The effects of vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation on induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150 g) by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) was investigated. The severity of the carcinogenesis process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) histochemically in situ and in plasma and liver fractions. In addition, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver microsomal uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity were also determined. Administration of DEN/AAF caused an increase in the surface area and number of enzyme-positive foci (both GGT and GSTP) compared with control. Supplementation of vitamin C or aloe vera gel extract to the cancer-induced rats suppressed this increase significantly (P < 0.05; P < 0.001). Increases in liver UDPGT, GGT, and GSTP activities were also observed with cancer induction that were again suppressed with either vitamin C or aloe vera gel supplementation. Plasma GGT in the DEN/AAF rats were determined monthly for the duration of the experiment and found to be reduced as early as 1 mo with aloe vera gel supplementation and 2 mo with vitamin C supplementation. In conclusion, vitamin C and aloe vera gel extract supplementation were found to be able to reduce the severity of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis.
Plasma gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in normal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. No difference in enzyme activities was observed in the three major races of the Malaysian population, i.e. Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. However, plasma gamma-GT, erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) and GPx activities were significantly increased in all NPC patients, while GR activity remained unchanged. Patients with elevated plasma gamma-GT activities also had increased GST and GPx activities. Plasma gamma-GT and GPx activities were then found to be affected by treatment. Patients with plasma gamma-GT activity greater than 70 IU/l had very poor prognoses but patients with decreased gamma-GT activities were found to be in remission.
1. Glutathione transferases from the liver, lung and kidney tissues of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the Kedah-Kelantan cattle (Bos indicus) were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. 2. Liver tissue contains the highest enzyme activity when compared to the lung and kidney tissues. 3. The activity in cattle is higher than that in the buffalo. 4. Isoelectric focusing separates the activities into the acidic, near neutral and basic fractions. 5. The focused patterns are different for each of the tissues and in each of the species investigated.
The effects of long-term administration of tocotrienol on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated by determining the activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and glutathione (GSH) levels in blood and liver. Twenty-eight male 7- to 8-wk-old Rattus norwegicus rats, weighing 120-160 g, were used in this study. The rats were divided into four treatment groups: a control group on a basal diet, a group fed a basal diet supplemented with tocotrienol (30 mg/kg food), a group treated with DEN/AAF, and a group treated with DEN/AAF and fed a diet supplemented with tocotrienol (30 mg/kg food). Blood was collected monthly, and GGT, ALP, and GSH levels were determined. The rats were killed after 9 mo, and the livers were examined morphologically. Grayish white nodules (2/liver) were found in all the DEN/AAF-treated rats (n = 10), but only one of the rats treated with DEN/AAF and supplemented with tocotrienol (n = 6) had liver nodules. A significant increase in the level of blood and liver GSH, ALP, and GGT activities was observed in the DEN/AAF-treated rats. Liver GSTs were similarly increased with DEN/AAF treatment. Tocotrienol supplementation attenuated the impact of the carcinogens in the rats.
1. Toxicity evaluations of DDT, lindane, abate and carbaryl were carried out in the larvae of two wild Aedes aegypti strains from Kuala Lumpur and Klang. The Kuala Lumpur strain was more susceptible to the insecticides than the Klang strain. 2. The lethal toxicity time was also determined. The insecticides were found to take a longer time to exert their effect in the Klang strain as compared to the Kuala Lumpur strain. 3. Carboxylesterase activity was determined to be higher in the Kuala Lumpur strain, but glutathione transferase activities were higher in the Klang strain.
