Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Aliakbarpour H, Che Salmah MR, Dieng H
    Environ Entomol, 2010 Oct;39(5):1409-19.
    PMID: 22546435 DOI: 10.1603/EN10066
    Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits.
  2. Kumara TK, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    PMID: 23691627
    The larval growth of Liosarcophaga dux Thompson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was studied under varying indoor room temperatures in Malaysia. Five replicates were established. The immature growth of this species from first instar until adult emergence was 307.0+/-3.0 hours. The mean larval length measured for second instar, third instar, post-feeding stage and puparia were 6.5+/-0.5 mm (n=10), 11.8+/-3.7 mm (n=31), 12.7+/-0.8 mm (n=16), and 9.5+/-0.5 mm (n=15), respectively.
  3. Aruna Devi A, Abu Hassan A, Kumara TK, Che Salmah MR
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):524-30.
    PMID: 22433881
    The life history of the male and female of the indoor forensic fly, Synthesiomyia nudiseta was studied under fluctuating temperature of indoor environments and analysed based on the age-stage and two sex life table. The life cycle of S. nudiseta was 14.0±1.0 days from the egg stage to adult emergence. The population parameters calculated were; net reproduction rate (R(o)= 108.6), mean generation time (T(o)= 12.2), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)= 0.38), and finite rate of increase (λ= 1.46). The pre-oviposition period (APOP) was 6.0± 0.1 days. All population parameters suggested that S. nudiseta exhibits the r-strategist characteristics.
  4. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;29(1):197-9.
    PMID: 22543622 MyJurnal
    A burned human remain was found outdoor (5º 27' N, 100º 16' E) in Penang Island. The deceased was last seen alive on 23 April 2010 at 2230 h and was found burned on 24 April 2010 at 1920 h. Larval aggregation of second instar Chrysomya megacephala was observed on the chest of the deceased.
  5. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):131-3.
    PMID: 20562823
    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.
  6. Shahar MK, Hassan AA, Lee HL, Salmah MR
    PMID: 21323169
    Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CO2 baited CDC light trap in 2000 and 2001 in limestone areas and caves of western Malaysia. A total of 1,548 specimens were collected comprising 18 species from two genera: Phlebotomus (6 spp) and Sergentomyia (12 spp). Phlebotomus major major (38.9%) was the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia perturbans (20.1%), P. stantoni (15.3%) and others. Biting activity of the sand flies at the Gua Senyum caves, Gua Kota Gelanggi, Batu caves and Gua Kelam were observed using the bare leg landing catch (BLC) technique. Four Phlebotomus spp at Gua Senyum were found to bite humans with a unimodal biting peak (between 01:00 and 04:00 AM). At Gua Kota Gelanggi P. major major was observed to bite humans, but at Batu Caves and Gua Kelam no sand flies were observed to bite humans. Sergentomyia spp did not feed on humans even though high numbers were caught in light traps. The populations of phleobotomine sand flies fluctuated, with several peaks especially among P. major major which peaked in December and was low in February and August. Phlebotomus stantoni was abundant throughout 2001. Most species populations were weakly related to rainfall because they inhabited caves.
  7. Bashir A, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Rahman WA
    PMID: 18564706
    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.
  8. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Aug;26(2):200-5.
    PMID: 19901906 MyJurnal
    Larvae of the Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) were collected from a decomposed human corpse at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital. A colony of this species was established and the eggs were collected for rearing. The developmental times, rearing temperatures, and relative humidity were recorded twice daily from the time the eggs collected until adult emergence. An average of 5 larvae were randomly collected from the rearings twice daily, warm-water killed and preserved in Kahle's solution. The larval instar stages were determined by observing the number of posterior spiracular slits and the length of the preserved larvae were measured. When the larval life cycle was completed, the accumulated developmental times were calculated. A total of 8 replicates were carried out. The temperature of the rearing room was 28.5+/-1.5 degrees Celcius while the relative humidity was within 67-85%. The total developmental time for S. nudiseta was 322+/-19 hours (13.4+/-0.8 days).
  9. Nur Aida H, Abu Hassan A, Nurita AT, Che Salmah MR, Norasmah B
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Aug;25(2):117-25.
