Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

  1. Ramasamy K, Saniasiaya J
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2021 Jul;33(117):249-251.
    PMID: 34395326 DOI: 10.22038/ijorl.2021.51303.2752
    Introduction: Clicking larynx syndrome is a rare condition that may be intriguing to the attending clinician. Patients typically present with clicking sensations in the neck, often obvious during head movement or swallowing. Due to the scarce presentation of such cases, clicking larynx syndrome harbors a high propensity to be an overlooked diagnosis, resulting in a clinical stalemate.

    Case Report: Herein, we present a case of clicking larynx in a young girl followed by an overview of the latest literature on the aetiology and treatment options. This case aims to reinforce the presence of this entity further and subsequently increase its awareness among clinicians.

    Conclusion: Expeditious diagnosis is imperative not just for the eventual treatment but also for timely relief to the anxious patients who would have been perplexed by the strange clicking in the throat.

  2. Ramasamy K, Kanapaty Y, Abdul Gani N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):74-76.
    PMID: 32175046
    Oral squamous papillomas are benign neoplasms of the oral cavity that occur commonly on the palate. Albeit benign and often asymptomatic, they may still cause concern due to their appearance, which may mimic other malignant oral pathologies. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually implicated in papilloma pathogenesis. We present a rare case of symptomatic oral squamous papilloma arising from the uvula and causing tongue and throat irritation. This benign lesion was excised with electrocautery.
  3. Ramasamy K, Saniasiaya J, Abdul Gani N
    Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, 2021 May;138(3):213-214.
    PMID: 33032966 DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2020.05.018
  4. Appukutty M, Ramasamy K, Rajan S, Vellasamy S, Ramasamy R, Radhakrishnan AK
    Benef Microbes, 2015;6(4):491-6.
    PMID: 25691103 DOI: 10.3920/BM2014.0129
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each (control, exercise alone, LAB12 and LAB12 + exercise). Mice treated with the potential probiotic LAB12 were orally gavaged for 42 days. At autopsy, blood and spleen from the animals were collected. The splenocytes were cultured in the presence of a mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The amount of TNF-α produced by the Con A-stimulated splenocytes was quantified using ELISA, while their proliferation was determined using the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation method. This study shows that LAB12-supplemented and exercise-induced mice showed marked increase (P<0.05) in cell proliferation compared to the control animals. TNF-α production was suppressed (P<0.05) in the LAB12 group compared to the untreated mice. These results demonstrate that supplementation with LAB12 has immunomodulatory effects, under conditions of moderate physical exercise, which may have implications for human athletes. Further investigation in human trials is warranted to confirm and extrapolate these findings.
  5. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    Food Funct, 2013 Apr 25;4(4):557-67.
    PMID: 23360913 DOI: 10.1039/c3fo30356j
    The fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii are often added to various dishes in Asian countries due to the delicious taste and flavour that they impart. In the present study, the effect of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (MKA) with respect to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using different experimental animal models. Oral supplementation of MKA at 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) body weight successfully and dose-dependently reduced the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan, histamine and serotonin as well as formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, the extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o.) attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and late phase of pain response induced by a subplantar injection of formalin in mice. MKA at higher doses (20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) reduced the early phase response induced by formalin as well as reaction time on hot plate models. Interestingly, there was no ulcer score with the ulcerogenic effect of MKA. Moreover, all the doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) showed promising anti-ulcerogenic activity with protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by ethanol plus hydrochloric acid and aspirin models in a dose dependent manner.
  6. Ramasamy K, Saniasiaya J, Abdul Gani N
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2021 May;130(5):513-519.
    PMID: 33025798 DOI: 10.1177/0003489420963165
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction among patients with COVID-19 infection and the recovery rate.

    METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years) tested positive for COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and admitted in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban, Malaysia, were recruited in this study. Patients completed a questionnaire via telephone interview comprising the following details: age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, general and otorhinolaryngological symptoms, onset and duration of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Patients with persistent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction at the time of the initial interview were followed-up every 3 to 5 days till resolution.

    RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were included in our study. The mean age of patients was 43.0 ± 17.7 (range: 18-86). Fever (44.1%) and cough (39.3%) were the most prevalent general symptoms. Thirty-one patients (21.4%) reported olfactory dysfunction and 34 (23.4%) reported dysgeusia. There was a significant association between both olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (P 

  7. Lim FT, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Benef Microbes, 2017 Feb 07;8(1):97-109.
    PMID: 27903090 DOI: 10.3920/BM2016.0048
    There is growing interest in the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for prevention of hypercholesterolaemia. This study assessed the cholesterol lowering ability of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 in growth media. Both LAB yielded >98% (39.2 μg/ml) cholesterol lowering in growth media. Nile Red staining indicated direct assimilation of cholesterol by the LAB. The LAB were then explored for their prophylactic (pre-treatment of HT29 cells with LAB prior to cholesterol exposure) and biotherapeutic (treatment of HT29 cells with LAB after exposure to cholesterol) use against short and prolonged exposure of HT29 cells to cholesterol, respectively. For HT29 cells pre-treated with LAB, cholesterol lowering was accompanied by down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette family transporter-type A1 (ABCA1), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1). HT29 cells treated with LAB after prolonged exposure to cholesterol source, on the other hand, was associated with up-regulation of ABCA1, restoration of CD36 to basal level and down-regulation of Neimann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1). The present findings implied the potential use of LAB4 and LAB12 as part of the strategies in prevention and management of hypercholesterolaemia.
  8. Lim FT, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Food Funct, 2017 Aug 01;8(8):2817-2828.
    PMID: 28725889 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo00764g
    This study assessed the cholesterol lowering effect of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 using adult zebrafish. Animals were fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) with/without LAB for seven weeks. Serum and liver cholesterol was quantified using colorimetric and dye staining methods. Expressions of npc1l1 and abca1 in the liver and intestine and appa in the brain were quantified using RT-PCR. Serum and liver cholesterol was significantly lowered in LAB4- and LAB12-fed zebrafish (≤64% and ≤71%, respectively), with reduced liver cholesterol deposition. The cholesterol lowering effect was accompanied by down-regulation of npc1l1 in intestines (≤28.7%), up-regulation of abca1 in the liver (≥30.5%) and down-regulation of appa in the brain (≤24.5%). A moderately strong positive Pearson correlation (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) was found between appa and serum cholesterol. LAB-fed zebrafish exhibited improved spatial learning and memory. LAB4 and LAB12 can be potentially used in preventing hypercholesterolaemia and Alzheimer's diseases.
  9. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2019 06;11(2):447-459.
    PMID: 30003409 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-018-9442-7
    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic properties are useful options for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against gastrointestinal diseases. The safety of probiotics should, however, be verified before incorporation into food or drinks. The present study had encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 within microcapsules that could withstand extremely high temperature (up to 100 °C) during pelletisation. The microencapsulated LAB12 were then tested for their acute (single dosing) and sub-chronic (a 90-day feeding) toxicity. For acute toxicity study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were being administered with a single dose of freeze-dried microencapsulated LAB12 at 11 log CFU/kg BW through oral gavage. No clear treatment-related effects were observed after 14 days. For sub-chronic toxicity study, rodents were randomly divided into four groups (6 rats/sex/group) and treated with 0, 8, 9 and 10 log CFU/kg BW of microencapsulated LAB12 in pellet form. No mortality or treatment-related findings were observed in terms of clinical body weight, water intake, or food consumption. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed in blood and tissue samples. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for microencapsulated LAB12 was 2.5 × 1010 CFU/kg BW for both genders. These results imply that LAB12 are likely non-pathogenic and non-toxic.
  10. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    PMID: 36508139 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-022-10020-y
    The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with gut dysbiosis that is attributed to unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits. Consumption of microencapsulated probiotics may potentially restore the gut microbiota in favour of prevention against CRC. This study determined the fate of microencapsulated Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (formerly known as Lactobacillus plantarum) LAB12 in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and assessed the chemopreventive effect of microencapsulated L. plantarum LAB12 in vivo. The targeted release of L. plantarum LAB12 from Alg-based microcapsules at the stomach, ileum, caecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined by confocal microscopy and qPCR. Microcapsules loaded with L. plantarum LAB12 remained intact in the stomach. Free L. plantarum LAB12 were present in abundance (> 7 log CFU) only in the intestines. Subsequently, the chemopreventive properties of microencapsulated L. plantarum LAB12 were validated against NU/NU nude mice bearing orthotopic transplanted CT-26 CRC (12 female mice; 4-6 weeks old; 20-22 g; n = 6/group). Orthotopic mice pre-supplemented with microencapsulated L. plantarum LAB12 (10 log CFU kg-1 BW for 11 weeks) were presented with significantly (p 
