The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the prevalence of lameness, claw lesions, and associated risk factors in dairy farms in Selangor, Malaysia. The sample population was 251 lactating cows from 8 farms assessed for lameness and claw lesions by locomotion scoring and claw assessment respectively while specific animal-based measures were hypothesized as cow-level risk factors. The Wilcoxon rank test and logistic regression were applied to assess the prevalence of lameness, claw lesions, and association with potential risk factors, respectively. The prevalence of lameness was 19.1% ranging from 10.0 to 33.3% while 31.1% of cows had claw lesions and ranged from 16.3-40%. Claw lesions were recorded in 87.5% of the lame cows with highest being those affected with sole lesions (54.2%) and white line disease (61.2%). Overall, the occurrence of overgrown claws, sole lesions, white line disease, and digital dermatitis were 37, 18.2, 10.9, and 8.3%, respectively. More than one claw lesion per cow was present in 71.8% of the affected cows. Lameness was associated with early lactation (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2-7), injured hocks (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 5-17), and dirty legs hygiene (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-6.2), whereas presence of claw lesions was associated with dirty legs hygiene (OR = 4.7; 95% CI 4-11) and overgrown claw (OR = 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.3). To reduce the prevalence of lameness, farmers need to improve the management of cows with overgrown claw, injured hocks, and cleanliness by establishing routine claw trimming and efficient stall design.
Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to cow welfare and links with changes in locomotion as employed in lameness research are discussed. Finally, alterations in lying behaviour are also presented as indicators of lameness with the corresponding welfare implication in lame cows.
Lameness continues to be a welfare and economic issue for dairy cows. However, the consequences of lameness seem to be better understood by veterinarians and related personnel in comparison to dairy farmers. Prompt detection and treatment of lame cows is essential in reducing its negative impact on milk processing systems. To that end, understanding farmers' perceptions regarding the significance of lameness to dairy cows is vital. One fundamental aspect is the underestimation of lameness prevalence by dairy farmers, which is as a result of different understanding of the problem. The same applies to their decision to treat lame cows and to adopt various detection and management practices. All of these shortcomings contribute to poor cattle welfare and economic losses in dairy production. This review summarizes the results of studies that have investigated dairy farmers' perceptions of lameness and the associated implications on the wellbeing and productivity of dairy cows. Factors associated with farmers' attitudes toward claw health and lameness management are also presented. Additionally, economic observations relating to lameness prevention, treatment and the adoption of lameness detection systems are also highlighted. To strengthen these points, interventional programmes requiring farmers' participation are discussed as a promising approach in answering some of these challenges. A review of the literature indicates both the opportunities and barriers inherent in the tackling the lameness issue from the farmers' perspectives. Such knowledge is crucial in identifying measures on how to motivate dairy farmers towards proper lameness management.
Lameness resulting from claw lesions remains a pressing welfare issue in dairy cows. Claw trimming (CT) is a common practice for prevention and management of clinically lame cows. This review summarizes the results of studies that have investigated various claw trimming (CT) methods, their application in lameness management, and associations with the welfare and production of dairy cows. The papers included in this review fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: published in peer review journal or book chapter within the last 20 years (1999-2019), written in English, and focused on the application of CT for lameness management and the association with either welfare or production variables. Databases used included Google scholar, Web of Science and PubMed. A total of 748 records were assessed and 61 papers were eligible for inclusion and the main objectives and results were used to categorize the results under six topics: CT techniques, association between CT and claw overgrowth/specific claw lesions, timing and frequency of CT, association between CT and behavioral variables, association between CT and physiological parameters, and association between CT and production. The literature findings showed the existence of various CT methods with the common types including the Dutch Five-step, White Line, White Line Atlas, and Kansas techniques. There is data paucity on the efficacy of these techniques in lameness management; however, the slight procedural difference yields varying sole thicknesses and presentations which may influence their prophylactic use. Results regarding the impact of CT on welfare and production were discussed in relation to potential short and long-term benefits. Depending on the lesion type and severity level, CT may induce immediate painful sensation, stress, changes in lying down activities and reduction in milk yield, but the positive impacts were more evident at later stages of lactation following improvement in locomotion score. The majority of the reviewed studies were lacking a detailed description of CT techniques and claw health of the studied animals; thus, reducing the strength of demonstrating CT-related benefits. However, electronic recording of claw health data during every CT visit provides the basis for monitoring hoof health and could assist in curtailing some of these challenges. To elucidate CT-related benefits, certain areas requiring further research were highlighted such as ascertaining the appropriate timing for preventive CT and identifying cows that will benefit more from such intervention during lactation.
