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  1. Palillo ES, Salleh MA
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(11):1195-200.
    PMID: 1491621
    Four hundred and ninety-eight predominantly pyocin-type 10 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analyzed for resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin and netilmicin. Based on NCCLS-recommended MIC breakpoints, 245 strains were found to be resistant, of which 41.6% were resistant to carbenicillin, 38% to gentamicin, 37.8% to netilmicin, 26.3% to cefoperazone, 17.9% to cefotaxime, 0.6% to amikacin and none to ceftazidime. Quadruple resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, gentamicin and netilmicin was the most frequent pattern observed. Resistance to older antibiotics (kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) and to mercuric chloride were also common. Conjugation experiments suggested that self-transmissible and non-transmissible plasmids occurred in at least 66 strains.
  2. Shojaei TR, Tabatabaei M, Shawky S, Salleh MA, Bald D
    Mol Biol Rep, 2015 Jan;42(1):187-99.
    PMID: 25245956 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3758-5
    Biotechnology-based detection systems and sensors are in use for a wide range of applications in biomedicine, including the diagnostics of viral pathogens. In this review, emerging detection systems and their applicability for diagnostics of viruses, exemplified by the case of avian influenza virus, are discussed. In particular, nano-diagnostic assays presently under development or available as prototype and their potentials for sensitive and rapid virus detection are highlighted.
  3. Shojaei TR, Mohd Salleh MA, Tabatabaei M, Ekrami A, Motallebi R, Rahmani-Cherati T, et al.
    Braz J Infect Dis, 2014 Nov-Dec;18(6):600-8.
    PMID: 25181404 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2014.05.015
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causing agent of tuberculosis, comes second only after HIV on the list of infectious agents slaughtering many worldwide. Due to the limitations behind the conventional detection methods, it is therefore critical to develop new sensitive sensing systems capable of quick detection of the infectious agent. In the present study, the surface modified cadmium-telluride quantum dots and gold nanoparticles conjunct with two specific oligonucleotides against early secretory antigenic target 6 were used to develop a sandwich-form fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor to detect M. tuberculosis complex and differentiate M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin simultaneously. The sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed biosensor were 94.2% and 86.6%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction and nested polymerase chain reaction were considerably lower, 74.2%, 73.3% and 82.8%, 80%, respectively. The detection limits of the sandwich-form fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor were far lower (10 fg) than those of the polymerase chain reaction and nested polymerase chain reaction (100 fg). Although the cost of the developed nanobiosensor was slightly higher than those of the polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, its unique advantages in terms of turnaround time, higher sensitivity and specificity, as well as a 10-fold lower detection limit would clearly recommend this test as a more appropriate and cost-effective tool for large scale operations.
  4. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Salleh MA, Abd Razak MF, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2012 Mar;173(2-3):173-8.
    PMID: 21948061 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-011-9469-8
    Prototheca wickerhamii isolated from blood of 61-year-old kidney transplant patient was described. Although it is classified as an alga (genus Chlorella), the disease, protothecosis, is included under mycoses because of its clinical pathological presentations. Colony characteristics of P. wickerhamii are indistinguishable from other yeast-like organisms like Cryptococcus and Candida. Fortunately, commercial identification system for yeast can be used to identify this organism to the species level. Electron microscopy demonstrated "morula" or daisy-like appearance of its endosporulating sporangia. The organism was sensitive to amphotericin B by E test method. Even though human protothecosis is uncommon, it cannot be ignored because it is emerging as an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of disseminated algaemia due to P. wickerhamii in Malaysia.
  5. Shojaei TR, Salleh MA, Sijam K, Rahim RA, Mohsenifar A, Safarnejad R, et al.
    PMID: 27380305 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2016.06.052
    Due to the low titer or uneven distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in field samples, detection of CTV by using conventional detection techniques may be difficult. Therefore, in the present work, the cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) was conjugated with a specific antibody against coat protein (CP) of CTV, and the CP were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to develop a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanobiosensor for detecting CTV. The maximum FRET efficiency for the developed nano-biosensor was observed at 60% in AuNPs-CP/QDs-Ab ratio of 1:8.5. The designed system showed higher sensitivity and specificity over enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of detection of 0.13μgmL(-1) and 93% and 94% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. As designed sensor is rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications, surveillance and plant certification program.
  6. Salleh MA, Gourlay CM, Xian JW, Belyakov SA, Yasuda H, McDonald SD, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 12;7:40010.
    PMID: 28079120 DOI: 10.1038/srep40010
    The development of microstructure during melting, reactive wetting and solidification of solder pastes on Cu-plated printed circuit boards has been studied by synchrotron radiography. Using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-0.7Cu/Cu as examples, we show that the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer is present within 0.05 s of wetting, and explore the kinetics of flux void formation at the interface between the liquid and the Cu6Sn5 layer. Quantification of the nucleation locations and anisotropic growth kinetics of primary Cu6Sn5 crystals reveals a competition between the nucleation of Cu6Sn5 in the liquid versus growth of Cu6Sn5 from the existing Cu6Sn5 layer. Direct imaging confirms that the β-Sn nucleates at/near the Cu6Sn5 layer in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu joints.
  7. Choo TF, Mohd Salleh MA, Kok KY, Matori KA, Abdul Rashid S
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 18;13(22).
    PMID: 33218206 DOI: 10.3390/ma13225218
    Grog is an additive material that plays important roles in ceramic making. It improves the fabrication process of green bodies as well as the physical properties of fired bodies. Few low-cost materials and wastes have found their application as grog in recent years, thus encouraging the replacement of commercial grogs with cost-saving materials. Coal fly ash, a combustion waste produced by coal-fired power plant, has the potential to be converted into grog owing to its small particle sizes and high content of silica and alumina. In this study, grog was derived from coal fly ash and mixed with kaolin clay to produce ceramics. Effects of the grog addition on the resultant ceramics were investigated. It was found that, to a certain extent, the grog addition reduced the firing shrinkage and increased the total porosity of the ceramics. The dimensional stability of the ceramics at a firing temperature of 1200 °C was also not noticeably affected by the grog. However, the grog addition in general had negative effects on the biaxial flexural strength and refractoriness of the ceramics.
  8. Zaw MT, Emran NA, Ibrahim MY, Suleiman M, Awang Mohd TA, Yusuff AS, et al.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2019 Aug;52(4):563-570.
    PMID: 29428381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2018.01.003
    BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V.cholerae in Sabah and whether V.cholerae in Sabah belong to atypical El Tor biotype.