  11. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Mishra RK, Ramasamy K
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2015 Jan;72:1419-28.
    PMID: 25450046 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.054
    The vulnerability of probiotics at low pH and high temperature has limited their optimal use as nutraceuticals. This study addressed these issues by adopting a physicochemical driven approach of incorporating Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 into chitosan (Ch) coated alginate-xanthan gum (Alg-XG) beads. Characterisation of Alg-XG-Ch, which elicited little effect on bead size and polydispersity, demonstrated good miscibility with improved bead surface smoothness and L. plantarum LAB12 entrapment when compared to Alg, Alg-Ch and Alg-XG. Sequential incubation of Alg-XG-Ch in simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid yielded high survival rate of L. plantarum LAB12 (95%) at pH 1.8 which in turn facilitated sufficient release of probiotics (>7 log CFU/g) at pH 6.8 in both time- and pH-dependent manner. Whilst minimising viability loss at 75 and 90 °C, Alg-XG-Ch improved storage durability of L. plantarum LAB12 at 4 °C. The present results implied the possible use of L. plantarum LAB12 incorporated in Alg-XG-Ch as new functional food ingredient with health claims.
  12. Ahmad A, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB, Mani V
    Pharm Biol, 2015 May;53(5):758-66.
    PMID: 25756802 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.942791
    Soybean and its fermented products are the most common source of isoflavones in human food.
  13. Prakash A, Kalra J, Mani V, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2015 Jan;15(1):53-71.
    PMID: 25495260 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2015.988709
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common CNS disorder occurring worldwide. There is neither proven effective prevention for AD nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop safer and more efficacious drugs to help combat the tremendous increase in disease progression. The present review is an attempt at discussing the treatment strategies and drugs under clinical trials governing the modulation of neurotransmitter. Therefore, looking at neurotransmitter abnormalities, there is an urge for developing the pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting those abnormalities and dysfunctioning. In addition, this review also discusses the drugs that are in Phase III trials for the treatment of AD. Despite advances in treatment strategies aimed at correcting neurotransmitter abnormalities, there exists a need for the development of drug therapies focusing on the attempts to remove the pathogenomic protein deposits, thus combating the disease progression.
  14. Mishra RK, Ramasamy K, Ahmad NA, Eshak Z, Majeed AB
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2014 Apr;25(4):999-1012.
    PMID: 24398912 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-013-5132-x
    Stimuli responsive hydrogels have shown enormous potential as a carrier for targeted drug delivery. In this study we have developed novel pH responsive hydrogels for the delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in order to alleviate its antitumor activity while reducing its toxicity. We used 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) trimetylammonium chloride a positively charged monomer and methacrylic acid for fabricating the pH responsive hydrogels. The released 5-FU from all except hydrogel (GEL-5) remained biologically active against human colon cancer cell lines [HT29 (IC50 = 110-190 μg ml(-1)) and HCT116 (IC50 = 210-390 μg ml(-1))] but not human skin fibroblast cells [BJ (CRL2522); IC50 ≥ 1000 μg ml(-1)]. This implies that the copolymer hydrogels (1-4) were able to release 5-FU effectively to colon cancer cells but not normal human skin fibroblast cells. This is probably due to the shorter doubling time that results in reduced pH in colon cancer cells when compared to fibroblast cells. These pH sensitive hydrogels showed well defined cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells through series of events such as chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. No cell killing was observed in the case of blank hydrogels. The results showed the potential of these stimuli responsive polymer hydrogels as a carrier for colon cancer delivery.
  15. Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Jan 30;94(2):341-8.
    PMID: 24037967 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6365
    In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
  16. Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Wong MC, Karuthan C, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Jan 15;90(1):65-9.
    PMID: 20355013 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3780
    Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
  17. Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Jan 15;91(1):186-92.
    PMID: 20848667 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4171
    Coriandrum sativum L., commonly known as coriander and belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional value. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. In this study, CSL (5, 10 and 15% w/w of diet) was fed orally with a specially prepared diet for 45 days consecutively to experimental animals. Elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam, scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models.
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