    PMID: 18948882
    A semi laboratory experiment using 3 cohorts of Aedes albopictus adults was performed to obtain age-specific mortality and fecundity information and to derive statistical estimates of some population growth parameters. Life expectancy was calculated for both males and females. The following population parameters were estimated: intrinsic rate of increase (rm= 0.21), net reproductive (replacement) rate (Ro= 68.70), age at mean cohort reproduction (To=10.55 days), birth rate (B=0.23), death rate (D=0.02) and generation time (G=20.14 days). The high rm/B (0.91) and B/D (11.50) ratios indicated the high colonizing ability of Ae. albopictus in nature.
  10. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):73-9.
    PMID: 19696730 MyJurnal
    A human corpse at an advanced stage of decomposition was found in a house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. Entomological specimens were collected during the post-mortem and the live specimens were subsequently reared at room temperature. The time of death was estimated to have been 14 days previous to the discovery of the body based on the police investigation. Both adult and larvae of the beetle Dermestes ater (De Geer) were found to be infesting the corpse and from the stage of decomposition of the body and the estimated time of death it would appear that infestation may have begun at a relatively early stage of decomposition.
  11. Norasmah B, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Nurita AT, Nur Aida H
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):134-9.
    PMID: 17322814
    A field study on foraging activity and proteinacous food preference was performed on the tropical fire ant (Solenopsis geminata) (Fabricius) at the School of Biological Sciences and Desasiswa Bakti Permai, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang. Foraging activity studies of 4 colonies of S. geminata were conducted in the field for 24 hours. Foraging activity significantly increased 4 hours before sunset and maximum foraging occurred at midnight until early morning. Three types of proteinacous food; anchovy, meat and egg yolk were tested among the five colonies of S. geminata in the field. The egg yolk was the most preferred food (100%) followed by meat (31%) and anchovy (15%).
  12. Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Dieng H, Salmah MR, Saad AR, Satho T
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2013 Mar;29(1):33-43.
    PMID: 23687853
    We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container index (55), followed by suburban (42) and urban (32) areas. The numbers of key premises and containers were significantly higher (P < 0.000) in rural areas. The class 1 containers were identified as the key containers with higher productivity and efficiency, although class 2 and class 4 are the highest in numbers. Aedes aegypti immatures were found mostly in drums, water reservoirs, and polyethylene sheets, while mixed breeding was more common in buckets and empty paint cans in urban and suburban areas. Aedes albopictus was found mainly in miscellaneous containers such as drums, empty paint cans, and covers in all areas. The main potential containers indoors were drums, water reservoirs, and empty paint cans, and containers outdoors included empty paint cans, drums, and polyethylene sheets.
  13. Saifur RG, Dieng H, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(2):e30919.
    PMID: 22363516 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030919
    The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior.
  14. Aida HN, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, Satho T, Nurita AT, Salmah MR, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;1(6):472-7.
    PMID: 23569816 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    OBJECTIVE: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages.

    METHODS: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2).

    RESULTS: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

  15. Al-Shami SA, Salmah MR, Hassan AA, Azizah MN
    Environ Monit Assess, 2011 Jun;177(1-4):233-44.
    PMID: 20697808 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1630-1
    Morphological mentum deformities which represent sublethal effect of exposure to different types of pollutants were evaluated in Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers of Juru River Basin in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Using mentum deformity incidences, the modified toxic score index (MTSI) was developed based on Lenat's toxic score index (TSI). The suggested MTSI was compared with TSI in terms of its effectiveness to identify different pollutants including heavy metals. The MTSI showed stronger relationship to total deformity incidence expressed as percentage. Additionally, the multivariate RDA model showed higher capability of MTSI to explain the variations in heavy metal contents of the river sediments. The MTSI was recommended in bioassessment of water and sediment quality using the mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. larvae from aquatic ecosystems receiving anthropogenic, agricultural, or industrial discharges.
  16. Dieng H, Rahman GM, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Satho T, Miake F, et al.
    Int J Biometeorol, 2012 Jan;56(1):113-20.
    PMID: 21267602 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-011-0402-0
    Larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse typically inhabit natural and artificial containers. Since these larval habitats are replenished by rainfall, Ae. albopictus may experience increased loss of immature stages in areas with high levels of rainfall. In this study, we investigated the effects of rainfall and container water level on population density, and oviposition activity of Ae. albopictus. In field and laboratory experiments, we found that rainfall resulted in the flushing of breeding habitats. Excess rain negatively impacted larval and pupal retention, especially in small habitats. When filled with water to overflowing, container habitats were significantly repellent to ovipositing females. Taken together, these data suggest that rainfall triggers population loss of Ae. albopictus and related species through a direct detrimental effect (flushing out) and an indirect effect (ovipositional repellency).
