions and to lesser degree with the horizontal and vertical variables. The values of correlation coefficients calculated between facial and dental crown measurements ranged from .01 to .50 for upper teeth and .01 to .49 for lower teeth. The values of correlation coefficients between facial and upper dental arch dimensions ranged from .01 to .55 and those between facial and lower dental arch dimensions ranged from .01 to .60. A principal components analysis showed that the sagittal dimensions, face height, nose, labial fissure, binocular widths were positively associated with dental arch dimensions and mesio-distal crown diameters in males. On the other hand, only the sagittal variables were associated with dental dimensions in females. The results of this study confirm that positive associations exist between facial and dental arch dimensions. These relationships should be taken into consideration when attempts are made to modify dental arch size as part of orthodontic treatment. Moreover, these relationships are also relevant to prosthodontists involved with selecting tooth sizes that display optimal functional balance with the craniofacial structures.
  11. Al-Khatib AR, Rajion ZA, Masudi SM, Hassan R, Townsend GC
    Aust Orthod J, 2012 May;28(1):22-9.
    PMID: 22866590
    The development of three-dimensional computer imaging has many applications in dentistry, including the analysis of dental casts.
  12. Al-Khatib AR, Rajion ZA, Masudi SM, Hassan R, Anderson PJ, Townsend GC
    Orthod Craniofac Res, 2011 Nov;14(4):243-53.
    PMID: 22008304 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2011.01529.x
    To investigate tooth size and dental arch dimensions in Malays using a stereophotogrammetric system.
  13. Abdullah AM, Rahim TNAT, Hamad WNFW, Mohamad D, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Dent Mater, 2018 11;34(11):e309-e316.
    PMID: 30268678 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.006
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical and biological properties of newly developed hybrid ceramics filled and unfilled polyamide 12 (PA 12) for craniofacial reconstruction via a fused deposition modelling (FDM) framework.

    METHODS: 15wt% of zirconia (ZrO2) as well as 30, 35, and 40wt% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were compounded with PA 12, followed by the fabrication of filament feedstocks using a single screw extruder. The fabricated filament feedstocks were used to print the impact specimens. The melt flow rate, tensile properties of fabricated filament feedstocks, and 3D printed impact properties of the specimens were assessed using melt flow indexer, universal testing machine, and Izod pendulum tester, respectively. The microstructure of selected filament feedstocks and broken impact specimens were analysed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLF) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the materials by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) (MTT) assay.

    RESULTS: Hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 indicated sufficient flowability for FDM 3D printing. The tensile strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstocks slightly reduced as compared to unfilled PA 12. However, the tensile modulus and impact strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 increased by 8%-31% and 98%-181%, respectively. A significant increase was also detected in the cell viability of the developed composites at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstock with improved properties is suitable for an FDM-based 3D printer, which enables the creation of patient-specific craniofacial implant at a lower cost to serve low-income patients.

  14. Abdullah JY, Saidin M, Rajion ZA, Hadi H, Mohamad N, Moraes C, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Feb;28(1):1-8.
    PMID: 33679214 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.1.1
    Perak Man, named after the state where the skeleton was found, was the most complete skeleton found in Southeast Asia. The funerary artefacts indicate that Perak Man was highly respected, as he was buried at the centre of the highest cave in Lenggong, and he was the only person buried there. A copy of the original skull was made using computed tomography (CT) and 3D printing. Based on the internal structure of the reconstructed skull, the estimated intracranial volume (ICV) is 1,204.91 mL. The hypothetical face of Perak Man was reconstructed according to established forensic methods. Based on his presumed status, Perak Man was likely a respected person in the group and, perhaps, a shaman and the most knowledgeable person in the group regarding survival, hunting, gathering and other aspects of Palaeolithic daily life.
  15. Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Abdullah JY, Rajion ZA, Alam MK
    J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2020 Jun;121(3):268-277.
    PMID: 31610244 DOI: 10.1016/j.jormas.2019.10.003
    A systematic review was conducted in early 2019 to evaluate the articles published that dealt with digital workflow, CAD, rapid prototyping and digital image processing in the rehabilitation by maxillofacial prosthetics. The objective of the review was to primarily identify the recorded cases of orofacial rehabilitation made by maxillofacial prosthetics using computer assisted 3D printing. Secondary objectives were to analyze the methods of data acquisition recorded with challenges and limitations documented with various software in the workflow. Articles were searched from Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar based on the predetermined eligibility criteria. Thirty-nine selected papers from 1992 to 2019 were then read and categorized according to type of prosthesis described in the papers. For nasal prostheses, Common Methods of data acquisition mentioned were computed tomography, photogrammetry and laser scanners. After image processing, computer aided design (CAD) was used to design and merge the prosthesis to the peripheral healthy tissue. Designing and printing the mold was more preferred. Moisture and muscle movement affected the overall fit especially for prostheses directly designed and printed. For auricular prostheses, laser scanning was most preferred. For unilateral defects, CAD was used to mirror the healthy tissue over to the defect side. Authors emphasized on the need of digital library for prostheses selection, especially for bilateral defects. Printing the mold and conventionally creating the prosthesis was most preferred due to issues of proper fit and color matching. Orbital prostheses follow a similar workflow as auricular prosthesis. 3D photogrammetry and laser scans were more preferred and directly printing the prosthesis was favored in various instance. However, ocular prostheses fabrication was recorded to be a challenge due to difficulties in appropriate volume reconstruction and inability to mirror healthy globe. Only successful cases of digitally designed and printed iris were noted.
  16. Abdullah AM, Mohamad D, Rahim TNAT, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:719-725.
    PMID: 30889745 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.007
    This study reports the influence of ZrO2/β-TCP hybridization on the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of polyamide 12 composites to be suited for bone replacement. Amount of 15 wt% of nano-ZrO2 along with 5,10,15,20 and 25 wt% of micro-β-TCP was compounded with polyamide 12 via a twin-screw extruder. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled polyamide 12 exhibited higher thermal, mechanical and physical properties in comparison to unfilled polyamide 12 at certain filler loading; which is attributed to the homogenous dispersion of ZrO2/β-TCP fillers particle in polyamide 12 matrix. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 demonstrated an increment of tensile strength by up to 1%, tensile modulus of 38%, flexural strength of 15%, flexural modulus of 45%, and surface roughness value of 93%, as compared to unfilled PA 12. With enhanced thermal, mechanical and physical properties, the newly developed hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 could be potentially utilized for bone replacement.
  17. Al-Khatib AR, Rajion ZA, Masudi SM, Hassan R, Anderson PJ, Townsend GC
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2012 Jul;49(4):463-71.
    PMID: 22236217 DOI: 10.1597/11-151
    It is clear that population-specific norms should be used when planning plastic and reconstructive surgery for selected patients. In this study, we aimed to generate nasal and labial reference values by applying a stereophotogrammetric technique. A further aim was to investigate the effect of sexual dimorphism, age-related changes, and the interrelation between nasal and labial morphology.
  18. Abdullah JY, Rajion ZA, Martin AG, Jaafar A, Ghani ARI, Abdullah JM
    Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed), 2019 02 16;30(3):115-123.
    PMID: 30782505 DOI: 10.1016/j.neucir.2018.12.004
    INTRODUCTION: Intracranial volume (ICV) is an important tool in the management of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) surgery. The aim of this study was to validate ICV measurement applying the shape-based interpolation (SBI) method using open source software on computed tomography (CT) images.

