Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Ramasamy K, Kanapaty Y, Abdul Gani N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):74-76.
    PMID: 32175046
    Oral squamous papillomas are benign neoplasms of the oral cavity that occur commonly on the palate. Albeit benign and often asymptomatic, they may still cause concern due to their appearance, which may mimic other malignant oral pathologies. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually implicated in papilloma pathogenesis. We present a rare case of symptomatic oral squamous papilloma arising from the uvula and causing tongue and throat irritation. This benign lesion was excised with electrocautery.
  2. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    Food Funct, 2013 Apr 25;4(4):557-67.
    PMID: 23360913 DOI: 10.1039/c3fo30356j
    The fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii are often added to various dishes in Asian countries due to the delicious taste and flavour that they impart. In the present study, the effect of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (MKA) with respect to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using different experimental animal models. Oral supplementation of MKA at 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) body weight successfully and dose-dependently reduced the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan, histamine and serotonin as well as formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, the extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o.) attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and late phase of pain response induced by a subplantar injection of formalin in mice. MKA at higher doses (20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) reduced the early phase response induced by formalin as well as reaction time on hot plate models. Interestingly, there was no ulcer score with the ulcerogenic effect of MKA. Moreover, all the doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) showed promising anti-ulcerogenic activity with protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by ethanol plus hydrochloric acid and aspirin models in a dose dependent manner.
  3. Appukutty M, Ramasamy K, Rajan S, Vellasamy S, Ramasamy R, Radhakrishnan AK
    Benef Microbes, 2015;6(4):491-6.
    PMID: 25691103 DOI: 10.3920/BM2014.0129
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each (control, exercise alone, LAB12 and LAB12 + exercise). Mice treated with the potential probiotic LAB12 were orally gavaged for 42 days. At autopsy, blood and spleen from the animals were collected. The splenocytes were cultured in the presence of a mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The amount of TNF-α produced by the Con A-stimulated splenocytes was quantified using ELISA, while their proliferation was determined using the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation method. This study shows that LAB12-supplemented and exercise-induced mice showed marked increase (P<0.05) in cell proliferation compared to the control animals. TNF-α production was suppressed (P<0.05) in the LAB12 group compared to the untreated mice. These results demonstrate that supplementation with LAB12 has immunomodulatory effects, under conditions of moderate physical exercise, which may have implications for human athletes. Further investigation in human trials is warranted to confirm and extrapolate these findings.
  4. Lim FT, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Food Funct, 2017 Aug 01;8(8):2817-2828.
    PMID: 28725889 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo00764g
    This study assessed the cholesterol lowering effect of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 using adult zebrafish. Animals were fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) with/without LAB for seven weeks. Serum and liver cholesterol was quantified using colorimetric and dye staining methods. Expressions of npc1l1 and abca1 in the liver and intestine and appa in the brain were quantified using RT-PCR. Serum and liver cholesterol was significantly lowered in LAB4- and LAB12-fed zebrafish (≤64% and ≤71%, respectively), with reduced liver cholesterol deposition. The cholesterol lowering effect was accompanied by down-regulation of npc1l1 in intestines (≤28.7%), up-regulation of abca1 in the liver (≥30.5%) and down-regulation of appa in the brain (≤24.5%). A moderately strong positive Pearson correlation (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) was found between appa and serum cholesterol. LAB-fed zebrafish exhibited improved spatial learning and memory. LAB4 and LAB12 can be potentially used in preventing hypercholesterolaemia and Alzheimer's diseases.
  5. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2019 06;11(2):447-459.
    PMID: 30003409 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-018-9442-7
    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic properties are useful options for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against gastrointestinal diseases. The safety of probiotics should, however, be verified before incorporation into food or drinks. The present study had encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 within microcapsules that could withstand extremely high temperature (up to 100 °C) during pelletisation. The microencapsulated LAB12 were then tested for their acute (single dosing) and sub-chronic (a 90-day feeding) toxicity. For acute toxicity study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were being administered with a single dose of freeze-dried microencapsulated LAB12 at 11 log CFU/kg BW through oral gavage. No clear treatment-related effects were observed after 14 days. For sub-chronic toxicity study, rodents were randomly divided into four groups (6 rats/sex/group) and treated with 0, 8, 9 and 10 log CFU/kg BW of microencapsulated LAB12 in pellet form. No mortality or treatment-related findings were observed in terms of clinical body weight, water intake, or food consumption. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed in blood and tissue samples. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for microencapsulated LAB12 was 2.5 × 1010 CFU/kg BW for both genders. These results imply that LAB12 are likely non-pathogenic and non-toxic.
