Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Lukman SK, Saidin S
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 05;108(5):1171-1185.
    PMID: 31994824 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36891
    Even though drug-eluting stent (DES) has prominently reduced restenosis, however, its complication of delayed endothelialization has caused chronic side effect. A coating of ginseng-based biodegradable polymer could address this issue due to its specific therapeutic values. However, deposition of this type of stable coating on metallic implant often scarce. Therefore, in this study, different polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine compositions were adopted to electrodeposit ginsenoside encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcapsules coating. The coating surfaces were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy instruments. A month coating stability was then investigated with an evaluation of in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell analyses consisted of cytotoxicity and cells attachment assessments. The 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine has assisted the formation of stable, uniform, and rounded microcapsules coating with appropriate wettability and roughness. Less than 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine was not enough to drive the formation of microcapsules coating while greater than 1.5 mg caused the deposition of melted microcapsules. The similar coating also has promoted greater cells proliferation and attachment compared to other coating variation. Therefore, the utilization of electrodeposition to deposit a drug-based polymer coating could be implemented to develop DES, in accordance to stent implantation which ultimately aims for enrich endothelialization.
  2. Saidin S, Othman N, Noordin R
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2019 Jan;38(1):15-38.
    PMID: 30255429 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-018-3379-3
    Amoebiasis, an enteric protozoan disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, is a public health problem in many developing countries, causing up to 100,000 fatal cases annually. Detection of the pathogenic E. histolytica and its differentiation from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba spp. play a crucial role in the clinical management of patients. Laboratory diagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis in developing countries still relies on labour-intensive and insensitive methods involving staining of stool sample and microscopy. Newer and more sensitive methods include a variety of antigen detection ELISAs and rapid tests; however, their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity seem to vary between studies, and some tests do not distinguish among the Entamoeba species. Molecular detection techniques are highly sensitive and specific and isothermal amplification approaches may be developed into field-applicable tests; however, cost is still a barrier for their use as a routine laboratory test method in most endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis of extraintestinal amoebiasis faces challenges of lack of definitive detection of current infection and commercially available point-of-care tests. For both types of amoebiasis, there is still a need for highly sensitive and specific tests that are rapid and cost-effective for use in developing countries where the disease is prevalent. In recent years, new molecules of diagnostic value are being discovered and new tests developed. The advances in 'omics' technologies are enabling discoveries of new biomarkers that may help distinguish between different infection stages.
  3. Saidin S, Othman N, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2017 Oct;97(4):1204-1213.
    PMID: 28820699 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0132
    Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay. Seven of the 10 compounds showed inhibitory activities against the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)/inorganic phosphate binding site of the ATP-grasp domain. Two compounds, NSC349156 (pancratistatin) and NSC228137 (7-ethoxy-4-[4-methylphenyl] sulfonyl-3-oxido-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-3-ium), exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of E. histolytica trophozoites with MIC values of 25 and 50 μM, and IC50 values of 14 and 20.7 μM, respectively.
  4. Mustafa AA, Matinlinna JP, Saidin S, Kadir MR
    J Prosthet Dent, 2014 Dec;112(6):1498-506.
    PMID: 24993375 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.05.011
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The inconsistency of dentin bonding affects retention and microleakage.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory and finite element analysis study was to investigate the effects on the formation of a hybrid layer of an experimental silane coupling agent containing primer solutions composed of different percentages of hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 125 sound human premolars were restored in vitro. Simple class I cavities were formed on each tooth, followed by the application of different compositions of experimental silane primers (0%, 5%, 25%, and 50% of hydroxyethyl methacrylate), bonding agents, and dental composite resins. Bond strength tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. The laboratory experimental results were validated with finite element analysis to determine the pattern of stress distribution. Simulations were conducted by placing the restorative composite resin in a premolar tooth by imitating simple class I cavities. The laboratory and finite element analysis data were significantly different from each other, as determined by 1-way ANOVA. A post hoc analysis was conducted on the bond strength data to further clarify the effects of silane primers.

