Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Aimi Fadilah M, Fatimah MS, Nor Aisyah Z, Nur’Aini EW, Nazimah AM, Effat O, et al.
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) causes a persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) due to
    excessive release of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands. Classically, it is called
    Conn’s syndrome and is described as the triad of hypertension and hypokalemia with the
    presence of unilateral adrenal adenoma. It can be cured with surgical resection of the
    aldosterone-secreting adenoma leading to resolution of hypertension, hypokalemia and
    increased cardiovascular risk associated with hyperaldosteronism. We present a case of a man
    with previous ischemic heart disease (IHD) who presented with resistant hypertension.
    Investigations for secondary causes of hypertension revealed an elevated aldosterone level
    and saline suppression test confirmed the diagnosis of PA. Radiological examination revealed
    a left adrenal adenoma and a normal right adrenal gland. However, adrenal venous sampling
    showed lateralization of aldosterone secretion towards the right. He subsequently underwent
    a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy which improved his BP control promptly. This case
    highlights the importance of recognizing the need to investigate for secondary causes of
    hypertension. It also underscores the importance of dynamic tests, which may not be easily
    accessible to most clinicians but should pursue, to allow a definitive diagnosis and effective
  2. Gunavathy M, Rohana AG, Norlela S, Nor Azmi K
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Jun;69(3):133-7.
    PMID: 25326355 MyJurnal
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP- nETs) are rare neoplasms with a complex spectrum of presentation. The study cohort (n=64) included the diagnoses of carcinoid, (n=26, 41%), insulinoma, (n=25, 39%), undetermined (n=10, 16%), VIPoma, glucagonoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEn-1) (n= 3). Almost half of the patients (n=31) had distant metastasis at diagnosis, the commonest being carcinoid tumours. Presenting symptoms were due to either hormonal expressions or mass effects. diagnoses in all patients were made based on positive immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin and synaptophysin. Less than half (n=30) had either serum chromogranin A, urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-hIAA), serum insulin or C-peptide levels performed. Commonest diagnostic imaging modalities were computed tomography (CT) scan (94%) and abdominal ultrasound (15%). Curative or palliative surgery was performed in 58 patients. Systemic therapy included long acting somatostatin analogues (n=14), chemotherapy (n=7) and interferon-α2b (n=1). nine patients died, all of who had metastatic disease at diagnosis. All patients with insulinoma (n=25) were assessed by endocrinologists whilst carcinoid tumours were mainly managed by surgeons (n=16/26). Involvements of oncologists and gastroenterologists were minimal. This study showed that patients with GEP-nETs in Malaysia commonly presented late in the disease with presence of distant metastases. Less than half had adequate hormonal and biochemical examinations performed for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes, and only a third received systemic therapy. Lack of institutionalbased database, clinical expertise and multi-disciplinary involvement contributed to the inadequate surveillance and management of the disease.
  3. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9.
    PMID: 18705452 MyJurnal
    We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension. CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma. He subsequently presented to us again a year later with persistent hyperkalaemia and asymptomatic hyponatraemia. Further investigations strongly suggested the presence of isolated mineralocorticoid deficiency with normal cortisol levels. This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  4. Hamizah R, Rohana AG, Anwar SA, Ong TZ, Hamzaini AH, Zulkarnaen AN
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):70-1.
    PMID: 17682577 MyJurnal
    We report a case of a previously healthy 38-year old lady who presented with prolonged fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Intensive investigations were performed for pyrexia of unknown origin which revealed negative. CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions which did not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Percutaneous biopsy of the splenic lesion revealed granuloma formation and Langhan's giant cells suggestive of TB. She responded well with anti- TB medication but required extended treatment duration of 24 months due to persistence of the splenic lesion on repeated CT scans. This case illustrates a very rare clinical entity of isolated splenic TB with a therapeutic dilemma following incomplete resolution, despite prolonged treatment.
