Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 221 in total

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  1. Sharma S, Abdullah N
    Singapore Med J, 2000 Apr;41(4):147-50.
    PMID: 11063177
    Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving one hundred ASA I-II patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery.
  2. Sharma S, Manchanda V, Gupta R
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Dec;35(2):181-3.
    PMID: 24362482
    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare benign condition with presence of multiple small microcalcifications in the seminiferous tubules. Though the aetiology is unknown, TM has been described in association with a variety of urological conditions. We report the clinico-pathological features of a 12-year-old male child who underwent orchidectomy for undescended testis. Histopathological examination of the excised testis showed multiple small intratubular calcifications without any evidence of testicular neoplasia. TM is an unusual phenomenon that should be kept in mind while evaluating testicular biopsies. Though it behaves in a benign manner in most of the cases, patients with positive family history of testicular cancer should be followed-up for testicular tumour.
  3. Sharma HS, Sharma S
    J Accid Emerg Med, 1999 Mar;16(2):150-3.
    PMID: 10191459
    Foreign body aspiration is one of the leading causes of accidental death in children. Food items are the most common items aspirated in infants and toddlers, whereas older children are more likely to aspirate non-food items. Laryngeal impaction of a foreign body is very rare as most aspirated foreign bodies pass through the laryngeal inlet and get lodged lower down in the airway. Two rare cases of foreign body aspiration with subglottic impaction in very young children (under 2 years of age) are described. In both the cases subglottic impaction occurred consequent to attempted removal of foreign body by blind finger sweeping. The clinical presentation, investigations, and management of these rare cases are discussed.
  4. Sharma S, Mohamad NA, Monga D, Achana S
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Dec;51(4):453-6.
    PMID: 10968033
    Three hundred and five primigravid women were interviewed at term to assess the acceptability of epidural during labour, and reasons for the decisions. Data was collected on a prestructured proforma which consisted of background information, socio-economic status, knowledge about epidural analgesia, source of information and reasons for choice. Of the 305 patients only 17.3% were willing to receive epidural analgesia. This group consisted of 56.6% non-Malay women. Those employed in professional or skilled jobs (56.6%) also readily consented for epidural. Nearly half the women willing for epidural had received college (tertiary) education (43.3%) and more than a quarter (26.4%) were over 30 years of age. The majority of those who were unwilling had no prior knowledge about the procedure, and refused either out of fear, ignorance, resistance from husbands, on religious grounds or following poor feedback from friends. In order to advocate epidural analgesia, knowledge has to be targeted to the relatively less educated, unemployed women, mainly through the media or personally in the antenatal clinic by doctors and nurses. Services have to be improved as substandard analgesia may send out wrong messages and actually do more harm than good.
  5. Sharma S, Aminuldin AG, Azlan W
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Oct;35(5):529-31.
    PMID: 7701380
    A 3-day-old child presented with a gross swelling on the right side of the neck extending beyond the midline and inability to swallow. It was diagnosed to be cystic hygroma and decision was made to excise the swelling as an emergency operation to enable the child to swallow and thrive better. During the gaseous induction, difficulty was encountered in maintaining the airway and subsequently to intubate the patient. Intraoperatively the surgeon was not able to excise the tumour completely. Postoperatively it was decided to ventilate the child electively because of the intubation difficulties encountered and not so firm floor of the mouth because of surgical excision. The stay in the neonatal ICU was marked with infection and facial nerve palsy.
  6. Sharma A, Sikka M, Bhankar H, Gomber S, Sharma S
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Aug;39(2):155-159.
    PMID: 28866697
    Sepsis is a common cause of death in infants and children. Haemostatic abnormalities have been reported in such patients. There is scant information on the nature and frequency of these abnormalities in children especially from India. Our aim was to evaluate the nature and frequency of haematological and haemostatic abnormalities in children with sepsis. Fifty children between 1-10 years of age admitted with sepsis and 50 age-matched, healthy controls were included in the study. Complete blood counts, examination of stained peripheral blood film, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, liver function tests and serum creatinine were done in all patients and controls. Prolonged PT and APTT were seen in 9 (18%) and 24 (48%) patients respectively. Plasma fibrinogen was decreased in 6% and increased in 8% patients. One or more haemostatic parameter was abnormal in 35 (70%) patients and in all patients who died.
  7. Sharma S, Parolia A, Kanagasingam S
    Eur J Dent, 2020 Dec;14(S 01):S159-S164.
    PMID: 33167046 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718240
    In the light of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), dentistry is facing unprecedented challenges. The closure of clinics has impacted dental health professionals (DHPs) not only financially but also psychologically. In this review, these consequences are discussed in detail to highlight the challenges that DHPs are facing thus far, in both developing and developed nations. Compromised mental health among DHPs is an important area that requires attention during this difficult period. Although, in previous pandemics, dentists have not worked on the frontline, the article discusses how their wide range of skillsets can be leveraged if another wave of COVID-19 pandemic appears. Finally, guidelines to reopen clinics and patient management have been discussed in detail that could serve as a quick reference guide for DHPs.
