Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 95 in total

  1. Shah SAA, Tang TB, Faye I, Laude A
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 2017 Aug;255(8):1525-1533.
    PMID: 28474130 DOI: 10.1007/s00417-017-3677-y
    PURPOSE: To propose a new algorithm of blood vessel segmentation based on regional and Hessian features for image analysis in retinal abnormality diagnosis.

    METHODS: Firstly, color fundus images from the publicly available database DRIVE were converted from RGB to grayscale. To enhance the contrast of the dark objects (blood vessels) against the background, the dot product of the grayscale image with itself was generated. To rectify the variation in contrast, we used a 5 × 5 window filter on each pixel. Based on 5 regional features, 1 intensity feature and 2 Hessian features per scale using 9 scales, we extracted a total of 24 features. A linear minimum squared error (LMSE) classifier was trained to classify each pixel into a vessel or non-vessel pixel.

    RESULTS: The DRIVE dataset provided 20 training and 20 test color fundus images. The proposed algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 72.05% with 94.79% accuracy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed algorithm achieved higher accuracy (0.9206) at the peripapillary region, where the ocular manifestations in the microvasculature due to glaucoma, central retinal vein occlusion, etc. are most obvious. This supports the proposed algorithm as a strong candidate for automated vessel segmentation.

  2. Butt UJ, Shah SAA, Ahmed T, Zahid S
    Toxicol Res (Camb), 2018 Jan 01;7(1):32-40.
    PMID: 30090560 DOI: 10.1039/c7tx00201g
    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous heavy metal and a known neurotoxicant, produces adverse effects on the brain via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes oxidative stress. In this study we examined the neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds on Pb induced oxidative stress in the developing brain of mice. Mouse pups were exposed to low (0.1%) and high (0.2%) doses of Pb from the first day of pregnancy through their mothers (via drinking water) and lactation until post-natal day (PND) 21. The mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), peroxiredoxin (Prdx6), amyloid precursor protein (APP) common, APP695 and APP770 were examined in the cortex and hippocampus of the mouse brain excised on PND 21 by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic Nigella sativa L. extract was assessed by DPPH assay. The results showed that Pb exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of SOD1, Prdx6 and APP695 and an increase in APP770 in both cortex and hippocampus in a dose dependent manner as compared to the control group. The expression of APP common remained unaltered. Histological assessment of the cortex and hippocampus demonstrated a decrease in the neuronal number and Nissl bodies. The administration of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 ethanolic Nigella sativa L. extract reversed the adverse effects by significantly increasing the expression of SOD1, Prdx6 and APP695 and decreasing the expression of APP770 in both the regions. These results strongly suggest that Nigella sativa L. supplementation greatly improves Pb-induced neurotoxicity in early life and provides neuroprotective and antioxidant potentials.
  3. Alhassan AM, Ahmed QU, Latip J, Shah SAA
    Nat Prod Res, 2019 Jan;33(1):1-8.
    PMID: 29417849 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1437427
    The bioactivity guided fractionation of Tetracera indica leaves crude ethanolic extract has afforded the isolation and characterization of six compounds including a new natural product viz., 5,7-dihydroxyflavone-O-8-sulphate (1) and five known flavonoids (2-6). The structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1, 5 and 6 showed strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 3 and 4 displayed weak activity while compound 2 was inactive. The interactions of the active compounds with alpha-glucosidase were further investigated using molecular docking to confirm their antidiabetic potential.
  4. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Wadood A, Shah SAA, Ahmed QU, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 05;9(1):16015.
    PMID: 31690793 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-52100-0
    Here in this study regarding the over expression of TP, which causes some physical, mental and socio problems like psoriasis, chronic inflammatory disease, tumor angiogenesis and rheumatoid arthritis etc. By this consideration, the inhibition of this enzyme is vital to secure life from serious threats. In connection with this, we have synthesized twenty derivatives of isoquinoline bearing oxadiazole (1-20), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as HREI-MS, 1H- NMR and 13C-NMR and evaluated for thymidine phosphorylase inhibition. All analogues showed outstanding inhibitory potential ranging in between 1.10 ± 0.05 to 54.60 ± 1.50 µM. 7-Deazaxanthine (IC50 = 38.68 ± 1.12 µM) was used as a positive control. Through limited structure activity relationships study, it has been observed that the difference in inhibitory activities of screened analogs are mainly affected by different substitutions on phenyl ring. The effective binding interactions of the most active analogs were confirmed through docking study.
  5. Tahlan S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Mani V, Narasimhan B
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Dec 19;12(1):139.
    PMID: 30569392 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0513-3
    BACKGROUND: The emergence of bacterial resistance is a major public health problem. It is essential to develop and synthesize new therapeutic agents with better activity. The mode of actions of certain newly developed antimicrobial agents, however, exhibited very limited effect in treating life threatening systemic infections. Therefore, the advancement of multi-potent and efficient antimicrobial agents is crucial to overcome the increased multi-drug resistance of bacteria and fungi. Cancer, which remains as one of the primary causes of deaths and is commonly treated by chemotherapeutic agents, is also in need of novel and efficacious agents to treat resistant cases. As such, a sequence of novel substituted benzamides was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    METHODOLOGY: All synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, Mass and elemental analysis followed by in vitro antimicrobial studies against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) strains by the tube dilution method. The in vitro anticancer evaluation was carried out against the human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116), using the Sulforhodamine B assay.

    RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Compound W6 (MICsa, st, kp = 5.19 µM) emerged as a significant antibacterial agent against all tested bacterial strains i.e. Gram-positive (S. aureus), Gram-negative (S. typhi, K. pneumoniae) while compound W1 (MICca, an = 5.08 µM) was most potent against fungal strains (A. niger and C. albicans) and comparable to fluconazole (MIC = 8.16 µM). The anticancer screening demonstrated that compound W17 (IC50 = 4.12 µM) was most potent amongst the synthesized  compounds and also more potent than the standard drug 5-FU (IC50 = 7.69 µM).

  6. Vashist N, Sambi SS, Narasimhan B, Kumar S, Lim SM, Shah SAA, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Dec 01;12(1):125.
    PMID: 30506405 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0498-y
    BACKGROUND: A series of benzimidazole derivatives was developed and its chemical scaffolds were authenticated by NMR, IR, elemental analyses and physicochemical properties. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the tube dilution method and were found to exhibit good antimicrobial potential against selected Gram negative and positive bacterial and fungal species. The compounds were also assessed for their anticancer activity exhibited using the SRB assay and were found to elicit antiproliferative activity against MCF7 breast cancer cell line, which was comparable to the standard drug.

    CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial screening results indicated that compounds 1, 2 and 19 to be promising antimicrobial agents against selected microbial species and comparable to standard drugs which included norfloxacin and fluconazole. The anticancer screening results revealed that compounds, 12, 21, 22 and 29 to show the highest activity against MCF7 and their IC50 values were more potent than 5-fluorouracil.

  7. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(7):609-621.
    PMID: 30526456 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666181210162413
    BACKGROUND: A series of 6, 6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine) derivatives has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and its chemical structures was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR spectral and elemental analyses. The molecular docking study was carried out to find the interaction between active bis-pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the synthesized compounds was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species as well fungal species by tube dilution technique. Antimicrobial results indicated that compound 11y was found to be most potent one against E. coli (MICec = 0.67 µmol/mL) and C. albicans (MICca = 0.17 µmol/mL) and its activity was comparable to norfloxacin (MIC = 0.47 µmol/mL) and fluconazole (MIC = 0.50 µmol/mL), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Anticancer screening of the synthesized compounds using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay demonstrated that compounds 2y (IC50 = 0.01 µmol/mL) and 4y (IC50= 0.02 µmol/mL) have high antiproliferative potential against human colorectal carcinoma cancer cell line than the reference drug (5- fluorouracil) and these compounds also showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may also be used lead for rational drug designing.