A local molybdenum-reducing bacterium was isolated and tentatively identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain Dr.Y12 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and 16S rDNA comparative analysis. Molybdate reduction was optimized under conditions of low dissolved oxygen (37 degrees C and pH 6.5). Of the electron donors tested, glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose supported molybdate reduction after 1 d of incubation, glucose and fructose supporting the highest Mo-blue production. Optimum Mo-blue production was reached at 20 mmol/L molybdate and 5 mmol/L phosphate; increasing the phosphate concentrations inhibited the production. An increase in an overall absorption profiles, especially at peak maximum at 865 nm and the shoulder at 700 nm, was observed in direct correlation with the increased in Mo-blue amounts. Metal ions, such as chromium, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead (2 mmol/L final concentration) caused approximately 88, 53, 80, 100, and 20 % inhibition, respectively. Respiratory inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide and cyanide showed in this bacterium no inhibition of the Mo-blue production, suggesting that the electron transport system is not a site of molybdate reduction.
Extensive use of metals in various industrial applications has caused substantial environmental pollution. Molybdenum-reducing bacteria isolated from soils can be used to remove molybdenum from contaminated environments. In this work we have isolated a local bacterium with the capability to reduce soluble molybdate to the insoluble molybdenum blue. We studied several factors that would optimize molybdate reduction. Electron donor sources such as glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose and fructose (in decreasing efficiency) supported molybdate reduction after 24 h of incubation with optimum glucose concentration for molybdate reduction at 1.5% (w/v). The optimum pH, phosphate and molybdate concentrations, and temperature for molybdate reduction were pH 6.5, 5.0, 25 to 50 mM and 37 degrees C, respectively. The Mo-blue produced by cellular reduction exhibited a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Metal ions such as chromium, cadmium, copper, silver and mercury caused approximately 73, 71, 81, 77 and 78% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. All of the respiratory inhibitors tested namely rotenone, azide, cyanide and antimycin A did not show any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting components of the electron transport system are not responsible for the reducing activity. The isolate was tentatively identified as Enterobacter sp. strain Dr.Y13 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny.
An inhibitive assay of insecticides using Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the local fish Clarias batrachus is reported. AChE was assayed according to the modified method of Ellman. Screening of insecticide and heavy metals showed that carbofuran and carbaryl strongly inhibited C. batrachus AChE. The inhibition concentration (IC) IC50 values (and the 95% confidence interval) for both carbofuran and carbaryl inhibition on C. batrachus AChE at 6.66 (5.97-7.52) and 130.00 (119.3-142.5) microg l(-1), respectively was within the IC50 range of Electrophorus electricus at 6.20 (6.03-6.39) and 133.01 (122.40-145.50) microg l(-1), respectively and were much lower than bovine AChE at 20.94 (19.53-22.58) and 418.80 (390.60-451.60) microg l(-1), respectively. The results showed that C. batrachus have the potential to be used as a cheaper and more readily available source of AChE than other more commercially available sources.
Crude extract of ChE from the liver of Puntius javanicus was purified using procainamide-sepharyl 6B. S-Butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTC) was selected as the specific synthetic substrate for this assay with the highest maximal velocity and lowest biomolecular constant at 53.49 µmole/min/mg and 0.23 mM, respectively, with catalytic efficiency ratio of 0.23. The optimum parameter was obtained at pH 7.5 and optimal temperature in the range of 25 to 30°C. The effect of different storage condition was assessed where ChE activity was significantly decreased after 9 days of storage at room temperature. However, ChE activity showed no significant difference when stored at 4.0, 0, and -25°C for 15 days. Screening of heavy metals shows that chromium, copper, and mercury strongly inhibited P. javanicus ChE by lowering the activity below 50%, while several pairwise combination of metal ions exhibited synergistic inhibiting effects on the enzyme which is greater than single exposure especially chromium, copper, and mercury. The results showed that P. javanicus ChE has the potential to be used as a biosensor for the detection of metal ions.