    RESULTS: The strongest bond of hybrid layer (16.96 MPa) was found in the primer with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate, suggesting a barely visible hybrid layer barrier. The control specimens without the application of the primer and the primer specimens with no hydroxyethyl methacrylate exhibited the lowest strength values (8.30 MPa and 11.78 MPa) with intermittent and low visibility of the hybrid layer. These results were supported by finite element analysis that suggested an evenly distributed stress on the model with 25% hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

    CONCLUSIONS: Different compositions of experimental silane primers affected the formation of the hybrid layer and its resulting bond strength.

  5. Saidin S, Chevallier P, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H, Mantovani D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4715-24.
    PMID: 24094179 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.07.026
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application.
  6. Saidin S, Abdul Kadir MR, Sulaiman E, Abu Kasim NH
    J Dent, 2012 Jun;40(6):467-74.
    PMID: 22366313 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.02.009
    The aim of this study was to analyse micromotion and stress distribution at the connections of implants and four types of abutments: internal hexagonal, internal octagonal, internal conical and trilobe.
  7. Nordin JA, Prajitno DH, Saidin S, Nur H, Hermawan H
    PMID: 25842138 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.019
    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone-implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12h milling in the presence of HPO4(2-) ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis.
  8. Saarani NN, Jamuna-Thevi K, Shahab N, Hermawan H, Saidin S
    Dent Mater J, 2017 May 31;36(3):260-265.
    PMID: 28111388 DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2016-177
    A guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane has been extensively used in the repair and regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues. One of the main challenges of GBR restoration is bacterial colonization on the membrane, constitutes to premature membrane degradation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered GBR membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) with two types of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis through a disc diffusion and bacterial count tests. The membranes exhibited a pattern of growth inhibition and killing effect against both bacteria. The increase in LA concentration tended to increase the bactericidal activities which indicated by higher diameter of inhibition zone and higher antibacterial percentage. It is shown that the incorporation of LA into the GBR membrane has retarded the growth and proliferation of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria for the treatment of periodontal disease.
  9. Tapsir Z, Jamaludin FH, Pingguan-Murphy B, Saidin S
    J Biomater Appl, 2018 02;32(7):987-995.
    PMID: 29187035 DOI: 10.1177/0885328217744081
    The utilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen as bioactive coating materials could enhance cells attachment, proliferation and osseointegration. However, most methods to form crystal hydroxyapatite coating do not allow the incorporation of polymer/organic compound due to production phase of high sintering temperature. In this study, a polydopamine film was used as an intermediate layer to immobilise hydroxyapatite-collagen without the introduction of high sintering temperature. The surface roughness, coating adhesion, bioactivity and osteoblast attachment on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating were assessed as these properties remains unknown on the polydopamine grafted film. The coating was developed by grafting stainless steel 316L disks with a polydopamine film. Collagen type I fibres were then immobilised on the grafted film, followed by the biomineralisation of hydroxyapatite. The surface roughness and coating adhesion analyses were later performed by using AFM instrument. An Alamar Blue assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the coating, while an alkaline phosphatase activity test was conducted to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts on the coating. Finally, the morphology of cells attachment on the coating was visualised under FESEM. The highest RMS roughness and coating adhesion were observed on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating (hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa). The hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa coating was non-toxic to the osteoblast cells with greater cells proliferation, greater level of alkaline phosphate production and more cells attachment. These results indicate that the immobilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen using an intermediate polydopamine is identical to enhance coating adhesion, osteoblast cells attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and thus could be implemented as a coating material on orthopaedic and dental implants.
  10. Lukman SK, Al-Ashwal RH, Sultana N, Saidin S
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2019;67(5):445-451.
    PMID: 31061369 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00847
    Electrodeposition is commonly used to deposit ceramic or metal coating on metallic implants. Its utilization in depositing polymer microcapsule coating is currently being explored. However, there is no encapsulation of drug within polymer microcapsules that will enhance its chemical and biological properties. Therefore, in this study, ginseng which is known for its multiple therapeutic effects was encapsulated inside biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules to be coated on pre-treated medical grade stainless steel 316L (SS316L) using an electrodeposition technique. Polyaniline (PANI) was incorporated within the microcapsules to drive the formation of microcapsule coating. The electrodeposition was performed at different current densities (1-3 mA) and different deposition times (20-60 s). The chemical composition, morphology and wettability of the microcapsule coatings were characterized through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analyses. The changes of electrolyte colors, before and after the electrodeposition were also observed. The addition of PANI has formed low wettability and uniform microcapsule coatings at 2 mA current density and 40 s deposition time. Reduction in the current density or deposition time caused less attachment of microcapsule coatings with high wettability records. While prolonging either one parameter has led to debris formation and melted microcapsules with non-uniform wettability measurements. The color of electrolytes was also changed from milky white to dark yellow when the current density and deposition time increased. The application of tolerable current density and deposition time is crucial to obtain a uniform microcapsule coating, projecting a controlled release of encapsulated drug.
  11. Asiri A, Saidin S, Sani MH, Al-Ashwal RH
    Sci Rep, 2021 03 11;11(1):5634.
    PMID: 33707606 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85149-x
    In this study, single, mix, multilayer Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were fabricated and characterized as a biological wound dressing scaffolds. The biological activities of the synthesized scaffolds have been verified by in vitro and in vivo studies. The chemical composition finding showed that the identified functional units within the produced nanofibers (O-H and N-H bonds) are attributed to both growth factors (GFs) in the PVA nanofiber membranes. Electrospun nanofibers' morphological features showed long protrusion and smooth morphology without beads and sprayed with an average range of 198-286 nm fiber diameter. The fiber diameters decrement and the improvement in wettability and surface roughness were recorded after GFs incorporated within the PVA Nanofibers, which indicated potential good adoption as biological dressing scaffolds due to the identified mechanical properties (Young's modulus) in between 18 and 20 MPa. The MTT assay indicated that the growth factor release from the PVA nanofibers has stimulated cell proliferation and promoted cell viability. In the cell attachment study, the GFs incorporated PVA nanofibers stimulated cell proliferation and adhered better than the PVA control sample and presented no cytotoxic effect. The in vivo studies showed that compared to the control and single PVA-GFs nanofiber, the mix and multilayer scaffolds gave a much more wound reduction at day 7 with better wound repair at day 14-21, which indicated to enhancing tissue regeneration, thus, could be a projected as a suitable burn wound dressing scaffold.
  12. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Razak KA, Huat LB, Othman N, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014 Apr 04;14:182.
    PMID: 24708664 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-182
    BACKGROUND: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common clinical manifestation of extraintestinal amoebiasis especially in developing countries, causing up to 100 000 fatal cases annually. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to prevent the disease complications, however its diagnosis still poses many challenges due to the limitations of the available detection tools. Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), an excretory-secretory protein of E. histolytica, has been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for ALA, hence it may be exploited in the development of a new test for ALA.

