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  1. Al-Mahmood A, Ismail A, Rashid F, Mohamed W
    J Atheroscler Thromb, 2006 Jun;13(3):143-8.
    PMID: 16835469
    There are numerous reports on insulin resistance in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia but most of the studies involved obese or diabetic subjects. We were interested to study such events but in a population free from other confounders influencing insulin sensitivity (i.e., obesity, glucose intolerance and hypertension). From the population of a cross-sectional study we obtained 12 subjects with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and compared their insulin sensitivity with that of normolipidemic subjects in that study. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status were computed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) software. The insulin sensitivity of hypertriglyceridemic subjects was found to be lower than in normolipidemic subjects. For the hypertriglyceridemic subjects, insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) was 60.07% (values adjusted for age, BMI, waist circumference, and cholesterol levels), which was substantially lower than that of normolipidemic subjects (150.03%; p<0.001). The insulin secretory status (HOMA%B) of the two groups was 248.17% and 124.63%, respectively, and significantly different (p<0.001). Relative insulin resistance, HOMA-IR, of the two groups was 4.90 and 1.54, respectively. We therefore concluded that in comparison with normolipidemic subjects, the insulin sensitivity of otherwise healthy non-obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects was lower, and that B cells had to work harder to compensate for the lowered insulin sensitivity.
  2. Yusof MI, Al-Astani AD, Jaafar H, Rashid FA
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Feb;49(2):100-4.
    PMID: 18301834
    INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the histopathological features of skin microvasculature in patients with a diabetic foot, specifically the number of blood vessels, number of endothelial cells and endothelial thickness.
    METHODS: This study involved 41 diabetic foot patients admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia for surgical management of foot problems. Skin biopsies were taken for histological evaluation following surgical procedures, such as wound debridement or local foot amputation. The skin microvasculature features examined were the number of blood vessels, the endothelial thickness of the vessels and the cross-sectional endothelial cell count. The findings were compared with the similar parameters of non-diabetic patients (control) and analysed.
    RESULTS: The mean blood vessel count (BVC), endothelial cell thickness (ECT) and endothelial cell count (ECC) for the diabetic group were 12.56 +/- 2.77, 4.81 +/- 1.5 micrometres and 7.07 +/- 1.88, respectively. The mean BVC, ECT and ECC for the non-diabetic control group were 5.25 +/- 1.98, 1.9 +/- 0.55 micrometres and 4.11 +/- 1.17, respectively. The mean BVC, ECT and ECC for the diabetic group were significantly higher than those for the non-diabetic control group.
    CONCLUSION: The increased number of blood vessels to the skin and their endothelial cell number and thickness may be the contributing factors for problems related to the diabetic foot, such as tendency for skin ulceration, infection and poor wound-healing in these patients. These may also contribute to secondary changes of diabetic foot lesions, indicating failure of adequate vascularisation of the foot.
  3. Farook TH, Rashid F, Alam MK, Dudley J
    Clin Oral Investig, 2022 Dec 29.
    PMID: 36577849 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-022-04835-w
    BACKGROUND: To explore the digitisation of jaw movement trajectories through devices and discuss the physiological factors and device-dependent variables with their subsequent effects on the jaw movement analyses.

    METHODS: Based on predefined eligibility criteria, the search was conducted following PRISMA-P 2015 guidelines on MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases in 2022 by 2 reviewers. Articles then underwent Cochrane GRADE approach and JBI critical appraisal for certainty of evidence and bias evaluation.

    RESULTS: Thirty articles were included following eligibility screening. Both in vitro experiments (20%) and in vivo (80%) devices ranging from electronic axiography, electromyography, optoelectronic and ultrasonic, oral or extra-oral tracking, photogrammetry, sirognathography, digital pressure sensors, electrognathography, and computerised medical-image tracing were documented. 53.53% of the studies were rated below "moderate" certainty of evidence. Critical appraisal showed 80% case-control investigations failed to address confounding variables while 90% of the included non-randomised experimental studies failed to establish control reference.

    CONCLUSION: Mandibular and condylar growth, kinematic dysfunction of the neuromuscular system, shortened dental arches, previous orthodontic treatment, variations in habitual head posture, temporomandibular joint disorders, fricative phonetics, and to a limited extent parafunctional habits and unbalanced occlusal contact were identified confounding variables that shaped jaw movement trajectories but were not highly dependent on age, gender, or diet. Realistic variations in device accuracy were found between 50 and 330 µm across the digital systems with very low interrater reliability for motion tracing from photographs. Forensic and in vitro simulation devices could not accurately recreate variations in jaw motion and muscle contractions.

