METHODS: Twenty-nine asymptomatic subjects were enrolled prospectively (age: mean 34.31, range 23-50; 14 men, 15 women) from August 2016 to April 2017. Qualitative analysis of muscles was done using Goutallier's system on CT and MRI. Quantitative analysis entailed cross sectional area (CSA) on CT and MRI, Hounsfield unit (HU) on CT, fat fraction using two-point Dixon technique on MRI. Three readers independently analyzed the images; intra- and inter-observer agreements were measured. Linear regression and Spearman's analyses were used for correlation with demographic data.
RESULTS: CSA values were significantly higher in men (p
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 30 severe glaucoma patients, 30 mild glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched controls were recruited. All subjects underwent standard automated perimetry, RNFL analysis and 3 T MRI examinations. Glaucoma patients were classified according to the Hodapp-Anderson-Parish classification. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to correlate ON volume with RNFL, and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ON volume in detecting glaucoma severity.
RESULTS: Optic nerve volume was significantly lower in both the left and right eyes of the severe glaucoma group (168.70 ± 46.28 mm(3); 167.40 ± 45.36 mm(3)) than in the mild glaucoma group (264.03 ± 78.53 mm(3); 264.76 ± 78.88 mm(3)) and the control group (297.80 ± 71.45 mm(3); 296.56 ± 71.02 mm(3)). Moderate correlation was observed between: RNFL thickness and ON volume (r = 0.51, p <0.001), and in mean deviation of visual field and optic nerve volume (r = 0.60, p
METHODS: 1H-MRS utilising the Single-Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS) technique was performed using a 3.0Tesla MRI on 45 optic radiations (15 from healthy subjects, 15 from mild glaucoma patients, and 15 from severe glaucoma patients). A standardised Volume of Interest (VOI) of 20 × 20 × 20 mm was placed in the region of optic radiation. Mild and severe glaucoma patients were categorised based on the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (HPA) classification. Mean and multiple group comparisons for metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between glaucoma grades and healthy subjects were obtained using one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: The metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between the optic radiations of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects did not demonstrate any significant difference (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings show no significant alteration of metabolite concentration associated with neurodegeneration that could be measured by single-voxel 1H-MRS in optic radiation among glaucoma patients.
KEY POINTS: • Glaucoma disease has a neurodegenerative component. • Metabolite changes have been observed in the neurodegenerative process in the brain. • Using SVS, no metabolite changes in optic radiation were attributed to glaucoma.
METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.
RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.
CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.