  8. Abbasi MA, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Hadi N, Mumtaz A, Shah SAA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Jan;32(1):61-68.
    PMID: 30772791
    In the current research work, a series of new N-(alkyl/aralkyl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamides has been synthesized by reacting 1,4-benzozzdioxan-6-amine (1) with 4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) to yield N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (3) which was further reacted with different alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-n) to afford the target compounds (5a-n). Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, EI-MS spectral techniques and CHN analysis data. The results of enzyme inhibition showed that the molecules, N-2-phenethyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5j) and N-(1-butyl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5d), exhibited moderate inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values 26.25±0.11 μM and 58.13±0.15 μM respectively, whereas, compounds N-benzyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5i) and N-(pentane-2-yl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5f) showed moderate inhibition against α-glucosidase enzyme as evident from IC50 values 74.52±0.07 and 83.52±0.08 μM respectively, relative to standards Eserine having IC50 value of 0.04±0.0001 μM for cholinesterases and Acarbose having IC50 value 38.25±0.12 μM for α-glucosidase, respectively.
  9. Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(15):1559-1571.
    PMID: 30179132 DOI: 10.2174/1389557518666180903151849
    BACKGROUND: Various analogues of benzimidazole are found to be biologically and therapeutically potent against several ailments. Benzimidazole when attached with heterocyclic rings has shown wide range of potential activities. So, from the above provided facts, we altered benzimidazole derivatives so that more potent antagonists could be developed. In the search for a new category of antimicrobial and anticancer agents, novel azomethine of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derived from 3-(2- (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)acetamido)benzohydrazide were synthesized.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The synthesized analogues were characterized by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR and MS studies as well C, H, N analysis. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. typhi) strains and in vitro antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger strains by serial dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) described in μM/ml. The in vitro anticancer activity of synthesized compounds was determined against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT- 116) using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug.

    CONCLUSION: In general, most of the synthesized derivatives exhibited significant antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Compounds 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 20 and 22 showed significant antimicrobial activity towards tested bacterial and fungal strains and compound 26 exhibited significant anticancer activity.

  10. Sharma D, Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):60.
    PMID: 31384808 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0575-x
    In order to overcome the challenges of microbial resistance as well as to improve the effectiveness and selectivity of chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, a novel series of 4-(4-bromophenyl)-thiazol-2-amine derivatives was synthesized and its molecular structures were confirmed by physicochemical and spectral characteristics. The synthesized compounds were further evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using turbidimetric method and anticancer activity against oestrogen receptor positive human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (MCF7) by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that compound p2, p3, p4 and p6 exhibited promising antimicrobial activity that are comparable to standard norfloxacin (antibacterial) and fluconazole (antifungal). Anticancer screening results demonstrated that compound p2 was found to be the most active one against cancer cell line when compared to the rest of the compounds and comparable to the standard drug (5-fluorouracil). The molecular docking study demonstrated that compounds, p2, p3, p4 and p6 displayed good docking score within binding pocket of the selected PDB ID (1JIJ, 4WMZ and 3ERT) and showed promising ADME properties.
  11. Tahlan S, Kumar S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Mani V, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):50.
    PMID: 31384798 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0567-x
    Background: Nitrogen containing heterocycles are widely used and investigated by pharmaceutical industry, as they are important in discovery and designing of new drug molecules. Drugs with a benzimidazole nucleus possess exclusive structural features and electron-rich atmosphere, which enable them to bind to a number of biologically important targets and result in a wide range of activities. This has served as the basis of the present study whereby new scaffolds with benzimidazole moiety were designed and synthesized.

    Methods: The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities by tube dilution and Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays, respectively.

    Results and conclusion: The in vitro biological screening results revealed that compound Z24 exhibited promising antimicrobial and anticancer activities which are comparable to standards.