  4. Kyi WM, Isa MN, Rashid FA, Osman JM, Mansur MA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jan;7(1):16-21.
    PMID: 22844210
    Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with hypercholesterolaemia and premature coronary heart disease. FDB is caused by mutations in and around the codon 3500 of the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene. Apo B R3500Q mutation is the first apo B mutation known to be associated with FDB and it is the most frequently reported apo B mutation in several different populations. The objective of the present study was to determine the association of apo B R3500Q mutation with elevated plasma cholesterol concentration in Kelantanese population in which both hypercholesterolaemia and coronary heart disease are common. Sixty-two Malay subjects with hyperlipidaemia, attending the lipid clinic at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, were selected for this study. The DNA samples were analysed for the presence of apo B R3500Q mutation by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment analysis method using mutagenic primers. This mutation was not detected in the subjects selected for this study. Apo B R3500Q mutation does not appear to be a common cause of hypercholesterolaemia in Kelantanese Malays.
  5. Beh YH, Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Dudley J, Rashid F, Barman A, et al.
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2021 03;58(3):386-390.
    PMID: 32808548 DOI: 10.1177/1055665620950074
    OBJECTIVE: The virtual cone beam computed tomography-derived 3-dimensional model was compared with the scanned conventional model used in the fabrication of a palatal obturator for a patient with a large palatal defect.

    DESIGN: A digitally derived 3-dimensional maxillary model incorporating the palatal defect was generated from the patient's existing cone beam computerized tomography data and compared with the scanned cast from the conventional impression for linear dimensions, area, and volume. The digitally derived cast was 3-dimensionally printed and the obturator fabricated using traditional techniques. Similarly, an obturator was fabricated from the conventional cast and the fit of both final obturator bulbs were compared in vivo.

    RESULTS: The digitally derived model produced more accurate volumes and surface areas within the defect. The defect margins and peripheries were overestimated which was reflected clinically.

    CONCLUSION: The digitally derived model provided advantages in the fabrication of the palatal obturator; however, further clinical research is required to refine consistency.

  6. Barman A, Rashid F, Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Dudley J, Yhaya MFB, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jul 12;12(7).
    PMID: 32664615 DOI: 10.3390/polym12071536
    Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating filler particles into maxillofacial silicone elastomer (MFPSE), a review of the types, concentrations and effectiveness of the particles themselves was lacking. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the effect of different types of filler particles on the mechanical properties of MFPSE. The properties in question were (1) tensile strength, (2) tear strength, (3) hardness, and (4) elongation at break. The findings of this study can assist operators, technicians and clinicians in making relevant decisions regarding which type of fillers to incorporate based on their needs. The systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 26 original articles from 1970 to 2019 were selected from the databases, based on predefined eligibility criteria by two reviewers. The meta-analyses of nine papers were carried out by extracting data from the systematic review based on scoring criteria and processed using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. Overall, there were significant differences favoring filler particles when incorporated into MFPSE. Nano fillers (69.23% of all studies) demonstrated superior comparative outcomes for tensile strength (P < 0.0001), tear strength (P < 0.00001), hardness (P < 0.00001) and elongation at break (P < 0.00001) when compared to micro fillers (30.76% of all studies). Micro fillers demonstrated inconsistent outcomes in mechanical properties, and meta-analysis of elongation at break argued against (P < 0.01) their use. Current findings suggest that 1.5% ZrSiO4, 3% SiO2, 1.5% Y2O3, 2-6% TiO2, 2-2.5% ZnO, 2-2.5% CeO2, 0.5% TiSiO4 and 1% Ag-Zn Zeolite can be used to reinforce MFPSE, and help the materials better withstand mechanical degradation.
  7. Al-Mahmood AK, Ismail AA, Rashid FA, Azwany YN, Singh R, Gill G
    J Atheroscler Thromb, 2007 Jun;14(3):122-7.
    PMID: 17587763 DOI: 10.5551/jat.14.122
    AIM: To determine the effects of lipid lowering by TLC on insulin sensitivity and secretory status of non-obese normoglycemic hyperlipidemic subjects.
    METHODS: An intervention study was undertaken on 16 non-obese normoglycemic hyperlipidemic subjects. They underwent 6 months of a TLC regimen. Their insulin sensitivity and lipid status were assessed at baseline and after six months. A control group containing 16 age, sex and body mass index (BMI) matched normolipidemic subjects was also enrolled to compare the change in lipid levels and insulin sensitivity in the hyperlipidemic subjects.
    RESULTS: The intervention showed significant reductions in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR reduced from 3.8 to 1.4, p<0.001) and improvement of insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S increased from 50.1% to 121.2%, p=0.004) in hyperlipidemic subjects with associated reductions in lipid levels.
    CONCLUSION: Lipid lowering in non-obese hyperlipidemic subjects may be associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity.
    Study site: Staff of university and offices, Kelantan, Malaysia
  8. Al-Oulabi A, Al Rawas M, Farook TH, Rashid F, Barman A, Jamayet NB, et al.
    Work, 2021 Jun 25.
    PMID: 34180457 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-213519
    BACKGROUND: Two patients received ocular injuries from rusted metallic projectiles at their industrial workplaces. Said injuries resulted in the loss of their eyes by evisceration surgeries to prevent fatal infections.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: The first case, a man in his twenties, received a stock conformer immediately after surgery and started prosthetic therapy within 2 months. The second case, a man in his forties, started prosthetic therapy after 10 years. Definitive custom ocular prostheses were fabricated and relined according to conventional protocol.