In a previous study, we isolated Leifsonia sp. strain SIU, a new bacterium from agricultured soil. The bacterium was tested for its ability to degrade caffeine. The isolate was encapsulated in gellan gum and its ability to degrade caffeine was compared with the free cells. The optimal caffeine degradation was attained at a gellan gum concentration of 0.75% (w/v), a bead size of 4 mm diameter, and 250 beads per 100 mL of medium. At a caffeine concentration of 0.1 g/L, immobilised cells of the strain SIU degraded caffeine within 9 h, which is faster when compared to the case of free cells, in which it took 12 h to degrade. The immobilised cells degraded caffeine completely within 39 and 78 h at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, while the free cells took 72 and 148 h at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. At higher caffeine concentrations, immobilised cells exhibited a higher caffeine degradation rate. At concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 g/L, caffeine-degrading activities of both immobilised and free cells were inhibited. The immobilised cells showed no loss in caffeine-degrading activity after being used repeatedly for nine 24-h cycles. The effect of heavy metals on immobilised cells was also tested. This study showed an increase in caffeine degradation efficiency when the cells were encapsulated in gellan gum.
A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo⁶⁺ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spectrum with a peak maximum at 865 nm and a shoulder at 710 nm. Respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A, sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and rotenone failed to inhibit the reducing activity. The Mo-reducing enzyme was partially purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed optimal pH and temperature for activity at 6.0 and 20°C, respectively. Metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, silver, lead, and mercury caused more than 95% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity at 0.1 mM. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY1 based on partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogenetic assessment and the Biolog microbial identification system. The characteristics of this strain would make it very useful in bioremediation works in the polar and temperate countries.
A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics.
The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a V max for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent K m for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent V max and apparent K m values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M(-1) s(-1). The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction.
A locally isolated Acinetobacter sp. Strain AQ5NOL 1 was encapsulated in gellan gum and its ability to degrade phenol was compared with the free cells. Optimal phenol degradation was achieved at gellan gum concentration of 0.75% (w/v), bead size of 3 mm diameter (estimated surface area of 28.26 mm(2)) and bead number of 300 per 100 ml medium. At phenol concentration of 100 mg l(-1), both free and immobilized bacteria exhibited similar rates of phenol degradation but at higher phenol concentrations, the immobilized bacteria exhibited a higher rate of degradation of phenol. The immobilized cells completely degrade phenol within 108, 216 and 240 h at 1,100, 1,500 and 1,900 mg l(-1) phenol, respectively, whereas free cells took 240 h to completely degrade phenol at 1,100 mg l(-1). However, the free cells were unable to completely degrade phenol at higher concentrations. Overall, the rates of phenol degradation by both immobilized and free bacteria decreased gradually as the phenol concentration was increased. The immobilized cells showed no loss in phenol degrading activity after being used repeatedly for 45 cycles of 18 h cycle. However, phenol degrading activity of the immobilized bacteria experienced 10 and 38% losses after the 46 and 47th cycles, respectively. The study has shown an increased efficiency of phenol degradation when the cells are encapsulated in gellan gum.
Molybdenum-reducing activity in the heterotrophic bacteria is a phenomenon that has been reported for more than 100 years. In the presence of molybdenum in the growth media, bacterial colonies turn to blue. The enzyme(s) responsible for the reduction of molybdenum to molybdenum blue in these bacteria has never been purified. In our quest to purify the molybdenum-reducing enzyme, we have devised a better substrate for the enzyme activity using laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate instead of the commercial 12-phosphomolybdate we developed previously. Using laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate, the highest activity is given by 10:4-phosphomolybdate. The apparent Michaelis constant, Km for the laboratory-prepared 10:4-phosphomolybdate is 2.56 +/- 0.25 mM (arbitrary concentration), whereas the apparent V(max) is 99.4 +/- 2.85 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The apparent Michaelis constant or Km for NADH as the electron donor is 1.38 +/- 0.09 mM, whereas the apparent V(max) is 102.6 +/- 1.73 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-l) protein. The apparent Km and V(max) for another electron donor, NADPH, is 1.43 +/- 0.10 mM and 57.16 +/- 1.01 nmol Mo-blue min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively, using the same batch of molybdenum-reducing enzyme. The apparent V(max) obtained for NADH and 10:4-phosphomolybdate is approximately 13 times better than 12-phoshomolybdate using the same batch of enzyme, and hence, the laboratory-prepared phosphomolybdate is a much better substrate than 12-phoshomolybdate. In addition, 10:4-phosphomolybdate can be routinely prepared from phosphate and molybdate, two common chemicals in the laboratory.