  8. Mayank AK, Sharma S, Nailwal H, Lal SK
    Cell Death Dis, 2015;6:e2018.
    PMID: 26673663 DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2015.360
    Apoptosis of host cells profoundly influences virus propagation and dissemination, events that are integral to influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis. The trigger for activation of apoptosis is regulated by an intricate interplay between cellular and viral proteins, with a strong bearing on IAV replication. Though the knowledge of viral proteins and mechanisms employed by IAV to induce apoptosis has advanced considerably of late, we know relatively little about the repertoire of host factors targeted by viral proteins. Thus, identification of cellular proteins that are hijacked by the virus will help us not only to understand the molecular underpinnings of IAV-induced apoptosis, but also to design future antiviral therapies. Here we show that the nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV directly interacts with and suppresses the expression of API5, a host antiapoptotic protein that antagonizes E2F1-dependent apoptosis. siRNA-mediated depletion of API5, in NP-overexpressed as well as IAV-infected cells, leads to upregulation of apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), a downstream modulator of E2F1-mediated apoptosis, and cleavage of caspases 9 and 3, although a reciprocal pattern of these events was observed on ectopic overexpression of API5. In concordance with these observations, annexin V and 7AAD staining assays exhibit downregulation of early and late apoptosis in IAV-infected or NP-transfected cells on overexpression of API5. Most significantly, while overexpression of API5 decreases viral titers, cellular NP protein as well as mRNA levels in IAV-infected A549 cells, silencing of API5 expression causes a steep rise in the same parameters. From the data reported in this manuscript, we propose a proapoptotic role for NP in IAV pathogenesis, whereby it suppresses expression of antiapoptotic factor API5, thus potentiating the E2F1-dependent apoptotic pathway and ensuring viral replication.
  9. Nailwal H, Sharma S, Mayank AK, Lal SK
    Cell Death Dis, 2015 May 21;6:e1768.
    PMID: 25996295 DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2015.131
    The interplay between influenza virus and host factors to support the viral life cycle is well documented. Influenza A virus (IAV) proteins interact with an array of cellular proteins and hijack host pathways which are at the helm of cellular responses to facilitate virus invasion. The multifaceted nature of the ubiquitination pathway for protein regulation makes it a vulnerable target of many viruses including IAV. To this end we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for cellular ubiquitin ligases important for influenza virus replication. We identified host protein, RING finger protein 43 (RNF43), a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel interactor of nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV and an essential partner to induce NP-driven p53-mediated apoptosis in IAV-infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV leads to attenuation of RNF43 transcripts and hence its respective protein levels in the cellular milieu whereas in RNF43 depleted cells, viral replication was escalated several folds. Moreover, RNF43 polyubiquitinates p53 which further leads to its destabilization resulting in a decrease in induction of the p53 apoptotic pathway, a hitherto unknown process targeted by NP for p53 stabilization and accumulation. Collectively, these results conclude that NP targets RNF43 to modulate p53 ubiquitination levels and hence causes p53 stabilization which is conducive to an enhanced apoptosis level in the host cells. In conclusion, our study unravels a novel strategy adopted by IAV for utilizing the much conserved ubiquitin proteasomal pathway.
  10. Sharma S, Ghani AA, Win N, Ahmad M
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):372-6.
    PMID: 8668059
    This prospective study was designed to compare the effectiveness of esmolol (either 100 mg or 200 mg) with a placebo in blunting the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Seventy-five patients of ASA I or II scheduled for routine-surgery were selected and entered into a placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive placebo, 100 mg or 200 mg of esmolol IV as part of an anaesthetic induction technique. There were no significant differences in the demographic distribution of the patients in the study. There was no statistical difference in the baseline heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the three groups. One minute after the administration of the drug (prior to intubation) the differences in HR between the placebo group and both the 100 mg and 200 mg groups were significant (p < 0.05), and also at 1 min and 2 min following intubation for the 200 mg group (p < 0.05). In the 200 mg group there was a significant decrease, compared with placebo, in SBP at 1 min (p < 0.05) and at 2 min (p < 0.05) after intubation. In this study, adequate haemodynamic control following was obtained with the administration of 200 mg of esmolol.
  11. Sharma S, Kc B, Khatri A
    J Multidiscip Healthc, 2018;11:601-608.
    PMID: 30425506 DOI: 10.2147/JMDH.S176267
    Introduction: Male involvement in reproductive health is an essential component in promoting maternal and family health. In Nepal, men are not actively engaged in most maternal and child health (MCH) services nor in other reproductive health programs. There is a need to know about the understanding of key professionals in such practices. This study explores gendered perspectives among teachers and health professionals to understand the factors contributing to male involvement in reproductive health.