    RESULTS: On issue of the prosthesis, there was adequate retention, aesthetics and stability to extra-ocular movements and treatment was considered successful for both cases. However, follow-ups showed noticeable prosthetic eye movements for case 1 which, to some extent mimicked the physiologic movement of its fellow natural eye. Case 1 adjusted to his prosthesis better while case 2 was still adjusting with little to no physiologic movement.

    CONCLUSION: Prosthetic rehabilitation should be started as early as possible to obtain optimum rehabilitative results.

  9. Farook TH, Rashid F, Jamayet NB, Abdullah JY, Dudley J, Khursheed Alam M
    J Prosthet Dent, 2022 Oct;128(4):830-836.
    PMID: 33642077 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.12.041
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The anatomic complexity of the ear challenges conventional maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. The introduction of specialized scanning hardware integrated into computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) workflows has mitigated these challenges. Currently, the scanning hardware required for digital data acquisition is expensive and not readily available for prosthodontists in developing regions.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this virtual analysis study was to compare the accuracy and precision of 3-dimensional (3D) ear models generated by scanning gypsum casts with a smartphone camera and a desktop laser scanner.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six ear casts were fabricated from green dental gypsum and scanned with a laser scanner. The resultant 3D models were exported as standard tessellation language (STL) files. A stereophotogrammetry system was fabricated by using a motorized turntable and an automated microcontroller photograph capturing interface. A total of 48 images were captured from 2 angles on the arc (20 degrees and 40 degrees from the base of the turntable) with an image overlap of 15 degrees, controlled by a stepper motor. Ear 1 was placed on the turntable and captured 5 times with smartphone 1 and tested for precision. Then, ears 1 to 6 were scanned once with a laser scanner and with smartphones 1 and 2. The images were converted into 3D casts and compared for accuracy against their laser scanned counterparts for surface area, volume, interpoint mismatches, and spatial overlap. Acceptability thresholds were set at <0.5 mm for interpoint mismatches and >0.70 for spatial overlap.

    RESULTS: The test for smartphone precision in comparison with that of the laser scanner showed a difference in surface area of 774.22 ±295.27 mm2 (6.9% less area) and in volume of 4228.60 ±2276.89 mm3 (13.4% more volume). Both acceptability thresholds were also met. The test for accuracy among smartphones 1, 2, and the laser scanner showed no statistically significant differences (P>.05) in all 4 parameters among the groups while also meeting both acceptability thresholds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone cameras used to capture 48 overlapping gypsum cast ear images in a controlled environment generated 3D models parametrically similar to those produced by standard laser scanners.