Lameness is a major welfare issue in dairy cows. This study was aimed at investigating the cow- and herd -level factors associated with lameness in dairy farms from four states in Peninsular Malaysia. The study population was 1001 lactating cows from 28 dairy farms located in Selangor (n = 9), Perak (n = 8), Negeri Sembilan (n = 6) and Johor (n = 5). Lameness was assessed by locomotion scoring. Individual cow characteristics such as breeds, parity, body condition score (BCS), hock condition, leg hygiene, presence of claw lesion and claw overgrowth were recorded. Data on herd characteristics, management practices and housing design were collected by on-farm inspection and farmers' interview. Mixed-eﬀ ;ects logistic regressions were used to model the data and to assess the factors associated with lameness. Cow-level lameness prevalence was 34.2 % (95 % CI 22.2-50.0 %), with all the farms having at least one case of lameness. Claw lesions were recorded in 470 cows (46.9 %; CI 33.3-63.3 %) of which 296 (62.9 %) of them were lame. Of these, 78.9 % of the lesions were present on the rear feet and 25.5% of the cows had more than one foot affected. The proportion of cows having non-infectious and infectious claw lesions were 81.9 % and 18.1 %, and the predominant claw lesions were sole ulcers (24.9 %), white line disease (19.6 %), sole haemorrhage (10.2%), swelling of coronet (9.6 %), toe ulcers (8.4 %), and digital dermatitis (5.6%). Cows at third or more parities had higher odds of lameness (OR = 2.2; 95 % CI 1.2-4.1) compared to primiparous cows. Low BCS (< 2.5) increased the odds of lameness (OR = 4.8; 95 % CI 2.9-7.9) relative to cows with moderate BCS, and cows with hair loss around the hock (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI 1.1-1.9) relative to those with normal hock condition. Greater odds of being lame was observed in cows having claw lesion (OR = 15.2; 95 % CI 10.4-19.2) and those with overgrown claw (OR = 3.3; 95 % CI 2.4-4.5). There was increased odds of lameness in farms with high stocking density (OR = 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), concrete floored walkways (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 1.0-3.6), dirty floors (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI 1.9-3.7), and practicing preventive claw trimming (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI 1.9-4.6). Based on the high lameness prevalence, these findings could assist dairy farmers to make informed decisions on areas to implement on-farm changes to reduce lameness in the studied herds.
Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanol extract in rodents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests in rats. Antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing test and the hot plate test in mice, and the formalin test in rats. All drugs and extracts were diluted in dH(2)O and administered through the intraperitoneal route. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons among groups.
RESULTS: Results showed that intraperitoneal administration of the extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent activity in all of the nociceptive models evaluated (p < 0.05). With the formalin test, the antinociceptive activity in mice was inhibited only at the highest dose of the extract (200 mg/kg). The study also showed that intraperitoneal administration of the methanol extract of M. speciosa (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the development of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (p < 0.05). In the chronic test, however, significant reduction in granulomatous tissue formation in rats was observed only at the highest dose of the methanol extract of M. speciosa (200 mg/kg, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The present study suggests the presence of potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory principles in the extract, supporting its folkloric use for the treatment of these conditions.
Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
The antinociceptive property of Centella asiatica extracts is known but the analgesic activity of its bioactive constituent asiaticoside has not been reported. We evaluated the antinociceptive activity of orally (p. o.) administered asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg) in mice using the 0.6% acetic acid-induced writhing test, the 2.5% formalin-induced paw licking test, and the hot plate test. The capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests were employed to evaluate the involvement of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems, respectively. Asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the rate of writhing (p
In the present study, the rhizome essential oil from Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated for antinociceptive activity using chemical and thermal models of nociception, namely, the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, the hot-plate test and the formalin-induced paw licking test. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of the essential oil of Z. zerumbet (EOZZ) at the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, comparable to that of obtained with acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg). At the same doses, the EOZZ produced significant dose-dependent increases in the latency time in the hot-plate test with respect to controls, and in the formalin-induced paw licking test, the EOZZ also significantly reduced the painful stimulus in both neurogenic and inflammatory phase of the test. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of the EOZZ in the formalin-induced paw licking test as well as hot-plate test was reversed by the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone suggesting that the opioid system was involved in its analgesic mechanism of action. On the basis of these data, we concluded that the EOZZ possessed both central and peripheral antinociceptive activities which justifying its popular folkloric use to relieve some pain conditions.
Curcumin, derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been scientifically proven to possess anti-inflammatory activity but is of limited clinical and veterinary use owing to its low bioavailability and poor solubility. Hence, analogs of curcuminoids with improved biological properties have been synthesized to overcome these limitations. This study aims to provide the pharmacological basis for the use of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a synthetic curcuminoid analog, as an anti-edematogenic and anti-granuloma agent. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of DHHPD in mice. The effects of DHHPD on the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems were determined by the histamine-, serotonin-, and bradykinin-induced paw edema tests, respectively. DHHPD (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) evoked significant reductions (p < 0.05) in carrageenan-induced paw edema at different time intervals and granuloma formation (p < 0.0001) by 22.08, 32.57, 37.20, and 49.25%, respectively. Furthermore, DHHPD significantly reduced paw edema (p < 0.05) induced by histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The present study suggests that DHHPD exerts anti-edematogenic activity, possibly by inhibiting the synthesis or release of autacoid mediators of inflammation through the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems. The anti-granuloma effect may be attributed to the suppression of transudative, exudative, and proliferative activities associated with inflammation.