Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Rich AM, Hussaini HM, Parachuru VP, Seymour GJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:464.
    PMID: 25309546 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00464
    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. The microenvironment may promote tumor cell survival and proliferation or, alternatively may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins, expressed on immune cells and epithelial cells, that recognize exogenous and endogenous macromolecules. Once activated, they initiate signaling pathways leading to the release of cytokines and chemokines, which recruit immune cells inducing further cytokine production, the production of angiogenic mediators and growth factors, all of which may influence tumor progression. This paper examines the actions of TLRs in carcinogenesis with particular emphasis on their role in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  2. Bakri MM, Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Rich AM
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2014 Oct;43(9):704-10.
    PMID: 24931506 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12193
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) genes in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from biopsies of leukoplakia.
  3. Bakri MM, Rich AM, Cannon RD, Holmes AR
    Mol Oral Microbiol, 2015 Feb;30(1):27-38.
    PMID: 24975985 DOI: 10.1111/omi.12064
    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for oral cancer, possibly via its conversion to acetaldehyde, a known carcinogen. The oral commensal yeast Candida albicans may be one of the agents responsible for this conversion intra-orally. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) family of enzymes are involved in acetaldehyde metabolism in yeast but, for C. albicans it is not known which family member is responsible for the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. In this study we determined the expression of mRNAs from three C. albicans Adh genes (CaADH1, CaADH2 and CaCDH3) for cells grown in different culture media at different growth phases by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CaADH1 was constitutively expressed under all growth conditions but there was differential expression of CaADH2. CaADH3 expression was not detected. To investigate whether CaAdh1p or CaAdh2p can contribute to alcohol catabolism in C. albicans, each gene from the reference strain C. albicans SC5314 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts from an CaAdh1p-expressing S. cerevisiae recombinant, but not an CaAdh2p-expressing recombinant, or an empty vector control strain, possessed ethanol-utilizing Adh activity above endogenous S. cerevisiae activity. Furthermore, expression of C. albicans Adh1p in a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous ScADH2 gene (known to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde in this yeast) had been deleted, conferred an NAD-dependent ethanol-utilizing, and so acetaldehyde-producing, Adh activity. We conclude that CaAdh1p is the enzyme responsible for ethanol use under in vitro growth conditions, and may contribute to the intra-oral production of acetaldehyde.
  4. Hussaini HM, Angel CM, Speight PM, Firth NA, Rich AM
    Head Neck Pathol, 2012 Dec;6(4):471-5.
    PMID: 22427262 DOI: 10.1007/s12105-012-0350-y
    The hallmark of the histology of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is the presence of a regular repetitive mixture of bilayered duct-like structures with an outer layer of myoepithelial cells and inner ductal epithelial cells. Clear cell change in the myoepithelial component is common, but clearing of both cell types, giving an impression of a monocellular neoplasm, is rare. A parotid biopsy was received from an 83-year-old male and subject to routine histologic processing for conventional staining and immunohistochemistry. The encapsulated tumour was composed of sheets of PAS/diastase negative clear cells, separated by fibrous septae. The clear myoepithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, SMA, and p63 and negative for CK19 and surrounded CK19-positive luminal cells. It is important to utilise immunohistochemistry to differentiate this tumour from others with a similar histologic pattern. Information about the behaviour of the double-clear EMC is limited since there are few cases reported.
  5. Sinon SH, Rich AM, Parachuru VP, Firth FA, Milne T, Seymour GJ
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2016 Jan;45(1):28-34.
    PMID: 25865410 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12319
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and TLR-associated signalling pathway genes in oral lichen planus (OLP).
  6. Edirisinghe ST, Weerasekera M, De Silva DK, Devmini MT, Pathmaperuma S, Wijesinghe GK, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2023 Jan 01;24(1):267-274.
    PMID: 36708576 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2023.24.1.267
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is very high in South Asia and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key factors essential for cancer growth. The importance of VEGF-A and VEGF Receptor 2(VEGFR-2) in oral cancer pathophysiology is yet to be decided. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) is the main factor concerned in angiogenesis in tumors, but its role in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is still debatable. Our study aimed to determine the role of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in OSCC.

    METHODS: Blood from 30 patients with primary OSCC and 1:1 age-sex-matched controls was subjected to qPCR and ELISA to detect VEGF-A gene expression and serum level. Tumors of the 30 patients were investigated for VEGF Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression and were analyzed using Image J software version 1.52 for DAB percentage (DAB-P) area and optical density (OD).

    RESULTS: VEGF-A relative gene expression among patients was 2.43-fold higher compared to the healthy control group. Well-differentiated had a 1.98-fold increment, while poorly differentiated had a 3.58-fold increment. Serum VEGF-A was significantly elevated among the patients compared to controls (458.7 vs 253.2, p=0.0225). Poorly differentiated had a higher serum VEGF concentration (1262.0±354.7pg/ml) compared with other two. Mean VEGFR-2 DAB-P level in OSCC was 42.41±5.61(p=0.15). Well-differentiated had a DAB-P of 41.20±5.32 while poorly differentiated had DAB-P 46.21±3.78. The mean OD in OSCC was 0.54±0.16. VEGFR-2 OD in well and poorly differentiated OSCC were 0.48±0.12 and 0.68±0.17, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-A gene expression, serum levels, and tissue VEGFR-2 levels correlated linearly with the stage and grade of the tumor. This study justifies the value of VEGF-A as a potential biomarker in OSCC in early detection of OSCC. More studies are needed to accept the use of VEGF-A.

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