  12. Sharma D, Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):46.
    PMID: 31384794 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0564-0
    To combat the antimicrobial and anticancer drug resistance by pathogens and cancerous cells, efforts has been made to study the pharmacological activities of newly synthesized N-(4-(4-bromophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-2-chloroacetamide derivatives. The molecular structures of the synthesized derivatives were confirmed by their physicochemical properties and spectroanalytical data (NMR, IR and elemental). The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Gram positive and Gram negative) and fungal species using turbidimetric method and anticancer activity against oestrogen receptor positive human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (MCF7) by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Molecular docking studies were carried out to study the binding mode of active compounds with receptor using Schrodinger v11.5. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that compounds d1, d2 and d3 have promising antimicrobial activity. Anticancer screening results indicated that compounds d6 and d7 were found to be the most active ones against breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, the molecular docking study demonstrated that compounds d1, d2, d3, d6 and d7 displayed good docking score within binding pocket of the selected PDB ID (1JIJ, 4WMZ and 3ERT) and has the potential to be used as lead compounds for rational drug designing.
  13. Tahlan S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Mani V, Narasimhan B
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):12.
    PMID: 31384761 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0533-7
    Background: Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important target for antimetabolite class of antimicrobials because it participates in purine synthesis. 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI) has similar structural features as purine nucleotides. Given that benzimidazole and similar heteroaromatics have been broadly examined for their anticancer potential, so, we hereby report the design, synthesis and biological studies (i.e. antimicrobial and anticancer studies) of 2MBI derivatives.

    Methodology: The antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2MBI derivatives were evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species as well as fungal species by tube dilution technique whereas their anticancer activity was assessed against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116) by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. They were also structurally characterized by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analyses.

    Results discussion and conclusion: The antimicrobial activity findings revealed that compound N1 (MIC
     = 1.27, 2.54, 1.27 µM), N8 (MIC
    = 1.43 µM), N22 (MIC
    = 2.60 µM), N23 and N25 (MIC
    = 2.65 µM) exhibited significant antimicrobial effects against tested strains, i.e. Gram-positive, Gram-negative (bacterial) and fungal strains. The anticancer screening results demonstrated that compounds N9, N18 (IC50 = 5.85, 4.53 µM) were the most potent compounds against cancer cell line (HCT116) even more than 5-FU, the standard drug (IC50 = 9.99 µM).

  14. Kumar S, Sharma D, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Shah SAA, Lim SM, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):96.
    PMID: 31355369 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0613-8
    Heterocyclic 1,3-diazine nucleus is a valuable pharmacophore in the field of medicinal chemistry and exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. PharmMapper, a robust online tool used for establishing the target proteins based on reverse pharmacophore mapping. PharmMapper study is carried out to explore the pharmacological activity of 1,3-diazine derivatives using reverse docking program. PharmMapper, an open web server was used to recognize for all the feasible target proteins for the developed compounds through reverse pharmacophore mapping. The results were analyzed via molecular docking with maestro v11.5 (Schrodinger 2018-1) using GTPase HRas as possible target. The molecular docking studies displayed the binding behavior of 1,3-diazine within GTP binding pocket. From the docking study compounds s3 and s14 showed better docked score with anticancer potency against cancer cell line (HCT116). Hence, the GTPase HRas may be the possible target of 1,3-diazine derivatives for their anticancer activity where the retrieved information may be quite useful for developing rational drug designing. Furthermore the selected 1,3-diazine compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against murine macrophages cell line. 1,3-Diazine compounds exhibited good selectivity of the compounds towards the human colorectal carcinoma cell line instead of the murine macrophages. The toxicity study of the most active compounds was also performed on non cancerous HEK-293 cell line.
  15. Kumar S, Kaushik A, Narasimhan B, Shah SAA, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):85.
    PMID: 31384832 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0601-z
    Pyrimidine nucleus is a significant pharmacophore that exhibited excellent pharmacological activities. A series of pyrimidine scaffolds was synthesized and its chemical structures were confirmed by physicochemical and spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential towards Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungal species. They were also assessed for their anticancer activity toward a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116). Whilst results of antimicrobial potential revealed that compounds Ax2, Ax3, Ax8 and Ax14 exhibited better activity against tested microorganisms, the results of antiproliferative activity indicated that compounds Ax7 and Ax10 showed excellent activity against HCT116. Further, the molecular docking of pyrimidine derivatives Ax1, Ax9 and Ax10 with CDK8 (PDB id: 5FGK) protein indicated that moderate to better docking results within the binding pocket. Compounds Ax8 and Ax10 having significant antimicrobial and anticancer activities may be selected as lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial and anticancer agent, respectively.
  16. Kumari M, Tahlan S, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2021 Jan 21;15(1):5.
    PMID: 33478538 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-020-00717-y
    BACKGROUND: Triazole is an important heterocyclic moiety that occupies a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, due to its large number of biological activities. It exists in two isomeric forms i.e. 1,2,4-triazole and 1,2,3-triazole and is used as core molecule for the design and synthesis of many medicinal compounds. 1,2,4-Triazole possess broad spectrum of therapeutically interesting drug candidates such as analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-urease, anti-inflammatory, diuretics, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic and antimigraine agents.

