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  1. Siew EL, Chan KM, Williams GT, Ross D, Inayat-Hussain SH
    Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2012 Oct 15;53(8):1616-24.
    PMID: 22687461 DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.046
    The Fau gene (Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV)-associated ubiquitously expressed gene) was identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene using a forward genetics approach. Downregulation of Fau by overexpression of its reverse sequence has been shown to inhibit apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents. To address a potential role of Fau in benzene toxicity, we investigated the apoptotic effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major benzene metabolite, in W7.2 mouse thymoma cells transfected with either a plasmid construct expressing the antisense sequence of Fau (rfau) or the empty vector (pcDNA3.1) as a control. HQ induced apoptosis via increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, measured using dihydroethidine (HE) staining and alkaline Comet assay, respectively, in W7.2 pcDNA3.1 cells. In contrast, when Fau was downregulated by the antisense sequence in W7.2 rfau cells, HQ treatment did not cause DNA damage and oxidative stress and these cells were markedly more resistant to HQ-induced apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that there was an upregulation of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a detoxification enzyme for benzene-derived quinones, in W7.2 rfau cells. Compromising cellular NQO1 by use of a specific mechanism-based inhibitor (MAC 220) and NQO1 siRNA resensitized W7.2 rfau cells to HQ-induced apoptosis. Silencing of Fau in W7.2 wild-type cells resulted in increased levels of NQO1, confirming that downregulation of Fau results in NQO1 upregulation which protects against HQ-induced apoptosis.
  2. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2009 Dec;91(3):786-94.
    PMID: 19051306 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32290
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
  3. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2007 May;81(2):317-25.
    PMID: 17120221
    Among the various biomaterials available for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications, microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates offer the most diverse range of thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, the biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB); containing 50 mol % of 4-hydroxybutyrate] copolymer produced by Delftia acidovorans was evaluated. The cytotoxicity, mode of cell death, and genotoxicity of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract against V79 and L929 fibroblast cells were assessed using MTT assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and alkaline comet assay, respectively. Our results demonstrate that P(3HB-co-4HB) treated on both cell lines were comparable with clinically-used Polyglactin 910, where more than 60% of viable cells were observed following 72-h treatment at 200 mg/mL. Further morphological investigation on the mode of cell death showed an increase in apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner in both cell lines. On the other hand, P(3HB-co-4HB) at 200 mg/mL showed no genotoxic effects as determined by alkaline comet assay following 72-h treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that P(3HB-co-4HB) compounds showed good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells suggesting that it has potential to be used for future medical applications.
  4. Siew EL, Farris AF, Rashid N, Chan KM, Rajab NF
    Genes Environ, 2020;42:22.
    PMID: 32537035 DOI: 10.1186/s41021-020-00161-3
    Background: Rare earth minerals of the lanthanide series are widely used in the field of medical and clinical application. Gadolinium (Gd), the most preferred rare earth mineral is frequently used as magnets, superconductors and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Increasing production of gadolinium waste, known potent toxicity of this element and lack of information on its Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) prompts health risk assessment on gadolinium. In this study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Gadolinium (III) chloride (GdCl3) were investigated using MTT assay, Alkaline Comet assay and Micronucleus assay, respectively.

    Results: Our results demonstrated that the viability of GdCl3 treated V79-4 cells was significantly (p  0.05) DNA damage both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. However, it induced significant (p 

  5. Inayat-Hussain SH, Ibrahim HA, Siew EL, Rajab NF, Chan KM, G T Williams, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2010 Mar 19;184(1-2):310-2.
    PMID: 20025857 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.12.009
  6. Ooi TC, Ibrahim FW, Ahmad S, Chan KM, Leong LM, Mohammad N, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 May 29;26(11).
    PMID: 34072474 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113287
    Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea is used as traditional medicine for diabetes, inflammation, and nociception. However, the antimutagenic potential and cytoprotective effects of this plant remain unknown. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of F. deltoidea aqueous extract (FDD) on both Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains were assessed using Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test). Then, the cytoprotective potential of FDD on menadione-induced oxidative stress was determined in a V79 mouse lung fibroblast cell line. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was conducted to evaluate FDD antioxidant capacity. Results showed that FDD (up to 50 mg/mL) did not exhibit a mutagenic effect on either TA 98 or TA 100 strains. Notably, FDD decreased the revertant colony count induced by 2-aminoanthracene in both strains in the presence of metabolic activation (p < 0.05). Additionally, pretreatment of FDD (50 and 100 µg/mL) demonstrated remarkable protection against menadione-induced oxidative stress in V79 cells significantly by decreasing superoxide anion level (p < 0.05). FDD at all concentrations tested (12.5-100 µg/mL) exhibited antioxidant power, suggesting the cytoprotective effect of FDD could be partly attributed to its antioxidant properties. This report highlights that F. deltoidea may provide a chemopreventive effect on mutagenic and oxidative stress inducers.
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