    Methods: The data were collected through two focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were held among male teachers of selected schools, and KIIs were conducted with health professionals of the health post of Bungamati, Lalitpur. An unstructured interview guide was used to explore their experiences and perceptions. All KIIs and FGDs were recorded, translated and transcribed verbatim.

    Results: Findings show limited male involvement in reproductive health. Participants reported several hindering and challenging factors such as sociocultural and psychological norms, lack of education, and misinformation and dominance of female as health care providers in many MCH clinics. Perceived motivating factors included positive attitude in men, literacy and awareness, inclusion of reproductive health in school curriculum and certain incentives. Participants also recommended a range of strategies for increasing men's involvement in reproductive health in Nepal.

    Conclusion: Men's education and attitude, knowledge and awareness, sociocultural factors, psychological factors, health system factors, and policies play important roles in male involvement in reproductive health. Programs on effective implementation of men involvement in reproductive health initiatives should address the barriers and challenges to men's supportive activities. This study also suggests increasing literacy of reproductive health among men that enhances their positivity and motivates them to participate in reproductive health services.

  12. Ralot T, Bafna C, Singh S, Sharma S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):103-106.
    PMID: 29379393 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.13
    Persistent neutrophilic meningitis is an atypical form of chronic meningitis defined as clinical meningitis with a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis suggestive of neutrophilic pleocytosis that persists for more than one week despite giving empirical antimicrobial therapy. The predominant presentation of tubercular meningitis is with CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis and even if early phase of the disease presents with neutrophilic pleocytosis, no persistence is usually observed for more than one week. We hereby report the case of an immunocompetent man aged 25 years with tubercular meningitis manifesting as persistent neutrophilic meningitis which is very rare as an entity in tubercular meningitis (TBM). Patient was started on anti-tubercular therapy based on the granulomas in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain after which there was a reduction in total cell count in CSF but persisting neutrophilic predominance. Patient improved clinically and was given a full course of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) thereafter.
  13. Mani S, Sharma S, Singh DK
    J Telemed Telecare, 2021 Feb;27(2):88-97.
    PMID: 31272309 DOI: 10.1177/1357633X19861802
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the concurrent validity and reliability of telerehabilitation (TR)-based evaluation of the cervical spine among adults with non-specific neck pain (NS-NP).

    METHODS: A total of 11 participants with NS-NP were recruited. Pain intensity, active range of motion (AROM), posture, deep neck flexor (DNF) endurance, combined neck movements and disability were measured using face-to-face and TR methods, with a one-hour break in between. TelePTsys, an image-based TR system, was used for TR assessment.