    METHODS: The structures of all synthesized compounds were characterized by physicochemical properties and spectral means (IR and NMR). The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis), Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa and E. coli) bacterial and fungal (C. albicans and A. niger) strains by tube dilution method using ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and fluconazole as standards. In-vitro antioxidant and anti-urease screening was done by DPPH assay and indophenol method, respectively. The in-vitro anticancer evaluation was carried out against MCF-7 and HCT116 cancer cell lines using 5-FU as standards.

    RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The biological screening results reveal that the compounds T5 (MICBS, EC = 24.7 µM, MICPA, CA = 12.3 µM) and T17 (MICAN = 27.1 µM) exhibited potent antimicrobial activity as comparable to standards ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin (MICCipro = 18.1 µM, MICAmo = 17.1 µM) and fluconazole (MICFlu = 20.4 µM), respectively. The antioxidant evaluation showed that compounds T2 (IC50 = 34.83 µg/ml) and T3 (IC50 = 34.38 µg/ml) showed significant antioxidant activity and comparable to ascorbic acid (IC50 = 35.44 µg/ml). Compounds T3 (IC50 = 54.01 µg/ml) was the most potent urease inhibitor amongst the synthesized compounds and compared to standard thiourea (IC50 = 54.25 µg/ml). The most potent anticancer activity was shown by compounds T2 (IC50 = 3.84 μM) and T7 (IC50 = 3.25 μM) against HCT116 cell lines as compared to standard 5-FU (IC50 = 25.36 μM).

  17. Taha M, Rahim F, Ullah H, Wadood A, Farooq RK, Shah SAA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 06 30;10(1):10673.
    PMID: 32606439 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-67414-7
    In continuation of our work on enzyme inhibition, the benzofuran-based-thiazoldinone analogues (1-14) were synthesized, characterized by HREI-MS, 1H and 13CNMR and evaluated for urease inhibition. Compounds 1-14 exhibited a varying degree of urease inhibitory activity with IC50 values between 1.2 ± 0.01 to 23.50 ± 0.70 µM when compared with standard drug thiourea having IC50 value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM. Compound 1, 3, 5 and 8 showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values 1.2 ± 0.01, 2.20 ± 0.01, 1.40 ± 0.01 and 2.90 ± 0.01 µM respectively, better than the rest of the series. A structure activity relationship (SAR) of this series has been established based on electronic effects and position of different substituents present on phenyl ring. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interaction of the compounds.
  18. Khalid A, Shakeel R, Justin S, Iqbal G, Shah SAA, Zahid S, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(13):1545-1557.
    PMID: 28302036 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170315120627
    BACKGROUND: Stress is involved in memory impairment through multiple mechanisms, including activation of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which in turn activates release of corticosterone in blood. Cholinergic system blockade by the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, also impairs memory.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric (20mg/kg) on learning and memory and cholinergic system in a mouse model of stress along with cholinergic blockade.

