Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Ang CS, Chan NN, Singh L
    Appetite, 2019 05 01;136:80-85.
    PMID: 30685315 DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2019.01.019
    This study aims to investigate how the distinction between animals that humans consume (AHCs) and pet animals influence meat eaters' and non-meat eaters' perceived mind attribution on animals and moral disengagement. Following this, a two-way mixed ANOVA with repeated measures on the type of animals being slaughtered and type of eaters was conducted. For meat-eaters, perceived mental capacity ratings for AHCs were lower than pet animals. For non-meat eaters, the difference between these animals was negligible. In addition, meat eaters had higher levels of moral disengagement in comparison to non-meat eaters. Further analysis showed that meat eaters who reported lower perceived mental capacities of AHCs appeared to feel such animals were more edible and were less likely to perceive killing them for food as morally wrong. Moral disengagement was also negatively associated with mental capacity of AHCs as food, suggesting that there was a higher moral disengagement among meat eaters who tend to view AHCs as lacking in mental capacities.
  2. Singh L, Rana S, Thakur S, Pant D
    Trends Biotechnol, 2020 05;38(5):469-473.
    PMID: 31932067 DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.12.017
    Recent bioinspired efforts of designing novel nanoenzyme-based electrocatalysts are driven by the urgency of making bioelectrofuels more affordable and efficient. Unlike natural enzymes, nanoenzyme-modified electrodes with large surface areas enclose numerous biomimicking active sites to facilitate enhanced microbial growth followed by increased reactant-to-bioelectrofuel conversion.
  3. Siddiqui MF, Sakinah M, Singh L, Zularisam AW
    J Biotechnol, 2012 Oct 31;161(3):190-7.
    PMID: 22796090 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.06.029
    Exploring novel biological anti-quorum sensing (QS) agents to control membrane biofouling is of great worth in order to allow sustainable performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. In recent studies, QS inhibitors have provided evidence of alternative route to control membrane biofouling. This study investigated the role of Piper betle extract (PBE) as an anti-QS agent to mitigate membrane biofouling. Results demonstrated the occurrence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) autoinducers (AIs), correlate QS activity and membrane biofouling mitigation. The AIs production in bioreactor was confirmed using an indicator strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens (NTL4) harboring plasmid pZLR4. Moreover, three different AHLs were found in biocake using thin layer chromatographic analysis. An increase in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) was observed with AHL activity of the biocake during continuous MBR operation, which shows that membrane biofouling was in close relationship with QS activity. PBE was verified to mitigate membrane biofouling via inhibiting AIs production. SEM analysis further confirmed the effect of PBE on EPS and biofilm formation. These results exhibited that PBE could be a novel agent to target AIs for mitigation of membrane biofouling. Further work can be carried out to purify the active compound of Piper betle extract to target the QS to mitigate membrane biofouling.
  4. Kumar R, Singh L, Zularisam AW, Hai FI
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Nov;220:537-542.
    PMID: 27614156 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.09.003
    This study aims to investigate the potential of porous Co3O4 nanorods as the cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in aqueous air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The porous Co3O4 nanorods were synthesized by a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. Three different concentrations (0.5mg/cm(2), 1mg/cm(2), and 2mg/cm(2)) of Co3O4 nanorods coated on graphite electrodes were used to test its performance in MFCs. The results showed that the addition of porous Co3O4 nanorods enhanced the electrocatalytic activity and ORR kinetics significantly and the overall resistance of the system was greatly reduced. Moreover, the MFC with a higher concentration of the catalyst achieved a maximum power density of 503±16mW/m(2), which was approximately five times higher than the bare graphite electrode. The improved catalytic activity of the cathodes could be due to the porous properties of Co3O4 nanorods that provided the higher number of active sites for oxygen.
  5. Kumar R, Singh L, Wahid ZA, Mahapatra DM, Liu H
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Apr;254:1-6.
    PMID: 29413909 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.053
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the comparative performance of hybrid metal oxide nanorods i.e. MnCo2O4 nanorods (MCON) and single metal oxide nanorods i.e. Co3O4 nanorods (CON) as oxygen reduction catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFC). Compared to the single metal oxide, the hybrid MCON exhibited a higher BET surface area and provided additional positively charged ions, i.e., Co2+/Co3+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ on its surfaces, which increased the electro-conductivity of the cathode and improved the oxygen reduction kinetics significantly, achieved an io of 6.01 A/m2 that was 12.4% higher than CON. Moreover, the porous architecture of MCON facilitated the diffusion of electrolyte, reactants and electrons during the oxygen reduction, suggested by lower diffusion (Rd), activation (Ract) and ohmic resistance (Rohm) values. This enhanced oxygen reduction by MCON boosted the power generation in MFC, achieving a maximum power density of 587 mW/m2 that was ∼29% higher than CON.
  6. Burnham D, Singh L, Mattock K, Woo PJ, Kalashnikova M
    Front Psychol, 2017;8:2190.
    PMID: 29354077 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02190
    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation.
  7. Rezania S, Din MF, Taib SM, Dahalan FA, Songip AR, Singh L, et al.
    Int J Phytoremediation, 2016 Jul 2;18(7):679-85.
    PMID: 26684985 DOI: 10.1080/15226514.2015.1130018
    In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.
  8. Thakur S, Singh L, Wahid ZA, Siddiqui MF, Atnaw SM, Din MF
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Apr;188(4):206.
    PMID: 26940329 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5211-9
    Increasing heavy metal (HM) concentrations in the soil have become a significant problem in the modern industrialized world due to several anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals (HMs) are non-biodegradable and have long biological half lives; thus, once entered in food chain, their concentrations keep on increasing through biomagnification. The increased concentrations of heavy metals ultimately pose threat on human life also. The one captivating solution for this problem is to use green plants for HM removal from soil and render it harmless and reusable. Although this green technology called phytoremediation has many advantages over conventional methods of HM removal from soils, there are also many challenges that need to be addressed before making this technique practically feasible and useful on a large scale. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of HM uptake, transport, and plant tolerance mechanisms to cope with increased HM concentrations. This review article also comprehensively discusses the advantages, major challenges, and future perspectives of phytoremediation of heavy metals from the soil.
  9. Bhartiya NM, Husain AA, Daginawala HF, Singh L, Kashyap RS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Dec;27(6):15-26.
    PMID: 33447131 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.3
    Background: Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of public health and often remains neglected owing to lack of sensitive and efficient diagnostic methods. This study evaluates diagnostic utility of in-house designed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using whole-cell antigens of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 against the commercially available kits.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study involving different populations within the Vidarbha regions of Maharashtra, India was conducted through camps organised from May 2009 to October 2015. A total of 568 serum samples were collected from high-risk people recruited as study cohorts based on inclusion criteria, additional risk factors and clinical symptoms. Samples were evaluated by indirect ELISA using the whole-cell antigens of B. abortus. The results were compared with the commercially available IgG detection ELISA kit to ascertain the specificity and sensitivity of the developed test.

