Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Busra FM, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Dec;32(12):1311-2.
    PMID: 22159390
  2. Noruddin NA, Saim AB, Chua KH, Idrus R
    Laryngoscope, 2007 Dec;117(12):2139-45.
    PMID: 17891046
    OBJECTIVE: To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application.

    METHODS: Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells.

    RESULTS: Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques.

    CONCLUSION: Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  3. Bt Hj Idrus R, Abas A, Ab Rahim F, Saim AB
    Tissue Eng Part A, 2015 Dec;21(23-24):2812-6.
    PMID: 26192075 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0521
    With the worldwide growth of cell and tissue therapy (CTT) in treating diseases, the need of a standardized regulatory policy is of paramount concern. Research in CTT in Malaysia has reached stages of clinical trials and commercialization. In Malaysia, the regulation of CTT is under the purview of the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB), Ministry of Health (MOH). NPCB is given the task of regulating CTT, under a new Cell and Gene Therapy Products framework, and the guidelines are currently being formulated. Apart from the laboratory accreditation, researchers are advised to follow Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy from the Medical Development Division, MOH, published in 2009.
  4. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RBH
    J Tissue Viability, 2017 Aug;26(3):208-215.
    PMID: 28615133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtv.2017.05.003
    Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm2 were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 104 cells/cm2) and fibroblasts (3 × 104 cells/cm2) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium. Wound examination was conducted weekly and the animals were euthanized after 2 weeks. Gross examination showed that re-epithelialization was fastest in the PRP+cells group at both day 7 and 14, followed by the PRP group and NT group receiving no treatment. Only the PRP+cells group achieved complete wound closure by 2 weeks. Epidermal layer was presence in the central region of the wound of the PRP+cells and PRP groups but absence in the NT group. Comparison between the PRP+cells and PRP groups showed that the PRP+cells-treated wound was more mature as indicated by the presence of thinner epidermis with single cell layer thick basal keratinocytes and less cellular dermis. In summary, the combination of low cell density and diluted PRP creates a synergistic effect which expedites the healing of full-thickness wounds. This combination has the potential to be developed as a rapid wound therapy via the direct application of freshly harvested skin cells in diluted PRP.
  5. Nordin A, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Bt Hj Idrus R
    PMID: 32384749 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093229
    Over-induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ) in keratinocytes is a key feature in keloid scar. The present work seeks to investigate the effect of Kelulut honey (KH) on TGFβ-induced EMT in human primary keratinocytes. Image analysis of the real time observation of TGFβ-induced keratinocytes revealed a faster wound closure and individual migration velocity compared to the untreated control. TGFβ-induced keratinocytes also have reduced circularity and display a classic EMT protein expression. Treatment of 0.0015% (v/v) KH reverses these effects. In untreated keratinocytes, KH resulted in slower initial wound closure and individual migration velocity, which sped up later on, resulting in greater wound closure at the final time point. KH treatment also led to greater directional migration compared to the control. KH treatment caused reduced circularity in keratinocytes but displayed a partial EMT protein expression. Taken together, the findings suggest the therapeutic potential of KH in preventing keloid scar by attenuating TGFβ-induced EMT.
  6. Ruszymah BH, Chowdhury SR, Manan NA, Fong OS, Adenan MI, Saim AB
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Mar 27;140(2):333-8.
    PMID: 22301444 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.023
    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing.
  7. Hamid AA, Idrus RB, Saim AB, Sathappan S, Chua KH
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012;67(2):99-106.
    PMID: 22358233
    OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction.

    RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction.

    CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.

  8. Ruszymah BH, Chua K, Latif MA, Hussein FN, Saim AB
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2005 Nov;69(11):1489-95.
    PMID: 15941595
    Treatment and management of congenital as well as post-traumatic trachea stenosis remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a trachea with human nasal septum chondrocytes by using the combination of biodegradable hydrogel and non-biodegradable high-density polyethylene (HDP) as the internal predetermined shape scaffold.
  9. Maarof M, Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Khairoji KA, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Cytotechnology, 2016 Oct;68(5):1873-84.
    PMID: 26768914 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-015-9940-3
    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.
  10. Mohamad Buang ML, Seng HK, Chung LH, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Arch Med Res, 2012 Jan;43(1):83-8.
    PMID: 22374243 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.01.012
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tissue engineering strategy has been considered as an alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus due to lack of permanent pharmaceutical treatment and islet donors for transplantation. Various cell lines have been used to generate functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) including progenitor pancreatic cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCB-SCs), adult bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs).

