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  1. Sahoo S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2010 Jan;17(1):12-6.
    PMID: 22135520 MyJurnal
    Although around 70% of HIV+ cases used to have ocular manifestations, the late reporting of cases often results in severe forms of ocular morbidity that would otherwise have been prevented. The objective of this study was to describe the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS-related patients who had been admitted to TM Jafferji Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
  2. Sahoo S
    Int J Appl Basic Med Res, 2016 Jul-Sep;6(3):166-9.
    PMID: 27563580 DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.186959
    To know the individual's current level of readiness and to manage self-directed learning (SDL) not only help learners but also the instructors. The objectives of this study were to find SDL readiness among 4(th) year medical student and to analyze the effect of weekly assessment of SDL topics.
  3. Thevi T, Sahoo S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 Apr;71(2):45-6.
    PMID: 27326939
    PURPOSE: To analyse the visual outcomes of cases with posterior capsule rupture (PCR) compared to those without PCR following phacoemulsification. The occurrence of posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification surgery for cataract can have serious implications in the visual recovery. However, recognition of PCR and proper management can yield a successful visual outcome. This study analysed the visual outcomes of cases with PCR compared to those without PCR.

    METHODS: This is a case-control study. All patients who underwent cataract surgery from 2011 to 2012 in Hospital Melaka were traced from the National Eye Database (NED) of Malaysia. The visual outcomes were classified as good, borderline and poor as per WHO guidelines. The data was analysed with SPSS version 12 IBM.

    RESULTS: Out of 80.4% (2519) of eyes that had undergone phacoemulsification (PHACO) type of surgery, 3.06% (77 cases) had posterior capsule rupture complication. There was no significant difference in the visual outcome of borderline between cases with PCR and cases without PCR (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.989; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.382- 2.560). However, cases with PCR were significantly less likely to have good vision compared to those without PCR (OR 0.335; 95% CI 0.157-0.714).

    CONCLUSION: The study reveals that a significant number of patients without PCR had good vision, whereas those with PCR did not get good vision. We would like to suggest meticulous care during phacoemulsification surgery to avoid PCR in order to obtain good visual outcomes.
  4. Sahoo S, Mohammed CA
    Korean J Med Educ, 2018 Jun;30(2):109-118.
    PMID: 29860777 DOI: 10.3946/kjme.2018.86
    PURPOSE: This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students.

    METHODS: A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken. A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning.

    RESULTS: Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.

  5. Sahoo R, Rehan S, Sahoo S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):121-126.
    PMID: 30914885 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.12
    Background: A poster presentation is an experiential learning activity that stimulates curiosity and interest among students. Moreover, it encourages exploration and integration of concepts and provides students with a novel way to demonstrate their understanding of scientific principles. This pilot projects aimed to analyse views of participants on the academic benefits and learning of medical sciences via poster presentations.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study used the sequential exploratory type of mixed methods design in which quantitative data analysis was performed via survey-based questionnaires and qualitative study. For this purpose, we performed a thematic analysis of semi-structured interview questions that were administered to all participants using the self-interview technique.

    Results: A majority of students were of the opinion that the process of making poster preparation acted as an opportunity to promote deep learning. Moreover, a majority expressed that making these presentations required teamwork, which gave them an insight into collaborative learning.

    Conclusion: Our study revealed that poster presentations, when used effectively as an assignment, can facilitate a learner's critical and reflective thinking and promoting active learning. Previous generic guidelines for making posters were found to be an important step that led to a systematic scientific approach amongst learners as well as for integrating basic science and medical knowledge.