  5. Rohana AG, Norasyikin AW, Suehazlyn Z, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61(5):638-40.
    PMID: 17623970 MyJurnal
    We report a case of a 65 year old Malay lady with long-standing diabetes mellitus, who presented to our institution with a one month history of worsening neck pain and progressive upper and lower limb weakness. She was stable despite severe hyponatraemia which was initially treated as syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH). This was consistent with her underlying illness which was concluded as cervical tuberculosis (TB) with spinal cord compression. She underwent decompression and bone grafting. Despite continuous treatment her serum sodium levels remained low. There were no other problems with her adrenals or thyroid. A water loading and hypertonic saline perfusion test was performed and supported the diagnosis of reset osmostat. Her serum sodium remained below the normal range and she was discharged well.
  6. Soehardy Z, Hayati SN, Rozita M, Rohana AG, Halim AG, Norella K, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Oct;61(4):484-6.
    PMID: 17243528 MyJurnal
    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is one of the common forms of nephrotic syndrome in the adult population. The majority of MGN are idiopathic, but the secondary forms can be seen in the setting of autoimmune disease, neoplasia, infection and following exposure to certain therapeutic agents. Histologically, MGN is an immunologically mediated disease in which immune complexes deposit in the subepithelial space. Syphilis is a venereal disease that can also be acquired by exposure to infected blood. Untreated syphilis may progress and develop renal complications such as membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) or diffuse endocapillary glomerulonephritis with or without crescent formation. Today, with increasing awareness of sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV infection coupled by the practice of protected sexual intercourse and advancement of medicine, we have seen fewer and fewer cases of acquired syphilis. Furthermore, majority will present with typical syphilitic symptoms of such as chancre, rash, fever and lymph node enlargement in which case the diagnosis is easily obtained. We are reporting a case of acquired syphilis masquerading as membranous glomerulonephritis without typical syphilitic symptoms.
  7. Soehardy Z, Yuhanisa A, Thein SS, Rohana AG, Fauzi AR, Norlinah MI, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):655-6.
    PMID: 16515122
    We report a 40-year-old man who has Marfan's syndrome and was recently diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis when he presented with chronic cough. He was admitted with bilateral lower limb weakness which was ascending in nature. He eventually required ventilation. It was initially thought to be isoniazid-neuropathy. However, stopping the drug did not improve the condition and the patient developed bilateral lower motor neuron 7th cranial nerve palsy. Nerve conduction, MRI and CSF studies were done to confirm a first case report of AMSAN variant progressing to CIDP in a patient with Marfan's syndrome and pulmonary tuberculosis.
  8. Robert SA, Rohana AG, Suehazlyn Z, Maniam T, Azhar SS, Azmi KN
    J Eat Disord, 2013;1:28.
    PMID: 24999407 DOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-1-28
    The Binge Eating Scale (BES) questionnaire is a self-administered instrument developed to identify binge eaters. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Malay language version of BES as a screening instrument for binge eating. A cut-off point of 17 is taken as comparable to the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV patient version (SCID-I/P), the gold standard for the diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder.
  9. Robert SA, Rohana AG, Shah SA, Chinna K, Wan Mohamud WN, Kamaruddin NA
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2015 May-Jun;9(3):301-4.
    PMID: 25870084 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.03.005
    We examined the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue on appetite and plasma ghrelin in non-diabetic obese participants with subclinical binge eating (BE). Forty-four obese BE participants (mean age: 34±9 years, BMI: 35.9±4.2kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups for 12 weeks. All participants received standard advice for diet and exercise. Binge eating score, ghrelin levels and other anthropometric variables were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Participants who received liraglutide showed significant improvement in binge eating, accompanied by reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Ghrelin levels were significantly increased which may potentially diminish the weight loss effects of liraglutide beyond the intervention.
  10. Sangeetha-Shyam, Fatimah A, Rohana AG, Norasyikin AW, Karuthan C, Nik SS, et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2013 Apr;19(1):9-23.
    PMID: 24800381 MyJurnal
    Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2
    diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low glycaemic index (GI) diets improve
    cardio-metabolic outcomes in insulin-resistant individuals. We examined the
    feasibility of lowering GI through GI-based-education among Asian post-GDM
    women. Methods: A 3-month investigation was carried out on 60 Malaysian
    women with a mean age of 31.0±4.5 years and a history of GDM. Subjects were
    randomised into two groups: LGIE and CHDR. The CHDR group received
    conventional healthy dietary recommendations only. The LGIE group received
    GI based-education in addition to conventional healthy dietary recommendations.
