Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bidi smoking on periodontitis by assessing the interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 from a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected, which included 40 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (20 bidi smokers and 20 non-bidi smokers) and 20 periodontal healthy controls. Diseased and healthy sites were selected from each of the chronic periodontitis subjects. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Pooled GCF samples were taken from the same site and analyzed for IL-1β and IL-8 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Bidi smokers displayed decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-8 than non-bidi smokers for both healthy and diseased sites and significantly reduced IL-8 levels among bidi smokers when compared to controls. Among bidi smokers, the diseased site had significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the healthy site. Non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis especially diseased sites contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1β and IL-8 than smokers and controls. The PI scores were highest among bidi smokers with reduced BOP and GI scores.
Conclusions: Bidi smoking influenced the cytokine profile among periodontitis patients exhibiting decreased levels of IL-1β and IL-8.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-post study (interventional study design) was conducted on paramedic students. Our study period was 6 months which was divided into Phases I, II, and III. For administrative purpose, we included all paramedical students, and our sample size was 119. The baseline assessment of knowledge and attitude of paramedic students was done by a pretested questionnaire (Observation 1) with having a baseline scoring. After that, intervention Phase 1 was implemented, and later, end line observation (Observation 2) was made. Changes in knowledge and attitude were observed by the score difference (Observation 2-Observation 1). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the mean of cumulative score was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We applied Mann-Whitney U-test for finding associations between dependent variables with an independent variable using SPSS version 22 (IBM, Chicago, USA) software.
RESULTS: Our baseline results showed that most of our participants had average knowledge (54.6%), followed by poor knowledge (24.4%). Approximately one-fifth (21.0%) of the participants had good knowledge regarding disaster preparedness. A significant improvement was observed in cumulative score (P < 0.005). A significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude with respect to age and courses (P < 0.05). Forty percent of the students responded that they would like to get trained by that mock drill, and 26.1% were interested in disaster preparedness workshops in the future.
CONCLUSION: Our present study results indicate that the overall knowledge and attitude level of the students was average and required improvement. A similar result was reported in some studies conducted globally for the same purpose. All of our students perceived that training for disaster preparedness is necessary for all health facilities, and it is important to have an emergency plan and disaster management committee. Regarding training methods, most of our students liked our interactive audiovisual method. However, their preferred methods were mock drill and workshops. It can be arranged in the future for them.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide pharmacological information on the active constituents evaluated in the preclinical study to treat epilepsy with potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic option in future. It also provides affirmation for the development of novel antiepileptic drugs derived from medicinal plants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information on the antiepileptic potential of phytoconstituents in the preclinical study (in-vitro, in-vivo) is provided based on their effect on screening parameters. Besides, relevant information on pharmacology of phytoconstituents, the traditional use of their medicinal plants related to epilepsy and status of phytoconstituents in the clinical study were derived from online databases, including PubMed, Clinicaltrial. gov, The Plant List (TPL, www.theplantlist.org), Science Direct. Articles identified using preset searching syntax and inclusion criteria are presented.
RESULTS: More than 70% of the phytoconstituents reviewed in this paper justified the traditional use of their medicinal plant related to epilepsy by primarily acting on the GABAergic system. Amongst the phytoconstituents, only cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol have been explored for clinical application in epilepsy.
CONCLUSION: The preclinical and clinical data of the phytoconstituents to treat epilepsy and its associated comorbidities provides evidence for the discovery and development of novel antiepileptic drugs from medicinal plants. In terms of efficacy and safety, further randomized and controlled clinical studies are required to understand the complete pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic picture of phytoconstituents. Also, specific botanical source evaluation is needed.
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