  6. Prabhu V, Sahoo S, Soe HH
    Int J Appl Basic Med Res, 2015 Aug;5(Suppl 1):S29-31.
    PMID: 26380205 DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.162264
    BACKGROUND: Although lecture handouts are commonly given to students during theory lectures, students' perception, as well as their performance, can vary depending on the type of handouts they receive for information processing.
    METHODOLOGY: This is a quasi-experimental study involving 6(th) semester medical students. The study was conducted during theory lectures on ophthalmology. The two types of notes given to the students were comprehensive handout and a skeleton handout, which included some lecture notes but required substantial annotation by the students. Pre-test and post-test in the form of multiple choice questions were conducted before and after the lecture session, respectively.
    RESULTS: There was a significant difference of mean score of pre- and post-test between skeletal handout (pre = 1.85 ± 1.275, post = 4.85 ± 0.363) and full handout (pre = 1.92 ± 1.09 post = 2.61 ± 0.771) with P < 0.001. However, the students' responses to questionnaires indicated a strong preference for much detailed handouts as essential to preparation for examinations.
    CONCLUSION: The student can improve their performance during examination while working on skeletal handouts during theory lectures i n spite of showing a preference for complete handouts.
    KEYWORDS:Handout; interactive; lecture; medical student; skeleton
  7. Thanigasalam T, Sahoo S, Ali MM
    PMID: 26065504 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000056
    PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the risk factors and the point at which posterior capsule rupture (PCR) with/without vitreous loss occurred after cataract surgery and the precautions to be taken to avoid it in the future.
    DESIGN: A retrospective study.
    METHODS: Patients who underwent cataract surgery from January 2011 to December 2012 in a hospital in Malaysia were studied. The data were obtained from the National Eye Database of Malaysia.
    RESULTS: Of 80.4% eyes (2519) that had undergone phacoemulsification, it was found that 3.06% (77) of the cases had PCR as one of the complications. The largest number of PCRs happened during cortical removal (35.2%), followed by segment removal (25.4%), cracking (8.5%), and aspiration of the oculoviscodevice (8.5%). It has been found that the rupture most often occurred during cortex removal by consultants, whereas most PCRs occurred during segment removal by specialists.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that around 3% of patients had PCR during phacoemulsification. It is important to recognize PCR and presence of vitreous loss intraoperatively to prevent further complications of cystoid macular edema and endophthalmitis.
  8. Thanigasalam T, Sahoo S, Kyaw Soe HH
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Jul;21(4):51-3.
    PMID: 25977622
    This study was done to correlate the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture among patients with pseudoexfoliation during phacoemulsification. This was a retrospective audit of patients who underwent phacoemulsification type cataract surgery from January 2011 to December 2012 in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Data was obtained from the National Eye Database (NED) of Malaysia. The data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that there was no significant increase in the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture among patients with pseudoexfoliation. Hence, we concluded that there was no correlation between the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture and the presence of pesudoexfoliation among patients who underwent phacoemulsification.
  9. Sahoo S, Thevi T, Soe HHK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):96-100.
    PMID: 29599639 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.11
    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of well-being and cognitive impairment with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. Fifty-four individuals were recruited for study as cases were matched with 60 individuals as the control subjects, and data were collected using the WHO well-being index and the validated 6-item cognitive impairment test dementia test. The results showed that there was no significant association between gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and POAG. Patients with POAG had significantly lower well-being index scores (mean 67.93) than the control group (mean 81.60) withP-value < 0.001. Similarly, patients with POAG had a significantly higher score of cognitive impairment (CIT test) (mean 6.15) compared to the control group (mean 0.40) withP-value < 0.001. Consequently, POAG is likely to be associated with higher cognitive impairment and lower well-being index.
  10. Behera G, Poduval M, Patro DK, Sahoo S
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):68-71.
    PMID: 29021883 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.009
    Brodie's abscess is a variety of subacute osteomyelitis with a long duration of presentation and intermittent pain. It usually involves the metaphyseal region of long bones of the lower limbs. Brodie's abscess of pelvic bone is very rare. Involvement of posterior ilium with gluteal syndrome is extremely unusual and can be easily missed or misdiagnosed. We present a 9-year old boy who reported to us with intermittent low back pain of three months duration without any other constitutional symptoms. Clinically, there was mild tenderness over the posterior ilium. Computed tomography showed a lytic lesion in the posterior ilium with a breach in the outer cortex. MRI and bone scan were suggestive of inflammatory pathology. Keeping infective, tubercular and benign bone tumors as differential diagnoses, open biopsy and curettage were done. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and histopathology was suggestive of osteomyelitis. The patient received appropriate antibiotics for six weeks. He was asymptomatic till 18 months of follow up without any recurrence. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual presentation as gluteal syndrome and low back pain, and its resemblance to other pelvic and sacroiliac joint pathologies which are often missed or misdiagnosed in paediatric patients.