  17. Abu Hassan A, Rahman WA, Salmah MR, Rashid MZ, Jaal Z, Adanan CR, et al.
    J. Vector Ecol., 1997 Dec;22(2):109-14.
    PMID: 9491360
    Using cow-baited net traps in the coastal and hilly areas of northern peninsular Malaysia, 21 species of Anopheles mosquitoes were found. The distribution of common Anopheles is presented. The composition of the anopheline mosquito fauna was more diversified in the coastal areas than in the hilly areas. The displacement of Anopheles sundaicus by Anopheles subpictus and the disappearance of Anopheles hackeri in the coastal area were noted.
  18. Huda AN, Salmah MR, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Razak MN
    J. Insect Sci., 2015;15.
    PMID: 26246439 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev090
    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.
  19. Che Salmah MR, Al-Shami SA, Abu Hassan A, Madrus MR, Nurul Huda A
    Int J Biometeorol, 2014 Jul;58(5):679-90.
    PMID: 23483291 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-013-0648-9
    The diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrate shredders were investigated in 52 forested streams (local scale) from nine catchments (regional scale) covering a large area of peninsular Malaysia. A total of 10,642 individuals of aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected, of which 18.22% were shredders. Biodiversity of shredders was described by alpha (αaverage), beta (β) and gamma diversity (γ) measures. We found high diversity and abundance of shredders in all catchments, represented by 1,939 individuals (range 6-115 and average per site of 37.29±3.48 SE) from 31 taxa with 2-13 taxa per site (αaverage=6.98±0.33 SE) and 10-15 taxa per catchment (γ=13.33±0.55 SE). At the local scale, water temperature, stream width, depth and altitude were correlated significantly with diversity (Adj-R2=0.205). Meanwhile, dissolved oxygen, stream velocity, water temperature, stream width and altitude were correlated to shredder abundance (Adj-R2=0.242). At regional scale, however, water temperature was correlated negatively with β and γ diversity (r2=0.161 and 0.237, respectively) as well as abundance of shredders (r2=0.235). Canopy cover was correlated positively with β diversity (r2=0.378) and abundance (r2=0.266), meanwhile altitude was correlated positively with β (quadratic: r2=0.175), γ diversity (quadratic: r2=0.848) as well as abundance (quadratic: r2=0.299). The present study is considered as the first report describing the biodiversity and abundance of shredders in forested headwater streams across a large spatial scale in peninsular Malaysia. We concluded that water temperature has a negative effect while altitude showed a positive relationship with diversity and abundance of shredders. However, it was difficult to detect an influence of canopy cover on shredder diversity.
  20. Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Dieng H, Ahmad H, Salmah MR, Satho T, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2012 Jun;28(2):84-92.
    PMID: 22894118
    It is important to obtain frequent measurements of the abundance, distribution, and seasonality of mosquito vectors to determine the risk of disease transmission. The number of cases of dengue infection has increased in recent years on Penang Island, Malaysia, with recurring epidemics. However, ongoing control attempts are being critically hampered by the lack of up-to-date information regarding the vectors. To overcome this problem, we examined the current situation and distribution of dengue vectors on the island. Residences throughout the urban, suburban, and rural areas were inspected through wet and dry seasons between February 2009 and February 2010. Two vectors were encountered in the survey, with Aedes aegypti present in especially high numbers mostly in urban areas. Similar observations were noted for Ae. albopictus in rural areas. The former species was more abundant in outdoor containers, while the latter showed almost equivalent abundance both outdoors and indoors. The dengue virus was active in both urban and rural areas, and the number of cases of infection was higher in areas where Ae. aegypti was predominant. The abundance of immature Ae. albopictus was positively correlated with rainfall (r2 = 0.461; P < 0.05), but this was not the case for Ae. aegypti. For both species, the size of immature populations tended to increase with increasing intensity of rain, but heavy rains resulted in population loss. In addition to updating data regarding the larval habitats and locations (outdoors and indoors), this study highlighted the importance of spatial vector control stratification, which has the potential to reduce costs in control programs.
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