  6. Lim FT, Lim SM, Ramasamy K
    Benef Microbes, 2017 Feb 07;8(1):97-109.
    PMID: 27903090 DOI: 10.3920/BM2016.0048
    There is growing interest in the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for prevention of hypercholesterolaemia. This study assessed the cholesterol lowering ability of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 in growth media. Both LAB yielded >98% (39.2 μg/ml) cholesterol lowering in growth media. Nile Red staining indicated direct assimilation of cholesterol by the LAB. The LAB were then explored for their prophylactic (pre-treatment of HT29 cells with LAB prior to cholesterol exposure) and biotherapeutic (treatment of HT29 cells with LAB after exposure to cholesterol) use against short and prolonged exposure of HT29 cells to cholesterol, respectively. For HT29 cells pre-treated with LAB, cholesterol lowering was accompanied by down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette family transporter-type A1 (ABCA1), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1). HT29 cells treated with LAB after prolonged exposure to cholesterol source, on the other hand, was associated with up-regulation of ABCA1, restoration of CD36 to basal level and down-regulation of Neimann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1). The present findings implied the potential use of LAB4 and LAB12 as part of the strategies in prevention and management of hypercholesterolaemia.
  7. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Mishra RK, Ramasamy K
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2015 Jan;72:1419-28.
    PMID: 25450046 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.054
    The vulnerability of probiotics at low pH and high temperature has limited their optimal use as nutraceuticals. This study addressed these issues by adopting a physicochemical driven approach of incorporating Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 into chitosan (Ch) coated alginate-xanthan gum (Alg-XG) beads. Characterisation of Alg-XG-Ch, which elicited little effect on bead size and polydispersity, demonstrated good miscibility with improved bead surface smoothness and L. plantarum LAB12 entrapment when compared to Alg, Alg-Ch and Alg-XG. Sequential incubation of Alg-XG-Ch in simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid yielded high survival rate of L. plantarum LAB12 (95%) at pH 1.8 which in turn facilitated sufficient release of probiotics (>7 log CFU/g) at pH 6.8 in both time- and pH-dependent manner. Whilst minimising viability loss at 75 and 90 °C, Alg-XG-Ch improved storage durability of L. plantarum LAB12 at 4 °C. The present results implied the possible use of L. plantarum LAB12 incorporated in Alg-XG-Ch as new functional food ingredient with health claims.
  8. Ahmad A, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB, Mani V
    Pharm Biol, 2015 May;53(5):758-66.
    PMID: 25756802 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.942791
    Soybean and its fermented products are the most common source of isoflavones in human food.
  9. Prakash A, Kalra J, Mani V, Ramasamy K, Majeed AB
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2015 Jan;15(1):53-71.
    PMID: 25495260 DOI: 10.1586/14737175.2015.988709
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common CNS disorder occurring worldwide. There is neither proven effective prevention for AD nor a cure for patients with this disorder. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop safer and more efficacious drugs to help combat the tremendous increase in disease progression. The present review is an attempt at discussing the treatment strategies and drugs under clinical trials governing the modulation of neurotransmitter. Therefore, looking at neurotransmitter abnormalities, there is an urge for developing the pharmacological approaches aimed at correcting those abnormalities and dysfunctioning. In addition, this review also discusses the drugs that are in Phase III trials for the treatment of AD. Despite advances in treatment strategies aimed at correcting neurotransmitter abnormalities, there exists a need for the development of drug therapies focusing on the attempts to remove the pathogenomic protein deposits, thus combating the disease progression.
  10. Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Wong MC, Karuthan C, Ho YW
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2010 Jan 15;90(1):65-9.
    PMID: 20355013 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3780
    Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
  11. Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2011 Jan 15;91(1):186-92.
    PMID: 20848667 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4171
    Coriandrum sativum L., commonly known as coriander and belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional value. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. In this study, CSL (5, 10 and 15% w/w of diet) was fed orally with a specially prepared diet for 45 days consecutively to experimental animals. Elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam, scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models.
  12. Mishra RK, Ramasamy K, Ahmad NA, Eshak Z, Majeed AB
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2014 Apr;25(4):999-1012.
    PMID: 24398912 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-013-5132-x