    RESULTS: A high degree of concurrent validity for pain (bias = 0.90), posture (bias = 0.96°), endurance (bias = -2.3 seconds), disability (bias = 0.10), AROM (extension bias = -0.60 cm, flexion bias = 1.2 cm, side flexion bias = -1.00, rotation bias = -0.30 cm) was found. Standard error of measurement and coefficient of variation (CV) values were within the acceptable level for concurrent validity, except the CV for cervical flexion and endurance. There was a high degree of reliability demonstrated for pain, posture, AROM, endurance and disability measurements. The average-measure interclass correlation coefficient (ICC(3,1)) ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 for inter-rater, and 0.93 to 0.99 for intra-rater reliabilities. There was moderate agreement for combination movement for validity (78.5%, p 

  14. Sharma S, Kc B, Alrasheedy AA, Kaundinnyayana A, Khanal A
    Australas Med J, 2014;7(7):304-13.
    PMID: 25157270 DOI: 10.4066/AMJ.2014.2133
    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding the feasibility and impact of community pharmacy-based educational interventions on the management of chronic diseases in developing countries.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility, and to investigate the impact, of community pharmacy-based educational intervention on knowledge, practice, and disease management of patients with hypertension in Western Nepal.

    METHOD: A single-cohort pre-/post-intervention study was conducted from August 2012 to April 2013. The participants included in the study were patients diagnosed with hypertension attending a pharmacist-led hypertension clinic. The educational intervention was conducted by pharmacists, was individualised, and consisted of three counselling sessions over a period of six months. The patients' knowledge of hypertension, their practice of lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological approaches concerning hypertension management, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and again after nine months by using a pre-validated questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The median (IQR) knowledge score changed from 6 (4) to 13 (0) after the intervention (p<0.01) with the median (IQR) practice score changing from 7 (4) to 16 (2) (p<0.01). The mean (SD) systolic BP changed from 150.1 (7.8) to 137.7 (9.9) (p<0.01) and the mean (SD) diastolic BP from 104 (9.5) to 94.5 (7.8) after the intervention (p< 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: A simple, educational intervention by community pharmacists had improved patients' disease knowledge, practice, and management of their hypertension. Evidence suggests Nepalese community pharmacists need could play an important role in the management of chronic diseases like hypertension through simple interventions such as providing educational support for patients.

  15. Pabreja K, Dua K, Sharma S, Padi SS, Kulkarni SK
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2011 Jul 1;661(1-3):15-21.
    PMID: 21536024 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.04.014
    Painful neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus is characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent studies emphasized on the role of non-neuronal cells, particularly microglia in the development of neuronal hypersensitivity. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of minocyline, a selective inhibitor of microglial activation to define the role of neuroimmune activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Cold allodynia and thermal and chemical hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chronic administration of minocycline (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks started 2 weeks after diabetes induction attenuated the development of diabetic neuropathy as compared to diabetic control animals. In addition, minocyline treatment reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipid peroxidation, nitrite and also improved antioxidant defense in spinal cords of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control animals. In contrast, minocycline (80 mg/kg, per se) had no effect on any of these behavioral and biochemical parameters assessed in age-matched control animals. The results of the present study strongly suggest that activated microglia are involved in the development of experimental diabetic neuropathy and minocycline exerted its effect probably by inhibition of neuroimmune activation of microglia. In addition, the beneficial effects of minocycline are partly mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and in part by modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress in the spinal cord that might be involved in attenuating the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.
  16. Shrestha N, Sharma S, Khanal B, Bhatta N, Dhakal S
    Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 2005;37(1):64-6.
    PMID: 15764193
    This is a report of the first recognized case of melioidosis in Nepal. Illness began 1 month after returning from Malaysia after a 1 y stay. The case highlights the importance of ascertaining the travel history in any patient with a suspected infectious disease in this age of global travel.
  17. Mani S, Sharma S, Omar B, Paungmali A, Joseph L
    J Telemed Telecare, 2017 Apr;23(3):379-391.
    PMID: 27036879 DOI: 10.1177/1357633X16642369
    Purpose The purpose of this review is to systematically explore and summarise the validity and reliability of telerehabilitation (TR)-based physiotherapy assessment for musculoskeletal disorders. Method A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using a number of electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL, published between January 2000 and May 2015. The studies examined the validity, inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of TR-based physiotherapy assessment for musculoskeletal conditions were included. Two independent reviewers used the Quality Appraisal Tool for studies of diagnostic Reliability (QAREL) and the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool to assess the methodological quality of reliability and validity studies respectively. Results A total of 898 hits were achieved, of which 11 articles based on inclusion criteria were reviewed. Nine studies explored the concurrent validity, inter- and intra-rater reliabilities, while two studies examined only the concurrent validity. Reviewed studies were moderate to good in methodological quality. The physiotherapy assessments such as pain, swelling, range of motion, muscle strength, balance, gait and functional assessment demonstrated good concurrent validity. However, the reported concurrent validity of lumbar spine posture, special orthopaedic tests, neurodynamic tests and scar assessments ranged from low to moderate. Conclusion TR-based physiotherapy assessment was technically feasible with overall good concurrent validity and excellent reliability, except for lumbar spine posture, orthopaedic special tests, neurodynamic testa and scar assessment.
  18. Mustaffa Kamal R, Ward EC, Cornwell P, Sharma S
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2015 Dec;17(6):594-604.
    PMID: 25874970 DOI: 10.3109/17549507.2015.1026276
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to explore infrastructure issues that may be barriers to the establishment and improvement of dysphagia services in Malaysia compared to settings with established dysphagia management services (i.e. Queensland, Australia).