    Study done in India
  11. Sahoo S, Myint KT, Soe HH, Singh S
    PMID: 26107029 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0b013e3182a6481a
    PURPOSE: One of the major challenges lies in the use of strategies to assess students working in small groups. The assessment by tutors and peers, and self-assessment by students appear to be integral parts of problem-based-learning (PBL) tutorials. Our study aimed to analyze the formative assessment scores by students themselves, their tutor and peers during undergraduate ophthalmology tutorials.
    DESIGN: A cross sectional study.
    METHODS: One hundred undergraduate students' self-assessment made during ophthalmology PBL tutorials were compared with that made by their tutor and student peers. At the end of every session, each student and student peers were given an assessment form dealing with criteria like responsibility, information processing, communication, critical analysis and self-awareness. The questionnaires were filled using the 5-point Likert scale. The tutor's assessment was made using the same criteria.
    RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between self-assessment and tutor assessment in regard to participation in PBL session (P = 0.01), punctuality for each session (P ≤ 0.001) and bring new information (P = 0.001). There was a positive correlation between self-assessment and peer assessment regarding active participation (P = 0.02) and bringing new information (P = 0.003). However, there was no significant correlation between the overall scores given by selves and those by peers and the tutor.
    CONCLUSIONS: Students tended to overrate themselves. The self-assessment scores were generally higher than those given by their tutor and peers. To foster evidence-based practice of ophthalmology, the information acquisition skills need to be improved.
  12. Myint KT, Sahoo S, Thein AW, Moe S, Ni H
    PMID: 26451693 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010790.pub2
    Sickle cell disease includes a group of inherited haemoglobinopathies affecting multiple organs including the eyes. Some people with the disease develop ocular manifestations due to vaso-occlusion. Vision-threatening complications of sickle cell disease are mainly due to proliferative sickle retinopathy which is characterized by proliferation of new blood vessels. Laser photocoagulation is widely applicable in proliferative retinopathies such as proliferative sickle retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. It is important to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser photocoagulation in the treatment of proliferative sickle retinopathy to prevent sight-threatening complications.
  13. Sahoo S, Venkatesan P, Myint KT, Moe S
    PMID: 26065348 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000094
    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the attitude of peer tutors (PTs) toward peer-assisted learning (PAL) and to explore the perceived benefits of PAL by PTs and peer learners (PLs).
    DESIGN: A qualitative and quantitative research study.
    METHODS: This study involved fourth-year medical undergraduates during their clinical posting in ophthalmology. One PAL session was conducted in each of the 4-week clinical postings. Peer tutors were selected during the first week and were briefed on PAL. Premultiple and postmultiple choice questions were distributed to PLs before and after each PAL session. One focus group discussion was conducted with PLs to explore their perception. Peer tutors were requested to give feedback in the form of structured Likert scale statements with 2 open-ended questions.
    RESULTS: A total of 104 students, 6 PTs and 98 PLs, participated in this study. Both tutor and learner groups expressed positive attitudes toward PAL. Peer learners preferred having PAL in a clinical setting. There were some issues related with PAL that emerged from both groups. Success in PAL depends on the teaching ability of PTs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Students have positive perceptions toward PAL. Most of the students believed PAL was beneficial to them.
  14. Sahoo S, Barua A, Myint KT, Haq A, Abas AB, Nair NS
    PMID: 25686158 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010009.pub2
    Diabetic cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a condition which involves fluid accumulation in the inner portion of the retina. It often follows changes in retinal blood vessels which enhance the fluid to come out of vessels. Although it may be asymptomatic, symptoms are primarily painless loss of central vision, often with the complaint of seeing black spots in front of the eye.It is reported that CMO may resolve spontaneously, or fluctuate for months, before causing loss of vision. If left untreated or undiagnosed, progression of CMO may lead to permanent visual loss.It has been noted that patients with diabetic retinopathy have elevated inflammatory markers, and therefore it is likely that inflammation aids in the progression of vascular disease in these patients. Several topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketorolac 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%, have therefore also been used topically to treat chronic diabetic CMO. Hence this review was conducted to find out the effects of topical NSAIDs in diabetic CMO.
  15. De S, Selvan VT, Tan J, Soe HHK, Sahoo S, Sahoo R
    PMID: 31867395 DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_379_19
    BACKGROUND: Cancer cervix is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), oncogenic virus and has vaccines and screening as its preventive measures. This study analyzes the change in awareness and attitudes of nonmedical students toward the condition following the use of an educational module.

    METHODOLOGY: The study design was quasi-experimental. The interprofessional (IP) team implemented an educational module and analyzed the difference in awareness of young individuals toward the cancer cervix. A pretest and posttest written questionnaire, customized for both genders, was administered with the intervention of the educational module in between. The module consisted of a short educational presentation along with a group activity. A follow-up survey was also done after 2 months to check the attrition of awareness. The statistical analysis was done using MacNemar test using SPSS 12 IBM software and significance of differences were determined.

    RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of knowledge and awareness on linkage between HPV and cervical cancer (P < 0.001). There was also significant change with regard to attitudes toward cervical cancer vaccination (P = 0.004). The knowledge of HPV linkage to the malignancy was maintained after 2 months of gap. The subjects also wished for more future awareness program.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is improved awareness in the dental and foundation in science students, and this improved awareness will ensure favorable attitudes toward cervical cancer vaccines or will attend regular screening programs. Awareness program must be held at regular intervals at different locations to enhance the knowledge dissemination of this common yet preventable genital malignancy of females. The IP collaboration and practices will help in reducing the disease burden of the society in future.

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