    METHODS: The pre- and post-operative CT images of 55 patients undergoing DC surgery were analyzed. The ICV was measured by segmenting every slice of the CT images, and compared with estimated ICV calculated using the 1-in-10 sampling strategy and processed using the SBI method. An independent t test was conducted to compare the ICV measurements between the two different methods. The calculation using this method was repeated three times for reliability analysis using the intraclass correlations coefficient (ICC). The Bland-Altman plot was used to measure agreement between the methods for both pre- and post-operative ICV measurements.

    RESULTS: The mean ICV (±SD) were 1341.1±122.1ml (manual) and 1344.11±122.6ml (SBI) for the preoperative CT data. The mean ICV (±SD) were 1396.4±132.4ml (manual) and 1400.53±132.1ml (SBI) for the post-operative CT data. No significant difference was found in ICV measurements using the manual and the SBI methods (p=.983 for pre-op, and p=.960 for post-op). The intrarater ICC showed a significant correlation; ICC=1.00. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the manual and the SBI method.

    CONCLUSION: The shape-based interpolation method with 1-in-10 sampling strategy gave comparable results in estimating ICV compared to manual segmentation. Thus, this method could be used in clinical settings for rapid, reliable and repeatable ICV estimations.

  19. Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Abdullah JY, Asif JA, Rajion ZA, Alam MK
    Comput Biol Med, 2020 03;118:103646.
    PMID: 32174323 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103646
    OBJECTIVE: To design and compare the outcome of commercial (CS) and open source (OS) software-based 3D prosthetic templates for rehabilitation of maxillofacial defects using a low powered personal computer setup.

    METHOD: Medical image data for five types of defects were selected, segmented, converted and decimated to 3D polygon models on a personal computer. The models were transferred to a computer aided design (CAD) software which aided in designing the prosthesis according to the virtual models. Two templates were designed for each defect, one by an OS (free) system and one by CS. The parameters for analyses were the virtual volume, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Hausdorff's distance (HD) and were executed by the OS point cloud comparison tool.

    RESULT: There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between CS and OS when comparing the volume of the template outputs. While HD was within 0.05-4.33 mm, evaluation of the percentage similarity and spatial overlap following the DSC showed an average similarity of 67.7% between the two groups. The highest similarity was with orbito-facial prostheses (88.5%) and the lowest with facial plate prosthetics (28.7%).

    CONCLUSION: Although CS and OS pipelines are capable of producing templates which are aesthetically and volumetrically similar, there are slight comparative discrepancies in the landmark position and spatial overlap. This is dependent on the software, associated commands and experienced decision-making. CAD-based templates can be planned on current personal computers following appropriate decimation.

  20. Rajion ZA, Al-Khatib AR, Netherway DJ, Townsend GC, Anderson PJ, McLean NR, et al.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 Feb;76(2):227-34.
    PMID: 22136741 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.11.008
    The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional computed tomography data and computer imaging technology to assess the skeletal components of the naso-pharyngeal area in patients with cleft lip and palate and to quantify anatomical variations.
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