BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by a polymorphic gene located on chromosome 19. The three common apoE alleles are epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4. We studied the frequencies of the apoE alleles and genotypes in the three ethnic groups-Malay, Chinese and Indian-in Malaysia using DNA amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis.
METHODS: EDTA blood was collected and DNA was extracted using proteinase K-SDS digestion and purified by phenol-chloroform extraction. The apoE gene sequence was amplified using the PCR and apoE genotyping was performed by restriction enzyme digestion with HhaI.
RESULTS: Genotyping of the apoE gene produces six genotypes-E2/E2, E2/E3, E3/E3, E2/E4, E3/E4 and E4/E4. The most common apoE genotype in the Malays, Chinese and Indians studied was E3/E3, thus the most common apoE allele was epsilon3. The three common apoE genotypes were E3/E3 followed by E3/E4 and E2/E3, except in the Indians where E2/E3 was not detected. The three apoE alleles were confirmed in the Malays, Chinese and Indians except for the epsilon2 allele which was absent in the Indians.
CONCLUSION: The combined frequency of the apoE alleles in the Malays, Chinese and Indians was 0.058, 0.829 and 0.114 for epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4, respectively.
Cyclosporine is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily of enzymes and characterized by a narrow therapeutic range with wide interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics. A few single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP3A genes have been shown to correlate significantly with the CYP3A protein expression and activity. We therefore postulated that these polymorphisms could be responsible for some of the interindividual variation in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. The objective of our study is to determine correlation if any between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 on cyclosporine dose requirement and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal allograft recipients. Cyclosporine-dependent renal allograft recipients were genotyped for CYP3A5 A6986G and CYP3AP1 G-44A. The cyclosporine dosages prescribed and the corresponding cyclosporine trough levels for each patient were recorded so that cyclosporine dose per weight (mg/kg/day) and concentration-to-dose ratio (C(0)/D, whereby C(0) is trough level and D is daily dose per weight) could be calculated. A total of 67 patients were recruited for our study. The dose requirement for 1, 3, and 6 months post-transplantation ranged 2.3-11.4, 1.0-9.0, and 1.4-7.2 mg/kg/day, respectively. Patients with *1*1*1*1 (n=5) CYP3A5- and CYP3AP1-linked genotypes needed higher dose of cyclosporine compared to patients with *1*3*1*3 (n = 27) and *3*3*3*3 (n = 33) linked genotypes in months 3 and 6 post-transplantation (P < 0.016). The identification of patients with *1*1*1*1 by CYP3A5 and CYP3AP1 genotyping may have a clinically significant and positive impact on patient outcome with reduced rejection rate by providing pretransplant pharmacogenetic information for optimization of cyclosporine A dosing.
The use of gelatin microspheres (GMs) as a cell carrier has been extensively researched. One of its limitations is that it dissolves rapidly in aqueous settings, precluding its use for long-term cell propagation. This circumstance necessitates the use of crosslinking agents to circumvent the constraint. Thus, this study examines two different methods of crosslinking and their effect on the microsphere's physicochemical and cartilage tissue regeneration capacity. Crosslinking was accomplished by physical (dehydrothermal [DHT]) and natural (genipin) crosslinking of the three-dimensional (3D) GM. We begin by comparing the microstructures of the scaffolds and their long-term resistance to degradation under physiological conditions (in an isotonic solution, at 37°C, pH = 7.4). Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the gelatin structure was preserved after the crosslinking treatments. The crosslinked GM demonstrated good cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and widespread 3D scaffold colonization when seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the crosslinked microspheres enhanced chondrogenesis, as demonstrated by the data. It was discovered that crosslinked GM increased the expression of cartilage-related genes and the biosynthesis of a glycosaminoglycan-positive matrix as compared with non-crosslinked GM. In comparison, DHT-crosslinked results were significantly enhanced. To summarize, DHT treatment was found to be a superior approach for crosslinking the GM to promote better cartilage tissue regeneration.
