Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 227 adults aged 40 to 59 years at low-cost housing flats in suburban area of Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. Data collection involved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for polyphenols and international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects were measured for anthropometric parameters including height, weight, waist and neck circumferences (NC), and body fat percentage. The polyphenol intake from the diet was estimated using local polyphenol database built according to PHENOL-EXPLORER.
Results: The average intake of polyphenol of subjects was 1815 (672) mg/day. The main food sources of polyphenol were coffee with milk, followed by chocolate milk and red beans. A higher polyphenol intake according to quartile was significantly associated with a lower neck circumference (χ2 = 8.30, P = 0.040), waist circumference (χ2 = 8.45, P = 0.038) and body fat percentage (χ2 = 8.06, P = 0.045). Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that the association remained significant for the neck circumference (P = 0.032), after controlling for age, household income, energy intake and physical activity level. More subjects with normal NC had higher intake of polyphenols (50th percentile and above). In contrast, subjects with high NC showed lower percentiles of polyphenols intake (50th percentile and below).
Conclusion: The result showed that polyphenol intake was associated with neck circumference and thus it can be suggested that polyphenol intake is associated with obesity.
Methods: Subjects' food intakes were calculated by using dietary history questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire for polyphenols. The subjects' mental health and cognitive status were measured by general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and Rey's auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT).
Results: More than 40% of middle-aged adults were identified as having signs of poor mental health. A total of 67.9% of the subjects had poor cognitive status according to RAVLT immediate recall. Hierarchical binary logistic regression indicated that fat intake was associated with somatic symptoms for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.04; P < 0.05] and women (AOR = 1.06; P < 0.05). Intake of lignan (AOR = 1.071; P < 0.05) was associated with better RAVLT immediate recall among women. Additionally, high cholesterol (AOR = 3.14; P < 0.05) was associated with poor score of RAVLT delayed recall for women.
Conclusions: Early detection of poor mental health and cognitive is crucial to prevent Alzheimer's disease in old age.