METHODS: A random group of 1404 persons from universities, factories, companies, and elderly centers in Changchun completed a structured questionnaire. This study centered on life satisfaction indicators, which included the current whole life, income, family relationships, peer relationships, relationships with the neighbors, living environment, personal health, family health, spare time, and housework share. Other collected data included the Body Mass Index, blood pressure, self-rated health, Breslow's seven health practices, medical treatment within the past 6 months, physical examinations, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 Scale, social activities, networking relationships with persons around the community, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Associations between life satisfaction, demographics, and health-related variables were analyzed through a multiway ANOVA.
RESULTS: The living environment and income of Chinese persons were related to their low life satisfaction. The multiway ANOVA showed that the independent relationship of self-rated health, regular physical examinations, GHQ-12 Scale, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and age related with life satisfaction accounting for 20.3% of the variance. Education and age showed interactive effects on life satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: This study identified seven factors that influenced the life satisfaction of persons in mainland China. Life satisfaction can be enhanced through interventions to improve self-rated health, regular physical examinations, mental health, trust in the community, communication with the neighbors, education, and improvement in the health service.
DESIGN: Prospective, population cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study baseline participants (age, ≥40 years; 2006-2008) were followed up in 2011 through 2013, and 1901 of 3280 of eligible participants (72.1%) took part.
METHODS: Fundus photographs were graded using the Wisconsin AMD grading system.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of early and late AMD.
RESULTS: Gradable fundus photographs were available for 1809 participants who attended both baseline and 6-year follow-up examinations. The age-standardized incidences of early and late AMD were 5.89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.81-7.16) and 0.76% (95% CI, 0.42-1.29), respectively. The 5-year age-standardized incidence of early AMD (calculated based on the 6-year incidence) was lower in our population (5.58%; 95% CI, 4.43-7.01) compared with the Beaver Dam Eye Study population (8.19%). The incidence of late AMD in our population was similar to that of the Beaver Dam Eye Study population (0.98% [95% CI, 0.49-1.86] vs. 0.91%), the Blue Mountains Eye Study population (1.10% [95% CI, 0.52-9.56] vs. 1.10%), and the Hisayama Study population (1.09% [95% CI, 0.54-4.25] vs. 0.84%). The incidence of late AMD increased markedly with increasing baseline AREDS score (step 0, 0.23%; step 4, 9.09%).
CONCLUSIONS: This study documented the incidence of early and late AMD in a Malay population. The AREDS simplified severity scale is useful in predicting the risk of late AMD development in Asians.
Methods: We recruited independent patients with clinically confirmed lacunar ischaemic stroke without cognitive impairment to a prospective randomised clinical trial, LACunar Intervention-1 (LACI-1). We randomised patients using a central web-based system, 1:1:1:1 with minimisation, to masked ISMN 25 mg bd, cilostazol 100 mg bd, both ISMN and cilostazol started immediately, or both with start delayed. We escalated doses to target over two weeks, sustained for eight weeks. Primary outcome was the proportion achieving target dose. Secondary outcomes included symptoms, safety (haemorrhage, recurrent vascular events), cognition, haematology, vascular function, and neuroimaging. LACI-1 was powered (80%, alpha 0.05) to detect 35% (90% versus 55%) difference between the proportion reaching target dose on one versus both drugs at 55 patients. Registration ISRCTN12580546.
Findings: LACI-1 enrolled 57 participants between March 2016 and August 2017: 18 (32%) females, mean age 66 (SD 11, range 40-85) years, onset-randomisation 203 (range 6-920) days. Most achieved full (64%) or over half (87%) dose, with no difference between cilostazol vs ISMN, single vs dual drugs. Headache and palpitations increased initially then declined similarly with dual versus single drugs. There was no between-group difference in BP, pulse-wave velocity, haemoglobin or platelet function, but pulse rate was higher (mean difference, MD, 6.4, 95%CI 1.2-11.7, p = 0.02), platelet count higher (MD 35.7, 95%CI 2.8, 68.7, p = 0.03) and white matter hyperintensities reduced more (Chi-square p = 0.007) with cilostazol versus no cilostazol.
Interpretation: Cilostazol and ISMN are well tolerated when the dose is escalated, without safety concerns, in patients with lacunar stroke. Larger trials with longer term follow-up are justified.
Funding: Alzheimer's Society (AS-PG-14-033).
METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of NKTCL in multiple populations from east Asia. We recruited a discovery cohort of 700 cases with NKTCL and 7752 controls without NKTCL of Han Chinese ancestry from 19 centres in southern, central, and northern regions of China, and four independent replication samples including 717 cases and 12 650 controls. Three of these independent samples (451 cases and 5301 controls) were from eight centres in the same regions of southern, central, and northern China, and the fourth (266 cases and 7349 controls) was from 11 centres in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea. All cases had primary NKTCL that was confirmed histopathologically, and matching with controls was based on geographical region and self-reported ancestry. Logistic regression analysis was done independently by geographical regions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses, to identify susceptibility loci. Bioinformatic approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci, binding motif and transcriptome analyses, and biological experiments were done to fine-map and explore the functional relevance of genome-wide association loci to the development of NKTCL.
FINDINGS: Genetic data were gathered between Jan 1, 2008, and Jan 23, 2019. Meta-analysis of all samples (a total of 1417 cases and 20 402 controls) identified two novel loci significantly associated with NKTCL: IL18RAP on 2q12.1 (rs13015714; p=2·83 × 10-16; odds ratio 1·39 [95% CI 1·28-1·50]) and HLA-DRB1 on 6p21.3 (rs9271588; 9·35 × 10-26 1·53 [1·41-1·65]). Fine-mapping and experimental analyses showed that rs1420106 at the promoter of IL18RAP was highly correlated with rs13015714, and the rs1420106-A risk variant had an upregulatory effect on IL18RAP expression. Cell growth assays in two NKTCL cell lines (YT and SNK-6 cells) showed that knockdown of IL18RAP inhibited cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in NKTCL cells. Haplotype association analysis showed that haplotype 47F-67I was associated with reduced risk of NKTCL, whereas 47Y-67L was associated with increased risk of NKTCL. These two positions are component parts of the peptide-binding pocket 7 (P7) of the HLA-DR heterodimer, suggesting that these alterations might account for the association at HLA-DRB1, independent of the previously reported HLA-DPB1 variants.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the development of NKTCL by showing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation through the IL18-IL18RAP axis and antigen presentation involving HLA-DRB1, which might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Taken in combination with additional genetic and other risk factors, our results could potentially be used to stratify people at high risk of NKTCL for targeted prevention.
FUNDING: Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program for Support of Top-Notch Young Professionals, Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, Tanoto Foundation, National Research Foundation Singapore, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Recruitment Program for Young Professionals of China, First Affiliated Hospital and Army Medical University, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Cancer Institute.
METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations.
RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7).
CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.