    METHODS: Human ADSCs from lipoaspirated abdominal fat tissue was differentiated into IPCs following a two-step induction protocol based on a combination of alternating high and low glucose, nicotinamide, activin A and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for a duration of 3 weeks. During differentiation, histomorphological changes of the stem cells towards pancreatic β-islet characteristics were observed via light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Dithizone (DTZ) staining, which is selective towards IPCs, was used to stain the new islet-like cells. Production of insulin hormone by the cells was analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas its hormonal regulation was tested via a glucose challenge test.

    RESULTS: Histomorphological changes of the differentiated cells were noted to resemble pancreatic β-cells, whereas DTZ staining positively stained the cells. The differentiated cells significantly produced human insulin as compared to the undifferentiated ADSCs, and its production was increased with an increase of glucose concentration in the culture medium.

    CONCLUSIONS: These initial data indicate that human lipoaspirated ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional IPCs, and could be used as a therapy to treat diabetes mellitus in the future.

  11. Ansari AS, Yazid MD, Sainik NQAV, Razali RA, Saim AB, Idrus RBH
    Stem Cells Int, 2018;2018:2406462.
    PMID: 30534156 DOI: 10.1155/2018/2406462
    Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are emerging as a promising source for bone regeneration in the treatment of bone defects. Previous studies have reported the ability of WJ-MSCs to be induced into the osteogenic lineage. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the potential of WJ-MSC differentiation into the osteogenic lineage. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline via Ebscohost and Scopus, where relevant studies published between 1961 and 2018 were selected. The main inclusion criteria were that articles must be primary studies published in English evaluating osteogenic induction of WJ-MSCs. The literature search identified 92 related articles, but only 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. These include two animal studies, three articles containing both in vitro and in vivo assessments, and 13 articles on in vitro studies, all of which are discussed in this review. There were two types of osteogenic induction used in these studies, either chemical or physical. The studies demonstrate that WJ-MSCs are able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage and promote osteogenesis. In light of these observations, it is suggested that WJ-MSCs can be a potential source of stem cells for osteogenic induction, as an alternative to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
  12. Razali RA, Lokanathan Y, Yazid MD, Ansari AS, Saim AB, Hj Idrus RB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 16;20(14).
    PMID: 31315241 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20143492
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant dynamic process that causes changes in the phenotype of epithelial cells, changing them from their original phenotype to the mesenchymal cell phenotype. This event can be observed during wound healing process, fibrosis and cancer. EMT-related diseases are usually caused by inflammation that eventually leads to tissue remodeling in the damaged tissue. Prolonged inflammation causes long-term EMT activation that can lead to tissue fibrosis or cancer. Due to activation of EMT by its signaling pathway, therapeutic approaches that modulate that pathway should be explored. Olea europaea (OE) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects and abundant beneficial active compounds. These properties are presumed to modulate EMT events. This article reviews recent evidence of the effects of OE and its active compounds on EMT events and EMT-related diseases. Following evidence from the literature, it was shown that OE could modulate TGFβ/SMAD, AKT, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in EMT due to a potent active compound that is present therein.
  13. Mh Busra F, Rajab NF, Tabata Y, Saim AB, B H Idrus R, Chowdhury SR
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2019 05;13(5):874-891.
    PMID: 30811090 DOI: 10.1002/term.2842
    The full-thickness skin wound is a common skin complication affecting millions of people worldwide. Delayed treatment of this condition causes the loss of skin function and integrity that could lead to the development of chronic wounds or even death. This study was aimed to develop a rapid wound treatment modality using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) bio-scaffold with or without noncultured skin cells. Genipin (GNP) and carbodiimide (EDC) were used to cross-link OTC-I scaffold to improve the mechanical strength of the bio-scaffold. The physicochemical, biomechanical, biodegradation, biocompatibility, and immunogenicity properties of OTC-I scaffolds were investigated. The efficacy of this treatment approach was evaluated in an in vivo skin wound model. The results demonstrated that GNP cross-linked OTC-I scaffold (OTC-I_GNP) had better physicochemical and mechanical properties compared with EDC cross-linked OTC-I scaffold (OTC-I_EDC) and noncross-link