    METHODS: Recombinant PPDK (rPPDK) was expressed, purified and evaluated by Western blot. In parallel, recombinant galactose-and-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc lectin) was produced and tested similarly. The protein identity was confirmed by analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF. A lateral flow dipstick (LFD) test using rPPDK was subsequently developed (rPPDK-LFD) and evaluated for serodiagnosis of ALA.

    RESULTS: rPPDK was expressed as soluble protein after 4 hours of induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 30°C. Purification using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin yielded 1.5 mg of rPPDK from 1 L of culture with estimated molecular mass of 98 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Western blots using sera from patients with ALA, healthy individuals and other diseases probed with anti-human IgG4-HRP showed the highest sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (100%); as compared to blots using IgG and IgG1 as secondary antibodies. Moreover, rPPDK showed better specificity when compared to rGal/GalNAc lectin. In the development of the LFD test, the optimum amount of rPPDK was 0.625 μg per dipstick and the optimum working concentration of colloidal gold conjugated anti-human IgG4 was optical density (OD) 5 (1.7 μg of anti-human IgG4). Evaluation of rPPDK-LFD using ALA patients and controls serum samples showed 87% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% specificity.

    CONCLUSION: The developed rPPDK-LFD showed good potential for rapid diagnosis of ALA, and merit further multicentre validation using larger number of serum samples.