    METHODS: Restrained stress was induced and cholinergic receptors were blocked using scopolamine in mice. Animals were treated with turmeric (turmeric rhizome powder which was also subjected to NMR analyses) and learning and social behavior was examined. Effect of turmeric on cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChR; M1, M3 and M5) gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in both pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus.

    RESULTS: Ar-turmerone, curcuminoids and α-linolenic acid were the lead compounds present in turmeric extract. Increased serum corticosterone levels were observed in stressed mice when compared to the control group, while turmeric treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone level. Turmeric treatment caused an improved learning and memory in Morris water maze test in stressed animals. Social novelty preference was also restored in turmeric treated animals. Following turmeric treatment, M5 expression was improved in the cortex and M3 expression was improved in the hippocampus of stress + scopolamine + turmeric treated group.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the therapeutic role of turmeric by increasing the expression of M3, M5 and improving learning and memory. Turmeric can be an effective candidate for the treatment of amnesia caused by the stress.

  19. Yadav S, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Vasudevan M, Shah SAA, Mathur A, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 May 26;12(1):66.
    PMID: 29804151 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0432-3
    BACKGROUND: The study describes the synthesis, characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer evaluation of a series of 2-(1-benzoyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N-substituted acetamide derivatives. The synthesized derivatives were also assessed for in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The compounds found active in in vitro study were assessed for their in vivo antitubercular activity in mice models and for their inhibitory action on vital mycobacterial enzymes viz, isocitrate lyase, pantothenate synthetase and chorismate mutase.

    RESULTS: Compounds 8, 9 and 11 emerged out as excellent antimicrobial agents in antimicrobial assays when compared to standard antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The results of anticancer activity displayed that majority of the derivatives were less cytotoxic than standard drugs (tamoxifen and 5-fluorouracil) towards MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines. However, compound 2 (IC50 = 0.0047 µM/ml) and compound 10 (IC50 = 0.0058 µM/ml) showed highest cytotoxicity against MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines, respectively. The results of in vivo antitubercular activity revealed that a dose of 1.34 mg/kg was found to be safe for the synthesized compounds. The toxic dose of the compounds was 5.67 mg/kg while lethal dose varied from 1.81 to 3.17 mg/kg body weight of the mice. Compound 18 inhibited all the three mycobacterial enzymes to the highest level in comparison to the other synthesized derivatives but showed lesser inhibition as compared to streptomycin sulphate.

    CONCLUSIONS: A further research on most active synthesized compounds as lead molecules may result in discovery of novel anticancer and antitubercular agents.

  20. Hussain G, Abbasi MA, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Shah SAA, Ahmad I, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 May;31(3):857-866.
    PMID: 29716866
    In this work, a new series of 2-[4-(2-furoyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-aryl/aralkyl acetamides has been synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial potential. The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of different aryl/aralkyl amines (1a-u) with 2-bromoacetylbromide (2) to obtain N-aryl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamides (3a-u). Equimolar quantities of different N-aryl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamides (3a-u) and 2-furoyl-1-piperazine (4) was allowed to react in acetonitrile and in the presence of K2CO3, to form 2-[4-(2-furoyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-aryl/aralkyl acetamides (5a-u). The structural elucidation was done by EI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR techniques of all the synthesized compounds. All of the synthesized molecules were active against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Among them 5o and 5c showed very excellent MIC values. The cytotoxicity of the molecules was also checked to find their utility as possible therapeutic agents, where 5c (0.51%) and 5g (1.32%) are found to be least toxic in the series.
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