The study objectives include, enhancing the proliferations of aged bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose stem cells (ADSCs); and evaluating the shelf lives of clinical grade chondrogenically induced cells from both samples. ADSCs and BMSCs from 56 patients (76 ± 8 yrs) were proliferated using basal medium (FD) and at (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) ng/ml of basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). They were induced to chondrogenic lineage and stored for more than 120 hrs in FD, serum, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) and saline at 4 °C. In FD, cells stagnated and BMSCs' population doubling time (PDT) was 137 ± 30 hrs, while ADSCs' was 129.7 ± 40 hrs. bFGF caused PDT's decrease to 24.5 ± 5.8 hrs in BMSCs and 22.0 ± 6.5 hrs in ADSCs (p = 0.0001). Both cells were positive to stem cell markers before inductions and thereafter, expressed significantly high chondrogenic genes (p = 0.0001). On shelf life, both cells maintained viabilities and counts above 70% in FD and serum after 120 hrs. BMSCs' viabilities in DPBS fell below 70% after 96 hrs and saline after 72 hrs. ADSCs' viability fell below 70% in DPBS after 24 hrs and saline within 24 hrs. Concentrations between 20 ng/ml bFGF is ideal for aged adult cells' proliferation and delivery time of induced BMSCs and ADSCs can be 120 hrs in 4 °C serum.
Treatments for skin injuries have recently advanced tremendously. Such treatments include allogeneic and xenogeneic transplants and skin substitutes such as tissue-engineered skin, cultured cells, and stem cells. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general overview of the quality assurance and quality control implemented in the manufacturing of cell and tissue product, with emphasis on our experience in the manufacturing of MyDerm®, an autologous bilayered human skin substitute. Manufacturing MyDerm® requires multiple high-risk open manipulation steps, such as tissue processing, cell culture expansion, and skin construct formation. To ensure the safety and efficacy of this product, the good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility should establish a well-designed quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programme. Standard operating procedures (SOP) should be implemented to ensure that the manufacturing process is consistent and performed in a controlled manner. All starting materials, including tissue samples, culture media, reagents, and consumables must be verified and tested to confirm their safety, potency, and sterility. The final products should also undergo a QC testing series to guarantee product safety, efficacy, and overall quality. The aseptic techniques of cleanroom operators and the environmental conditions of the facility are also important, as they directly influence the manufacturing of good-quality products. Hence, personnel training and environmental monitoring are necessary to maintain GMP compliance. Furthermore, risk management implementation is another important aspect of QA/QC, as it is used to identify and determine the risk level and to perform risk assessments when necessary. Moreover, procedures for non-conformance reporting should be established to identify, investigate, and correct deviations that occur during manufacturing. This paper provides insight and an overview of the QA/QC aspect during MyDerm® manufacturing in a GMP-compliant facility in the Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.
Animal-derivative free reagents are preferred in skin cell culture for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and effects between animal-derived trypsin and recombinant trypsin for skin cells culture and expansion. Full thickness human skin was digested in 0.6 % collagenase for 6 h to liberate the fibroblasts, followed by treatment with either animal-derived trypsin; Trypsin EDTA (TE) or recombinant trypsin; TrypLE Select (TS) to liberate the keratinocytes. Both keratinocytes and fibroblasts were then culture-expanded until passage 2. Trypsinization for both cell types during culture-expansion was performed using either TE or TS. Total cells yield was determined using a haemocytometer. Expression of collagen type I, collagen type III (Col-III), cytokeratin 10, and cytokeratin 14 genes were quantified via RT-PCR and further confirmed with immunocytochemical staining. The results of our study showed that the total cell yield for both keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated with TE or TS were comparable. RT-PCR showed that expression of skin-specific genes except Col-III was higher in the TS treated group compared to that in the TE group. Expression of proteins specific to the two cell types were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining in both TE and TS groups. In conclusion, the performance of the recombinant trypsin is comparable with the well-established animal-derived trypsin for human skin cell culture expansion in terms of cell yield and expression of specific cellular markers.
Open fracture Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIC is associated with higher risk of infection and problems with soft tissue coverage. Various methods have been used for soft tissue coverage in open fractures with large skin defect. We report a case of a patient who had grade IIIC open fracture of the tibia with posterior tibial artery injury. The patient underwent external fixation and reduction. Because of potential compartment syndrome after vascular repair, fasciotomy of the posterior compartment was performed. This wound, however, became infected and because of further debridement, gave rise to a large skin defect. A tissue engineered skin construct, MyDermTM was employed to cover this large defect. Complete wound closure was achieved 35 days postimplantation. The patient then underwent plating of the tibia for nonunion with no adverse effect to the grafted site. The tibia eventually healed 5 months postplating, and the cosmetic appearance of the newly formed skin was satisfactory.