  13. Mohd Daud N, Saeful Bahri IF, Nik Malek NA, Hermawan H, Saidin S
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Sep 01;145:130-9.
    PMID: 27153117 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.04.046
    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is known for its high antibacterial substantivity and is suitable for use to bio-inert medical devices due to its long-term antibacterial efficacy. However, CHX molecules require a crosslinking film to be stably immobilized on bio-inert metal surfaces. Therefore, polydopamine (PDA) was utilized in this study to immobilize CHX on the surface of 316L type stainless steel (SS316L). The SS316L disks were pre-treated, modified with PDA film and immobilized with different concentrations of CHX (10mM-50mM). The disks were then subjected to various surface characterization analyses (ATR-FTIR, XPS, ToF-SIMS, SEM and contact angle measurement) and tested for their cytocompatibility with human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated the formation of a thin PDA film on the SS316L surface, which acted as a crosslinking medium between the metal and CHX. CHX was immobilized via a reduction process that covalently linked the CHX molecules with the functional group of PDA. The immobilization of CHX increased the hydrophobicity of the disk surfaces. Despite this property, a low concentration of CHX optimized the viability of HSF cells without disrupting the morphology of adherent cells. The immobilized disks also demonstrated high antibacterial efficacy against both bacteria, even at a low concentration of CHX. This study demonstrates a strong beneficial effect of the crosslinked PDA film in immobilizing CHX on bio-inert metal, and these materials are applicable in medical devices. Specifically, the coating will restrain bacterial proliferation without suffocating nearby tissues.
  14. Zahabiun F, Sadjjadi SM, Yunus MH, Rahumatullah A, Moghaddam MH, Saidin S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2015 Aug;93(2):319-25.
    PMID: 26033026 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0190
    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis.
  15. Mohamad Yusof A, Jamal R, Muhammad R, Abdullah Suhaimi SN, Mohamed Rose I, Saidin S, et al.
    PMID: 29713312 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00158
    The incidence rate of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has rapidly increased in the recent decades, and the microRNA (miRNA) is one of the potential biomarkers in this cancer. Despite good prognosis, certain features such as lymph node metastasis (LNM) and BRAF V600E mutation are associated with a poor outcome. More than 50% of PTC patients present with LNM and BRAF V600E is the most common mutation identified in this cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying these features are yet to be elucidated. This study aims to elucidate miRNA-genes interaction networks in PTC with or without LNM and to determine the association of BRAF V600E mutation with miRNAs and genes expression profiles. Next generation sequencing was performed to characterize miRNA and gene expression profiles in 20 fresh frozen tumor and the normal adjacent tissues of PTC with LNM positive (PTC LNM-P) and PTC without LNM (PTC LNN). BRAF V600E was genotyped using Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatics integration and pathway analysis were performed to determine the regulatory networks involved. Based on network analysis, we then investigated the association between miRNA and gene biomarkers, and pathway enrichment analysis was performed to study the role of candidate biomarkers. We identified 138 and 43 significantly deregulated miRNAs (adjusted p value 
  16. Mohd Daud N, Hussein Al-Ashwal R, Abdul Kadir MR, Saidin S
    Ann. Anat., 2018 Nov;220:29-37.
    PMID: 30048761 DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2018.06.009
    Immobilization of chlorhexidine (CHX) on stainless steel 316L (SS316L), assisted by a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer is projected as an approach in combating infection while aiding bone regeneration for coating development on orthopedic and dental implants. This study aimed to investigate the ability of CHX coating to promote apatite layer, osteoblast cells viability, adhesion, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. Stainless steel 316L disks were pre-treated, grafted with a polydopamine film and immobilized with different concentrations of CHX (10-30mM). The apatite layer formation was determined through an in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) test by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDX analyses. The osteoblastic evaluations including cells viability, cells adhesion, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization were assessed with human fetal osteoblast cells through MTT assay, morphology evaluation under FESEM, ALP enzyme activity and Alizarin Red S assay. The apatite layer was successfully formed on the CHX coated disks, demonstrating potential excellent bioactivity property. The CHX coatings were biocompatible with the osteoblast cells at low CHX concentration (<20mM) with good adhesion on the metal surfaces. The increment of ALP activity and calcium deposition testified that the CHX coated disks able to support osteoblastic maturation and mineralization. These capabilities give a promising value to the CHX coating to be implied in bone regeneration area.
  17. Saidin S, Yunus MH, Othman N, Lim YA, Mohamed Z, Zakaria NZ, et al.
    Pathog Glob Health, 2017 May;111(3):128-136.
    PMID: 28335696 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2017.1300421
    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml-1. Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml-1. The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.
  18. Zahidin NS, Saidin S, Zulkifli RM, Muhamad II, Ya'akob H, Nur H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 31;207:146-173.
    PMID: 28647509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.019
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions.

    THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. This review updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic treatments and also discusses the toxicity issue of Acalypha indica.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. The data was collected from online journals, magazines, and books, all of which were published in English, Malay and Indonesian. Search engine websites such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Researchgate and other online collections were utilized in this review to obtain information.

    RESULTS: The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Several pharmacological properties exhibited certain potentials based on the obtained results that came from different related studies. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound healing medicine. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction.

    CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the current studies of Acalypha indica collected from many regions. This review hopefully will provide a useful and basic knowledge platform for anyone interested in gaining information regarding Acalypha indica.

  19. Li HY, Lin HC, Huang BJ, Kai Lo AZ, Saidin S, Lai CH
    Langmuir, 2020 09 29;36(38):11374-11382.
    PMID: 32902993 DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02297
    Recently, studies on the development and investigation of carbohydrate-functionalized silica nanoparticles (NPs) and their biomedicine applications such as cell-specific targeting and bioimaging has been carried out extensively. Since the number of breast cancer patients has been growing in recent years, potential NPs were being studied in this project for targeting breast cancer cells. Mannose receptors can be found on the surface of MDA-MB-231, which is a kind of human breast cancer cell line. Therefore, we decorated a cyanine 3 fluorescent dye (Cy3) and mannosides on the surface of silica NPs for the purpose of imaging and targeting. Galactoside was also introduced onto the surface of silica NPs acting as a control sample. Various sizes of silica NPs were synthesized by using different amounts of ammonium to investigate the effect of the size of NPs on the cellular uptake rate. The physical properties of these NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, and their zeta potential. Cellular experiments demonstrated that mannoside-modified NPs can be uptaken by MDA-MB-231. From the experiment, we found out that the best cellular uptake rate of nanoparticle size is about 250 nm. The MTT assay showed that Man@Cy3SiO2NPs are not cytotoxic, indicating they may have the potential for biomedical applications.
  20. Saidin S, Jumat MA, Mohd Amin NAA, Saleh Al-Hammadi AS
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Jan;118:111382.
    PMID: 33254989 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111382
    In spite of antibiotics, antibacterial agents or specifically known as antiseptics are actively explored for the prevention of infection-associated medical devices. Antibacterial agents are introduced to overcome the complication of bacterial resistance which devoted by antibiotics. It can be classified into inorganic and organic, that prominently have impacted bacterial retardation in their own killing mechanism patterns. Therefore, this review paper aimed to provide information on most common used inorganic and organic antibacterial agents which have potential to be utilized in biomedical applications, thus, classifying the trends of antibacterial mechanism on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the beginning, infectious diseases and associated biomedical infections were stated to expose current infection scenarios on medical devices. The general view, application, susceptible bacteria and activation mechanism of inorganic (silver, copper, gold and zinc) and organic (chlorhexidine, triclosan, polyaniline and polyethylenimine) antibacterial agents that are widely proposed for biomedical area, were then gathered and reviewed. In the latter part of the study, the intact mechanisms of inorganic and organic antibacterial agents in retarding bacterial growth were classified and summarized based on its susceptibility on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Most of inorganic antibacterial agents are in the form of metal, which release its ions to retard prominently Gram-negative bacteria. While organic antibacterial agents are susceptible to Gram-positive bacteria through organelle modification and disturbance of bio-chemical pathway. However, the antibacterial effects of each antibacterial agent are also depending on its effective mechanism and the species of bacterial strain. These compilation reviews and classification mechanisms are beneficial to assist the selection of antibacterial agents to be incorporated on/within biomaterials, based on its susceptible bacteria. Besides, the combination of several antibacterial agents with different susceptibilities will cover a wide range of antibacterial spectrum.
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