    Stimuli responsive hydrogels have shown enormous potential as a carrier for targeted drug delivery. In this study we have developed novel pH responsive hydrogels for the delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in order to alleviate its antitumor activity while reducing its toxicity. We used 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) trimetylammonium chloride a positively charged monomer and methacrylic acid for fabricating the pH responsive hydrogels. The released 5-FU from all except hydrogel (GEL-5) remained biologically active against human colon cancer cell lines [HT29 (IC50 = 110-190 μg ml(-1)) and HCT116 (IC50 = 210-390 μg ml(-1))] but not human skin fibroblast cells [BJ (CRL2522); IC50 ≥ 1000 μg ml(-1)]. This implies that the copolymer hydrogels (1-4) were able to release 5-FU effectively to colon cancer cells but not normal human skin fibroblast cells. This is probably due to the shorter doubling time that results in reduced pH in colon cancer cells when compared to fibroblast cells. These pH sensitive hydrogels showed well defined cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells through series of events such as chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. No cell killing was observed in the case of blank hydrogels. The results showed the potential of these stimuli responsive polymer hydrogels as a carrier for colon cancer delivery.
  13. Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Ho YW
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2014 Jan 30;94(2):341-8.
    PMID: 24037967 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6365
    In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
  14. Samah S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Neoh CF
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2016 Jun 18;118:172-182.
    PMID: 27388674 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.06.014
    AIMS: To systematically review evidence of probiotic interventions against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyse the effects of probiotics on glycaemic control among T2DM patients.
    METHODS: Electronic search using five electronic databases was performed until October 2015. Relevant studies were identified, extracted and assessed for risk of bias. The primary outcomes of this review were glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and malondialdehyde, were identified as the secondary outcomes. Mean differences (MD) between probiotics and control groups for all outcomes were pooled using either Fixed- or Random-Effect Model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using I(2) and Chi(2) tests.
    RESULTS: Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review, whereas only five were included in meta-analysis. Most RCTs were presented with low or unclear risk of bias. When compared to placebo, FBG was significantly lower with probiotic consumption (MD=-0.98mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.17, 0.78, p<0.00001), with moderate but insignificant heterogeneity noted. Insignificant changes between the groups were also noted for HbA1c and other secondary outcomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: A moderate hypoglycaemic effect of probiotics, with a significantly lower FBG was noted. Findings on HbA1c, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of probiotics in the clinical setting, however, remain inconsistent. The findings imply the need for well-designed clinical studies to further assess the potential beneficial effects of probiotics in management of T2DM.
    KEYWORDS: Glycaemic; Probiotics; Review; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  15. Rohawi NS, Ramasamy K, Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Lim SM
    PMID: 29894935 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.06.009
    A quantitative assay using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed to investigate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in Pediococcus pentosaceus LAB6 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 probiotic bacteria isolated from Malaysian fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were cultured in de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 1 mmol/L of sodium-based glyco- and tauro-conjugated bile salts for 24 h. The cultures were centrifuged and the resultant cell free supernatant was subjected to chromatographic separation on a HPTLC plate. Conjugated bile salts were quantified by densitometric scans at 550 nm and results were compared to digital image analysis of chromatographic plates after derivatisation with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid. Standard curves for bile salts determination with both methods show good linearity with high coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.97 and 0.99. Method validation indicates good sensitivity with low relative standard deviation (RSD) (<10%), low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.4 versus 0.2 μg and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.4 versus 0.7 μg, for densitometric vs digital image analysis method, respectively. The bile salt hydrolase activity was found to be higher against glyco- than tauro-conjugated bile salts (LAB6; 100% vs >38%: LAB12; 100% vs >75%). The present findings strongly show that quantitative analysis via digitally-enhanced HPTLC offers a rapid quantitative analysis for deconjugation of bile salts by probiotics.
  16. Ashraf K, Halim H, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Sultan S
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2020 Jan;27(1):417-432.
    PMID: 31889866 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.003
    Background: Medicinal plants are important source of drugs with pharmacological activities. Therefore, there is always rising demands to discover more therapeutic agents from various species. Orthosiphon stamineus, Gynura procumbens and Ficus deltoidea are high valued medicinal plants of Malaysia contain rich source of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The aims of the present study were to evaluate anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects on A549, HeGP2 and MCF7 cell lines of four different extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus, Gynura procumbens and Ficus deltoidea.