A heavy-metal assay has been developed using bromelain, a protease. The enzyme is assayed using casein as a substrate with Coomassie dye to track completion of hydrolysis of casein. In the absence of inhibitors, casein is hydrolysed to completion, and the solution is brown. In the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Cu2+, the hydrolysis of casein is inhibited, and the solution remains blue. Exclusion of sulfhydryl protective agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic in the original assay improved sensitivity to heavy metals several fold. The assay is sensitive to Hg2+ and Cu2+, exhibiting a dose-response curve with an IC50 of 0.15 mg 1(-1) for Hg2+ and a one-phase binding curve with an IC50 of 0.23 mg 1(-1) for Cu2+. The IC50 value for Hg2+ is found to be lower to several other assays such as immobilized urease and papain assay, whilst the IC50 value for Cu2+ is lower than immobilized urease, 15-min Microtox, and rainbow trout.
A molybdate-reducing bacterium has been locally isolated. The bacterium reduces molybdate or Mo(6+) to molybdenum blue (molybdate oxidation states of between 5+ and 6+). Different carbon sources such as acetate, formate, glycerol, citric acid, lactose, fructose, glucose, mannitol, tartarate, maltose, sucrose, and starch were used at an initial concentration of 0.2% (w/v) in low phosphate media to study their effect on the molybdate reduction efficiency of bacterium. All of the carbon sources supported cellular growth, but only sucrose, maltose, glucose, and glycerol (in decreasing order) supported molybdate reduction after 24 h of incubation. Optimum concentration of sucrose for molybdate reduction is 1.0% (w/v) after 24 h of static incubation. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, valine, OH-proline, glutamic acid, and alanine (in the order of decreasing efficiency) supported molybdate reduction with ammonium sulfate giving the highest amount of molybdenum blue after 24 h of incubation at 0.3% (w/v). The optimum molybdate concentration that supports molybdate reduction is between 15 and 25 mM. Molybdate reduction is optimum at 35 degrees C. Phosphate at concentrations higher than 5 mM strongly inhibits molybdate reduction. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibits a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. The isolate was tentatively identified as Serratia marcescens Strain Dr.Y6 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogeny.
1. alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-T) and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-T) were supplemented continuously for 8 weeks in the diets of normal rats and rats chemically induced with cancer using diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and partial hepatectomy. Hepatocarcinogenesis was followed by determining the plasma gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and GGT activities histochemically, at 4-week intervals. 2. Male Rattus norvegicus were supplemented alpha-T and gamma-T at two different doses of 30 and 300 mg/kg diet. The supplementation was started at three different times: simultaneously with DEN administration; 4 weeks; and 8 weeks after DEN administration. 3. Elevation of plasma GGT activities and formation of PGST and GGT positive foci were attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) when alpha-T and gamma-T were supplemented simultaneously with cancer induction. Supplementation begun 4 and 8 weeks after cancer induction did not affect plasma enzyme activities and formation of enzyme-positive foci. 4. alpha-T was more effective than gamma-T, and a lower dose of 30 mg/kg was found to be more effective in reducing the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.
1. The effects of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol on glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) activities in cultured hepatocytes prepared from rats treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated. 2. Both the alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol treated hepatocytes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) GST activities than untreated hepatocytes prepared from the carcinogen treated rats in the first 3 days of culture. Treatment with alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol generally resulted in a tendency to increase the GST activities above that in the untreated hepatocytes. 3. Treatment with high doses (125-250 microM) of alpha-tocopherol and low doses (12.5-25 microM) of gamma-tocotrienol generally resulted in a significant reduction in gamma-GT activities at 1-3 days. gamma-GT activities are reduced as the dose of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol are increased.