About 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Human beings, animals, and plants need water in order to survive. Therefore, it is one of the most important substances that exist on Earth. However, most of the water resources nowadays are insufficiently clean, since they are contaminated with toxic metal ions due to the improper disposal of pollutants into water through industrial and agricultural activities. These toxic metal ions need to be detected as fast as possible so that the situation will not become more critical and cause more harm in the future. Since then, numerous sensing methods have been proposed, including chemical and optical sensors that aim to detect these toxic metal ions. All of the researchers compete with each other to build sensors with the lowest limit of detection and high sensitivity and selectivity. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have emerged as a highly potential sensing material to incorporate with the developed sensors due to the advantages of GQDs. Several recent studies showed that GQDs, functionalized GQDs, and their composites were able to enhance the optical detection of metal ions. The aim of this paper is to review the existing, latest, and updated studies on optical sensing applications of GQDs-based materials toward toxic metal ions and future developments of an excellent GQDs-based SPR sensor as an alternative toxic metal ion sensor.
Great efforts have been devoted to the invention of environmental sensors as the amount of water pollution has increased in recent decades. Chitosan, cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose are examples of biopolymers that have been intensively studied due to their potential applications, particularly as sensors. Furthermore, the rapid use of conducting polymer materials as a sensing layer in environmental monitoring has also been developed. Thus, the incorporation of biopolymer and conducting polymer materials with various methods has shown promising potential with sensitively and selectively toward heavy metal ions. In this feature paper, selected recent and updated investigations are reviewed on biopolymer and conducting polymer-based materials in sensors aimed at the detection of heavy metal ions by optical methods. This review intends to provide sufficient evidence of the potential of polymer-based materials as sensing layers, and future outlooks are considered in developing surface plasmon resonance as an excellent and valid sensor for heavy metal ion detection.
The emergence of unintentional poisoning and uncontrolled vector diseases have contributed to sensor technologies development, leading to the more effective detection of diseases. In this study, we present the combination of graphene-based material with surface plasmon resonance technique. Two different graphene-based material sensor chips were prepared for rapid and quantitative detection of dengue virus (DENV) and cobalt ion (Co2+) as an example of typical metal ions. As the fundamental concept of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that relies on the refractive index of the sensor chip surface, this research focused on the SPR signal when the DENV and Co2+ interact with the graphene-based material sensor chip. The results demonstrated that the proposed sensor-based graphene layer was able to detect DENV and Co2+ as low as 0.1 pM and 0.1 ppm respectively. Further details in the detection and quantification of analyte were also discussed in terms of sensitivity, affinity, and selectivity of the sensor.