    At baseline and after 3-months, dietary intake of energy and macronutrient
    intakes including GI diet and glycaemic load was assessed using 3-day food
    records. Diabetes-Diet and GI-concept scores and physical activity levels were
    assessed using a questionnaire. Adherence to dietary instructions was measured
    at the end of 3 months. Results: At the end of 3 months, the LGIE group had
    significant reductions in energy intake (241.7±522.4Kcal, P=0.037, ES=0.463), total
    carbohydrate (48.7±83.5g, P=0.010, ES=0.583), GI (3.9±7.1, P=0.017, ES=0.549) and
    GL (39.0±55.3, P=0.003, ES=0.705) and significant increases in protein (3.7±5.4g,
    0.003, ES=0.685) and diet fibre (4.6±7.3g, P=0.06). The CHDR group had a significant
    reduction in fat only (5.7±9.4g, P=0.006, ES=0.606). There was a 30% increase in
    GI-concept scores in the LGIE group (p< 0.001). Changes in GI-concept scores
    correlated significantly to the reduction in dietary GI (r = -0.642, P=0.045). Dietary
    adherence was comparable in both groups. Conclusion: GI-education improves
    GI-concept knowledge and helps lower dietary glycaemic index among women
    with a history of GDM.
    Keywords: Diet, gestational diabetes mellitus, glycaemic index, glycaemic load,
    prevention, type 2 diabetes
  11. Rohana AG, Loh KC, Tin SK, Soh CH, Nazaimoon WM, Fong KY, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):133-7.
    PMID: 22106694
    HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 gene polymorphism were analyzed to study type 1 DM susceptibility in Malay patients from Southeast Asia (Malaysia and Singapore). Patients showed significant increases in the occurrence of DQA1*0501 (50.7% vs. 20.4%; RR = 3.97; Pc < 0.01), DQB1*0201 (48% vs. 19.1%; RR = 3.86; Pc < 0.05), and DRB1*0301 (38.7 vs. 6.8%; RR = 8.36; 95% Pc < 0.05). Conversely, significant decreases were noted in the occurrence of DQA1*0601 (14.7% vs. 35.2%; RR = 0.33; Pc = 0.008) and DQB1*0601 (4% vs. 23.5%; RR = 0.16; Pc < 0.05) in type 1 DM patients. Using a logistic regression model, we derived a risk prediction model for type 1 DM in our indigenous Malay population based on the identified HLA genotypes. The RR for type 1 DM increases by a factor of 5.68 for every unit increase in the number of DRB1*0301 allele (P < 0.001), and decreases by a factor of 0.18 per unit increase in the number of DQB1*0601 allele (P < 0.001). After adjusting for these two HLA genotypes, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0601 were not statistically significant as risk predictors. The lower incidence of type 1 DM in the Malay population may be contributed by the genotypic combinations of DR and DQ genes as well as the linkage disequilibria between susceptible and protective alleles.
  12. Hamizah R, Norlinah MI, Tan HJ, Soehardy Z, Halim AG, Rohana AG, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61(5):633-5.
    PMID: 17623968 MyJurnal
    A 20-year-old girl first notice bilateral ocular muscle weakness in 2001. Two months later, she developed acute muscle paralysis and respiratory failure which required ventilation. Serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies and repetitive nerve stimulation test was positive and consistent with myasthenia gravis (MG). CT scan thorax revealed thymic enlargement and she underwent a video assisted thymectomy (VATS). However, over the next three years, despite maximal doses of various immunosuppressive agents with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin, she was admitted with recurrent myasthenic crisis without any obvious precipitant. She was then commenced on mycophenolate mofetil and together with regular plasmapheresis, cyclosporine and prednisolone, her symptoms have finally improved and brought under control.
  13. Nurain MN, Marmuji LZ, Mastura I, Michael FH, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Yusof M, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):55-59.
    PMID: 32175041
    Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and her developing fetus. Management of the condition at the primary care level includes pre-conception care, screening, diagnosis, as well as antenatal and postpartum care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in ensuring its holistic management.
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