OTC-I scaffold (OTC-I_NC). OTC-I_GNP and OTC-I_NC demonstrated no toxic effect on cells as it promoted higher cell attachment and proliferation of both primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts compared with OTC-I_EDC. Both OTC-I_GNP and OTC-I_NC exhibited spontaneous formation of bilayer structure in vitro. Immunogenic evaluation of OTC-I scaffolds, in vitro and in vivo, revealed no sign of immune response. Finally, implantation of OTC-I_NC and OTC-I_GNP scaffolds with noncultured skin cells demonstrated enhanced healing with superior skin maturity and microstructure features, resembling native skin in contrast to other treatment (without noncultured skin cells) and control group. The findings of this study, therefore, suggested that both OTC-I scaffolds with noncultured skin cells could be promising for the rapid treatment of full-thickness skin wound.
  14. Bt Hj Idrus R, Sainik NQAV, Nordin A, Saim AB, Sulaiman N
    PMID: 32455701 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103613
    Cardiovascular disease is a major public health burden worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of cardiovascular disease resulting from low blood supply to the heart. It can lead to further complications such as cardiac arrhythmia, toxic metabolite accumulation, and permanently infarcted areas. Honey is one of the most prized medicinal remedies used since ancient times. There is evidence that indicates honey can function as a cardioprotective agent in cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles and discusses the available evidence on the effect of honey on cardiovascular diseases. Three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, were searched between January 1959 and March 2020 to identify reports on the cardioprotective effect of honey. Based on the pre-set eligibility criteria, 25 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. Honey investigated in the studies included varieties according to their geological origin. Honey protects the heart via lipid metabolism improvement, antioxidative activity, blood pressure modulation, heartbeat restoration, myocardial infarct area reduction, antiaging properties, and cell apoptosis attenuation. This review establishes honey as a potential candidate to be explored further as a natural and dietary alternative to the management of cardiovascular disease.
  15. Man RC, Idrus RBH, Ibrahim WIW, Saim AB, Lokanathan Y
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2023 May 30.
    PMID: 37247133 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2023_777
    Conditioned medium from cultured fibroblast cells is recognized to promote wound healing and growth through the secretion of enzymes, extracellular matrix proteins, and various growth factors and cytokines. The objective of this study was to profile the secreted proteins present in nasal fibroblast conditioned medium (NFCM). Nasal fibroblasts isolated from human nasal turbinates were cultured for 72 h in Defined Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium (DKSFM) or serum-free F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) to collect conditioned medium, denoted as NFCM_DKSFM and NFCM_FD, respectively. SDS-PAGE was performed to detect the presence of protein bands, followed by MALDI-TOF and mass spectrometry analysis. SignalP, SecretomeP, and TMHMM were used to identify the secreted proteins in conditioned media. PANTHER Classification System was performed to categorize the protein according to protein class, whereas STRING 10 was carried out to evaluate the predicted proteins interactions. SDS-PAGE results showed the presence of various protein with molecular weight ranging from ~10 kDa to ~260 kDa. Four protein bands were identified using MALDI-TOF. The analyses identified 104, 83, and 7 secreted proteins in NFCM_FD, NFCM_DKSFM, and DKSFM, respectively. Four protein classes involved in wound healing were identified, namely calcium-binding proteins, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, and signaling molecules. STRING10 protein prediction successfully identified various pathways regulated by secretory proteins in NFCM. In conclusion, this study successfully profiled the secreted proteins of nasal fibroblasts and these proteins are predicted to play important roles in RECs wound healing through various pathways.
  16. Sulaiman SB, Keong TK, Cheng CH, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Indian J Med Res, 2013 Jun;137(6):1093-101.
    PMID: 23852290
    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering.
  17. Ude CC, Sulaiman SB, Min-Hwei N, Hui-Cheng C, Ahmad J, Yahaya NM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e98770.
    PMID: 24911365 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098770
    In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model.
  18. Idrus RB, Rameli MA, Low KC, Law JX, Chua KH, Latiff MB, et al.
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2014 Apr;27(4):171-80.
    PMID: 24637651 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000445199.26874.9d
    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns.
  19. Ng AM, Saim AB, Tan KK, Tan GH, Mokhtar SA, Rose IM, et al.
    J Orthop Sci, 2005;10(2):192-9.
    PMID: 15815868
    Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.
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