Displaying all 3 publications

  1. Abazari S, Shamsipur A, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Ismail AF, Sharif S, Razzaghi M, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 04;13(19).
    PMID: 33020427 DOI: 10.3390/ma13194421
    In recent years considerable attention has been attracted to magnesium because of its light weight, high specific strength, and ease of recycling. Because of the growing demand for lightweight materials in aerospace, medical and automotive industries, magnesium-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) reinforced with ceramic nanometer-sized particles, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were developed. CNTs have excellent material characteristics like low density, high tensile strength, high ratio of surface-to-volume, and high thermal conductivity that makes them attractive to use as reinforcements to fabricate high-performance, and high-strength metal-matrix composites (MMCs). Reinforcing magnesium (Mg) using small amounts of CNTs can improve the mechanical and physical properties in the fabricated lightweight and high-performance nanocomposite. Nevertheless, the incorporation of CNTs into a Mg-based matrix faces some challenges, and a uniform distribution is dependent on the parameters of the fabricating process. The characteristics of a CNTs reinforced composite are related to the uniform distribution, weight percent, and length of the CNTs, as well as the interfacial bonding and alignment between CNTs reinforcement and the Mg-based matrix. In this review article, the recent findings in the fabricating methods, characterization of the composite's properties, and application of Mg-based composites reinforced with CNTs are studied. These include the strategies of fabricating CNT-reinforced Mg-based composites, mechanical responses, and corrosion behaviors. The present review aims to investigate and conclude the most relevant studies conducted in the field of Mg/CNTs composites. Strategies to conquer complicated challenges are suggested and potential fields of Mg/CNTs composites as upcoming structural material regarding functional requirements in aerospace, medical and automotive industries are particularly presented.
  2. Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Hamzah E, Ying WS, Razzaghi M, Sharif S, Ismail AF, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 12;14(8).
    PMID: 33921460 DOI: 10.3390/ma14081930
    Magnesium has been recognized as a groundbreaking biodegradable biomaterial for implant applications, but its use is limited because it degrades too quickly in physiological solutions. This paper describes the research on the influence of polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CS)/zinc oxide (ZnO) composite coating (PCL/CS/ZnO) on the corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity of magnesium. The PCL/CS film presented a porous structure with thickness of about 40-50 μm, while after incorporation of ZnO into the PCL/CS, a homogenous film without pores and defects was attained. The ZnO embedded in PCL/CS enhanced corrosion resistance by preventing corrosive ions diffusion in the magnesium substrate. The corrosion, antibacterial, and cell interaction mechanism of the PCL/CS/ZnO composite coating is discussed in this study. In vitro cell culture revealed that the PCL/CS coating with low loaded ZnO significantly improved cytocompatibility, but coatings with high loaded ZnO were able to induce some cytotoxicity osteoblastic cells. It was also found that enhanced antibacterial activity of the PCL/CS/ZnO coating against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria, while less significant antibacterial activity was detected for uncoated Mg and PCL/CS coating. Based on the results, the PCL/CS coatings loaded with low ZnO content may be recommended as a candidate material for biodegradable Mg-based orthopedic implant applications.
  3. Pahlevanzadeh F, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Kharaziha M, Kasiri-Asgarani M, Omidi M, Razzaghi M, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2021 04;116:104320.
    PMID: 33571842 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104320
    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements (BCs) have some drawbacks, including limited bioactivity and bone formation, as well as inferior mechanical properties, which may result in failure of the BC. To deal with the mentioned issues, novel bioactive polymethyl methacrylate-hardystonite (PMMA-HT) bone cement (BC) reinforced with 0.25 and 0.5 wt% of carbon nanotube (CNT) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized. In this context, the obtained bone cements were evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological characteristics. The rGO reinforced bone cement exhibited better mechanical properties to the extent that the addition of 0.5 wt% of rGO where its compressive and tensile strength of bioactive PMMA-HT/rGO cement escalated from 92.07 ± 0.72 MPa, and 40.02 ± 0.71 MPa to 187.48 ± 5.79 MPa and 64.92 ± 0.75 MPa, respectively. Besides, the mechanisms of toughening, apatite formation, and cell interaction in CNT and rGO encapsulated PMMA have been studied. Results showed that the existence of CNT and rGO in BCs led to increase of MG63 osteoblast viability, and proliferation. However, rGO reinforced bone cement was more successful in supporting MG63 cell attachment compared to the CNT counterpart due to its wrinkled surface, which made a suitable substrate for cell adhesion. Based on the results, PMMA-HT/rGO can be a proper bone cement for the fixation of load-bearing implants.
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