    METHOD: A mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative data was used to increase credibility, validity and comprehensiveness of the results. Thirty-eight hospitals (Malaysia = 21, Queensland = 17) participated in Phase 1 (quantitative component) of the study involving completion of an infrastructure checklist by a speech-language pathologist from each hospital regarding availability of networking and communication, staffing and financial support, facilities and documentation of guidelines for dysphagia management. Subsequently, eight sub-samples from each cohort were then involved in Phase 2 (qualitative component) of the study involving a semi-structured interview on issues related to the impact of infrastructure availability or constraints on service provision.

    RESULT: The current study reveals that multiple challenges exist with regard to dysphagia services in Malaysian government hospitals compared to Queensland public hospitals.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, it was identified that service improvement in Malaysia requires change at a systems and structures level, but also, more importantly, at the individual/personal level, particularly focusing on the culture, behaviour and attitudes among the staff regarding dysphagia services.

  19. Jaudan A, Sharma S, Malek SNA, Dixit A
    PLoS One, 2018;13(2):e0191523.
    PMID: 29420562 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191523
    Pinostrobin (PN) is a naturally occurring dietary bioflavonoid, found in various medicinal herbs/plants. Though anti-cancer potential of many such similar constituents has been demonstrated, critical biochemical targets and exact mechanism for their apoptosis-inducing actions have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate if PN induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (HeLa) of human origin. It is demonstrated that PN at increasing dose effectivity reduced the cell viability as well as GSH and NO2- levels. Condensed nuclei with fragmented chromatin and changes in mitochondrial matrix morphology clearly indicated the role of mitochondria in PN induced apoptosis. A marked reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production after PN treatment showed involvement of free radicals, which in turn further augment ROS levels. PN treatment resulted in DNA damage, which could have been triggered by an increase in ROS levels. Decrease in apoptotic cells in the presence of caspase 3 inhibitor in PN-treated cells suggested that PN induced apoptosis via caspase dependent pathways. Additionally, a significant increase in the expression of proteins of extrinsic (TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, FADD, Fas/TNFRSF6) and intrinsic pathway (Bad, Bax, HTRA2/Omi, SMAC/Diablo, cytochrome C, Pro-Caspase-3, Cleaved Caspase-3) was observed in the cells exposed to PN. Taken together, these observations suggest that PN efficiently induces apoptosis through ROS mediated extrinsic and intrinsic dependent signaling pathways, as well as ROS mediated mitochondrial damage in HeLa cells.
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