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  1. Chai SC, Teoh RF, Razaob NA, Kadar M
    Hong Kong J Occup Ther, 2017 Dec;30(1):42-48.
    PMID: 30186079 DOI: 10.1016/j.hkjot.2017.05.002
    Objective/Background: Occupational therapy that focuses on servicing clients demands motivated workers for quality service delivery. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the level of work motivation among occupational therapy graduates in Malaysia and (b) to determine if there is a difference in work motivation among these graduates based on work sector, job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited occupational therapy bachelor's degree graduates using an online survey. The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) was used to measure level of work motivation.

    Results: Responses from 82 (60.3%) graduates (male: 26.8%; female: 73.2%) were analysed. Sixty-two (75.6%) graduates worked locally and 20 (24.4%) worked in foreign countries. The average Work Self-Determination Index (W-SDI) score for WEIMS is +11.38 with 78 (95.1%) of graduates demonstrated a self-determined motivational profile and 4 (4.9%) demonstrated a nonself-determined profile. Graduates in the private sector (13.10 ± 6.47) show significantly higher W-SDI score compared to those in the public sector (9.40 ± 6.06), p = 0.01. W-SDI scores appeared higher among clinician (11.67 ± 6.40), case manager (13.33), and others (14.90 ± 8.23); and those with work experience of 5-6 years (13.11 ± 6.90) and less than one year (12.65 ± 7.12). Male (10.29 ± 6.86) and female (11.79 ± 6.39) graduates shared equally high score. There is no significant difference in W-SDI score based on job position, length of work experience, and gender.

    Conclusion: Occupational therapy graduates have high work motivation as evident by their self-determined profile. Only work sector imposes difference in work motivation among these graduates. Copyright © 2017, Hong Kong Occupational Therapy Association. Published by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  2. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

  3. Razaob NA, Tham SY, Mohd Rasdi HF, Wan Yunus F, Kadar M
    Occup Ther Health Care, 2020 Jan;34(1):32-47.
    PMID: 31920126 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2020.1712632
    The Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R) is a self-report standardized instrument designed to assess an individual's degree of community integration. The aim of this study was to translate, validate and conduct a reliability test of the CIQ-R Malay version. The development involved the three phases of translation, content validation and cognitive interviewing, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the CIQ-R Malay version. The Content Validity Index (CVI) showed perfect agreement between the panel experts. The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a moderate to excellent level of test-retest agreement (ICC 0.72 to 0.93). The Total CIQ-R Malay version and Home Integration subscale showed good internal consistency, with values of Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.81 to 0.90. The findings from the present study provided preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the CIQ-R Malay version as a valid and reliable instrument to be used in Malaysia.
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