  10. Lau AS, Yanagisawa N, Hor YY, Lew LC, Ong JS, Chuah LO, et al.
    Benef Microbes, 2018 Jan 29;9(1):61-70.
    PMID: 29065707 DOI: 10.3920/BM2017.0063
    This 10-months randomised, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on diarrhoea and/or upper respiratory illnesses in 520 healthy Malaysian pre-school children aged 2-6 years old. The subjects randomly received a one-gram sachet containing either BB536 (5×109 cfu) or placebo daily. Data analysis was performed on 219 subjects who fully complied over 10-months (placebo n=110, BB536 n=109). While BB536 did not exert significant effects against diarrhoea in children, Poisson regression with generalised estimating equations model indicated significant intergroup difference in the mean number of times of respiratory illnesses over 10 months. The duration of sore throat was reduced by 46% (P=0.018), with marginal reduction for duration of fever (reduced by 27%, P=0.084), runny nose (reduced by 15%, P=0.087) and cough (reduced by 16%, P=0.087) as compared to the placebo. Principal coordinate analysis at genus level of the gut microbiota revealed significant differences between 0 and 10 months in the BB536 group (P<0.01) but not in placebo group (P>0.05). The abundance of the genus Faecalibacterium which is associated with anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties was significantly higher in the BB536 group (P<0.05) compared to the placebo group. Altogether, our present study illustrated the potential protective effects of BB536 against upper respiratory illnesses in pre-school Malaysian children, with gut microbiota modulating properties.
  11. Saleem Khan M, Asif Nawaz M, Jalil S, Rashid F, Hameed A, Asari A, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2022 01;118:105457.
    PMID: 34798458 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105457
    Substitution of hazardous and often harmful organic solvents with "green" and "sustainable" alternative reaction media is always desirous. Ionic liquids (IL) have emerged as valuable and versatile liquids that can replace most organic solvents in a variety of syntheses. However, recently new types of low melting mixtures termed as Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) have been utilized in organic syntheses. DES are non-volatile in nature, have sufficient thermal stability, and also have the ability to be recycled and reused. Hence DES have been used as alternative reaction media to perform different organic reactions. The availability of green, inexpensive and easy to handle alternative solvents for organic synthesis is still scarce, hence our interest in DES mediated syntheses. Herein we have investigated Biginelli reaction in different DES for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones. Monoamine oxidases and cholinesterases are important drug targets for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression and anxiety. The compounds synthesized herein were evaluated for their inhibitory potential against these enzymes. Some of the compounds were found to be highly potent and selective inhibitors. Compounds 1 h and 1c were the most active monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.11 µM) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.04 µM) inhibitors respectively. All compounds were selective AChE inhibitors and did not inhibit BChE (<29% inhibition). Compound 1 k (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.09 µM) was the most active AChE inhibitor.
  12. Khan A, Hussain S, Ahmad S, Suleman M, Bukhari I, Khan T, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2022 02;141:105163.
    PMID: 34979405 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.105163
    The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the host ACE2 receptor plays a vital role in the entry to the cell. Among which the hotspot residue 501 is continuously subjected to positive selection pressure and induces unusual virulence. Keeping in view the importance of the hot spot residue 501, we predicted the potentially emerging structural variants of 501 residue. We analyzed the binding pattern of wild type and mutants (Spike RBD) to the ACE2 receptor by deciphering variations in the amino acids' interaction networks by graph kernels along with evolutionary, network metrics, and energetic information. Our analysis revealed that N501I, N501T, and N501V increase the binding affinity and alter the intra and inter-residue bonding networks. The N501T has shown strong positive selection and fitness in other animals. Docking results and repeated simulations (three times) confirmed the structural stability and tighter binding of these three variants, correlated with the previous results following the global stability trend. Consequently, we reported three variants N501I, N501T, and N501V could worsen the situation further if they emerged. The relations between the viral fitness and binding affinity is a complicated game thus the emergence of high affinity mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD brings up the question of whether or not positive selection favours these mutations or not?
  13. Hassanein M, Afandi B, Yakoob Ahmedani M, Mohammad Alamoudi R, Alawadi F, Bajaj HS, et al.
    PMID: 35016991 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109185
    Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy Muslims from the age of puberty. Though individuals with some illness and serious medical conditions, including some people with diabetes, can be exempted from fasting, many will fast anyway. It is of paramount importance that people with diabetes that fast are given the appropriate guidance and receive proper care. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Diabetes and Ramadan (DaR) International Alliance have come together to provide a substantial update to the previous guidelines. This update includes key information on fasting during Ramadan with type 1 diabetes, the management of diabetes in people of elderly ages and pregnant women, the effects of Ramadan on one's mental wellbeing, changes to the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications, and areas of future research. The IDF-DAR Diabetes and Ramadan Practical Guidelines 2021 seek to improve upon the awareness, knowledge and management of diabetes during Ramadan, and to provide real-world recommendations to health professionals and the people with diabetes who choose to fast.
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