The radioprotective effect of Polyalthia longifolia was studied in mice. P. longifolia treatment showed improvement in mice survival compared to 100% mortality in the irradiated mice. Significant increases in hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts were observed in the animals pretreated with leaf extract. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia leaf extract also increased the CFU counts of the spleen colony and increased the relative spleen size. A dose-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation levels was observed in the animals pretreated with P. longifolia. However, although the animals pretreated with P. longifolia exhibited a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, the values remained below normal in both liver and the intestine. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia also resulted in the regeneration of the mucosal crypts and villi of the intestine. Moreover, pretreatment with P. longifolia leaf extract also showed restoration of the normal liver cell structure and a significant reduction in the elevated levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin. These results suggested the radioprotective ability of P. longifolia leaf extract, which is significant for future investigation for human applications in developing efficient, economically viable, non-toxic natural and clinically acceptable novel radioprotectors.
T cell activation is initiated by signaling molecules downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) that are organized by adaptor proteins. CIN85 (Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa) is one such adaptor protein. Here, we showed that CIN85 limited T cell responses to TCR stimulation. Compared to activated wild-type (WT) T cells, those that lacked CIN85 produced more IL-2 and exhibited greater proliferation. After stimulation of WT T cells with their cognate antigen, CIN85 was recruited to the TCR signaling complex. Early TCR signaling events, such as phosphorylation of ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (Zap70), Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), were enhanced in CIN85-deficient T cells. The inhibitory function of CIN85 required the SH3 and PR regions of the adaptor, which associated with the phosphatase suppressor of TCR signaling-2 (Sts-2) after TCR stimulation. Together, our data suggest that CIN85 is recruited to the TCR signaling complex and mediates inhibition of T cell activation through its association with Sts-2.
More than 90% of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients show homozygous deletion of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1). They retain SMN2, a highly homologous gene to SMN1, which may partially compensate for deletion of SMN1. Although the promoter sequences of these two genes are almost identical, a GCC insertion polymorphism has been identified at c.-320_-321 in the SMN1 promoter. We have also found this insertion polymorphism in an SMN2 promoter in an SMA patient (Patient A) who has SMA type 2/3.
Influenza A viruses evolve at a high rate requiring continuous monitoring to maintain the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs. We performed next generation sequencing analysis of 100 influenza A/H3N2 isolates collected in four Asian countries (Japan, Lebanon, Myanmar, and Vietnam) during 2012-2015. Phylogenetic analysis revealed several reassortment events leading to the circulation of multiple clades within the same season. This was particularly evident during the 2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Importantly, our data showed that certain lineages appeared to be fitter and were able to persist into the following season. The majority of A/H3N2 viruses continued to harbor the M2-S31N mutation conferring amantadine-resistance. In addition, an S31D mutation in the M2-protein, conferring a similar level of resistance as the S31N mutation, was detected in three isolates obtained in Japan during the 2014/2015 season. None of the isolates possessed the NA-H274Y mutation conferring oseltamivir-resistance, though a few isolates were found to contain mutations at the catalytic residue 151 (D151A/G/N or V) of the NA protein. These variations did not alter the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors and were not detected in the original clinical specimens, suggesting that they had been acquired during their passage in MDCK cells. Novel polymorphisms were detected in the PB1-F2 open-reading frame resulting in truncations in the protein of 24-34 aminoacids in length. Thus, this study has demonstrated the utility of monitoring the full genome of influenza viruses to allow the detection of the potentially fittest lineages. This enhances our ability to predict the strain(s) most likely to persist into the following seasons and predict the potential degree of vaccine match or mismatch with the seasonal influenza season for that year. This will enable the public health and clinical teams to prepare for any related healthcare burden, depending on whether the vaccine match is predicted to be good or poor for that season.