    METHODS: ERIC-PCR, a DNA fingerprinting method for bacterial pathogens based on the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence, was used to study the genetic diversity of 65 clinical V.cholerae O1 isolates from 3 districts (Kudat, Beluran, Sandakan) in Sabah and one environmental isolate from coastal sea water in Kudat district. In addition, we studied the biotype-specific genetic traits in these isolates to establish their biotype.

    RESULTS: Different fingerprint patterns were seen in isolates from these three districts but one of the patterns was seen in more than one district. Clinical isolates and environmental isolate have different patterns. In addition, Sabah isolates harbor genetic traits specific to both classical biotype (ctxB-1, rstRCla) and El Tor biotype (rstRET, rstC, tcpAET, rtxC, VC2346).

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that V.cholerae in Sabah were genetically diverse and were atypical El Tor strains. Fingerprint patterns of these isolates will be useful in tracing the origin of this pathogen in the future.

  9. Yasin RM, Zin NM, Hussin A, Nawi SH, Hanapiah SM, Wahab ZA, et al.
    Vaccine, 2011 Aug 5;29(34):5688-93.
    PMID: 21723357 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.004
    From January 2008 to December 2009, 433 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were examined to determine the serotype distribution and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. About 50% of them were invasive isolates. The strains were isolated from patients of all age groups and 33.55% were isolated from children below 5 years. The majority was isolated from blood (48.53%) and other sterile specimens (6.30%). Community acquired pneumonia (41.70%) is the most common diagnosis followed by sepsis (9.54%). Serotyping was done using Pneumotest Plus-Kit and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test strip. Ten most common serotypes were 19F (15.02%), 6B (10.62%), 19A (6.93%), 14 (6.70%), 1 (5.08%), 6A (5.08%), 23F (4.85%), 18C (3.93%), 3 (2.08%) and 5 (1.85%). Penicillin MIC ranged between ≤ 0.012-4 μg/ml with MIC₉₀ of 1 μg/ml. Penicillin resistant rate is 31.78%. The majority of penicillin less-susceptible strains belonged to serotype 19F followed by 19A and 6B. Based on the serotypes distribution 22 (44.00%), 28 (56.00%) and 39 (78.00%) of the invasive isolates from children ≤ 2 years were belonged to serotypes included in the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13, respectively.
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