Methods: A cross-section survey design was performed with 323 participants from two cohorts of medical undergraduates, i.e., first-year (n = 153) and second-year students (n = 170) who completed the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Participants comprised of the main ethnic groups in Malaysia, i.e., Malays, Chinese and Indians, from different language medium pre-tertiary education backgrounds. Attitude measurements were compared with OSCE outcomes.
Results: There was a significant difference in Negative Attitude Scale between pre-tertiary education system with attitudes towards communication skills (F (3, 319) = 7.79, p = .001), but no significant difference with Positive Attitude Scale (F (3, 319) = 0.43, p = .649). There was no significant difference between ethnicity and attitudes towards communication skills with PAS (F (2, 320) = 0.66, p = .519) and NAS (F (2, 320) = 1.24, p = .291). Students from Chinese medium education system had stronger negative attitudes with a mean score of 14.7 (n = 56, SD = 3.6) for primary school levels and 15.9 (n = 17, SD = 3.0) for secondary school levels, compared with others. There was no significant prediction of student's attitudes towards assessments outcomes.
Conclusions: Preliminary findings from the small data pool suggest indicative relationships requiring further studies with more participants and proportionate pre-tertiary education system backgrounds.
METHODS: The interventional study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from surgical, intensive care, and other units. Thirty-six health professionals in the experimental and forty in the control group completed the study. All subjects participated in an interactive lecture and demonstrated four IPSS on HAIC i.e. (i) taking blood specimen (ii) bedsore dressing (iii) collecting sputum for acid-fast bacilli and (iv) intermittent bladder catheterization. Each team consisted of a doctor and a nurse. A self-administered questionnaire on KAP on HAIC was completed by respondents during the pre-, immediately and, post-intervention. An independent t-test was conducted to measure the significance between the experimental and control group.
RESULTS: The mean scores for KAP among the experimental group increased following the intervention. Significant differences in scores were seen between the two groups post-intervention (p
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children.
METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria.
RESULTS: A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia.
CONCLUSION: Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to document the post-operative refraction, VA and complications of non-traumatic pediatric cataract surgery performed in a tertiary referral center in Malaysia.
METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study reviewed case notes of all consecutive patients aged 12 years and below who underwent cataract surgery from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients were recruited if they had a minimum of six months post-operative follow-up. Exclusion criteria included traumatic cataract, central nervous system abnormalities, incomplete medical records or pre-existing ocular pathology. Subjects were divided into two groups based on refraction at one month. Subjects with refraction within 1- dioptre of the targeted spherical equivalent were in the success group and the rest were in the failure group.
RESULTS: A total of 111 subjects were recruited (65 subjects in success group and 46 subjects in the failure group). Mean age at surgery was 33.14 (SD: 33.47) months. The success group had significantly longer axial length (p:0.0045, CI: 0.566-0.994, OR: 0.750). At final review, 44.1%(49/111) subjects had visual acuity of 0.3LogMar or better. The success group had better final mean VA in comparison to the failure group (p:0.034, CI:1.079-7.224, OR: 2.791).
CONCLUSION: The outcome of non-traumatic paediatric cataract surgery was acceptable with 58.6% achieved targeted refractive correction at 1-month post-operative period. Longer axial length was associated with better refractive outcome. Capsule related complications was the most common intra-operative complication.
METHODS: A total of doctors (39) and nurses (37) were recruited for an interventional study on the interprofessional learning approach on hospital acquired infection control. The participants responded to the University of West England Interprofessional (UWEIP) questionnaire at baseline consisting of four dimensions in IPL aspects; Self-assessment on communication and teamwork skills (CTW), interprofessional learning (IPL), interprofessional interaction (IPI), and interprofessional relationship (IPR). The Cronbach alpha value for the total questionnaire was established at 0.79.
RESULTS: The majority of doctors scored positive in CTW, IPL, IPR, and neutral in IPI. Nurses' also recorded the highest positive scores in CTW, IPL, and IPR, and neutral in IPI. Negative scores were found in CTW and IPI. A significant difference was revealed between doctors and nurses in IPL attitude; p = 0.024 and there was no significant difference in other dimensions (p > .05). Results also found a significant difference between participants' and non-participants of IPL training sessions; p = 0.009.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the infusion of interprofessional learning training among the health professionals displayed better self-assessments, attitudes, and perceptions towards collaborative practices.
METHOD: This cross-sectional study is comprised of 203 participants, all purportedly healthy term new-born infants from the Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward at Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a 6 months period. The examination list includes external eye examination, red reflex test, and fundus imaging using a wide-field digital retinal imaging system (Phoenix Clinical ICON Paediatric Retinal Camera) by a trained Investigator. The pathologies detected were documented. The results were compared and correlated with similar studies published in the literature previously.
RESULTS: Total ocular abnormalities were detected in 34% of the infants. The most common finding was retinal haemorrhage in 29.6% of the infants, of which 53.3% occurred bilaterally. Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) remained the greatest risk factor which has nearly 3.5 times higher risk of new-borns developing retinal haemorrhage compared to Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS). There was a 6% increased likelihood of developing retinal haemorrhage for every 1-min increment in the duration of 2nd stage of labour.
CONCLUSION: Universal eye screening for all new-borns using a wide-field digital imaging system is realistically possible, safe, and useful in detecting posterior segment disorders. The most common abnormality detected is retinal haemorrhage.