    Methodology: The leaves of all selected plants were extracted with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol separately with simple cold maceration. Antioxidant activity of all crude extracts were quantitatively measured against DPPH and Ferric Reducing Assay. Antimicrobial evaluation was done by Microdilution and MTT assay and antipoliferative activity of all extracts of selected plant were evaluated against A549, HePG2 and MCF7 cell lines.

    Results: Results showed that methanol extract exhibited highest percentage free radical scavenging activity of almost all extracts of selected plants. Antimicrobials results showed chloroform and methanol extracts of O. stamineus extract were the two most active extracts against resistant MRSA but not S. aureus. Only methanol extract of G. procumbens showed antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. Chloroform and methanol extracts of F. deltoidea elicited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus but not MRSA. Antiproliferative activity against three tested cell lines results showed that ethyl acetate extract of O. stamineus showed good effect whereas methanol extract of F. deltoidea and G. procumbens exhibited good antiproliferative activity.

    Conclusions: The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant variations in the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of different solvent extracts. These data could be helpful in isolation of pure potent compounds with good biological activities from the extracts of plants.

  17. Sufian AS, Ramasamy K, Ahmat N, Zakaria ZA, Yusof MI
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Mar 7;146(1):198-204.
    PMID: 23276785 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.032
    Muntingia calabura (Elaeocarpaceae) is one of the most common roadside trees in Malaysia. Its leaves, barks, flowers and roots have been used as a folk remedy for the treatment of fever, incipient cold, liver disease, as well as an antiseptic agent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify the antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from the leaves of Muntingia calabura L.
  18. Hazalin NA, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Cole AL, Majeed AB
    Phytomedicine, 2012 May 15;19(7):609-17.
    PMID: 22397996 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.01.007
    Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 μg/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis.
  19. Harun A, James RM, Lim SM, Abdul Majeed AB, Cole AL, Ramasamy K
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2011 Sep 24;11:79.
    PMID: 21943123 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-79
    BACKGROUND: BACE1 was found to be the major β-secretase in neurons and its appearance and activity were found to be elevated in the brains of AD patients. Fungal endophytic extracts for BACE1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against PC-12 (a rat pheochromocytoma with neuronal properties) and WRL68 (a non-tumorigenic human hepatic) were investigated.

    METHODS: Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate.

    RESULTS: Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 μg/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC(50(BACE1)) values of less than 3.0 μg/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with K(i) value of 10.0 μg/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC(50(CT))) of 60.0 and 40.0 μg/ml, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes.

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