    Results: Fever, body ache, joint pain, lower back pain, loss of appetite and weight loss were major symptoms associated with the disease. With the cut-off of > 0.8, the positivity of brucellosis infection was at 12.32% (70/568) compared to 9.33% (53/568) as detected by the commercial kit. The in-house developed ELISA method yielded a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 99.18% as compared to the commercial kits (sensitivity -80.30% and specificity -99.6%).

    Discussion: The B. abortus S19-derived whole-cell protein-based ELISA is rapid and cost-effective and can be used for screening brucellosis infection in lieu of the commercially available ELISA kits.

  10. Kumar SS, Ghosh P, Kataria N, Kumar D, Thakur S, Pathania D, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Oct;280:130601.
    PMID: 33945900 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130601
    In the current scenario, alternative energy sources are the need of the hour. Organic wastes having a larger fraction of biodegradable constituents present a sustainable bioenergy source. It has been reported that the calorific value of biogas generated by anaerobic digestion (AD) is 21-25 MJ/m3 with the treatment which makes it an excellent replacement of natural gas and fossil fuels and can reduce more than 80% greenhouse gas emission to the surroundings. However, there are some limitations associated with the AD process for instance ammonia build-up at the first stage reduces the rate of hydrolysis of biomass, whereas, in the last stage it interferes with methane formation. Owing to special physicochemical properties such as high activity, high reactive surface area, and high specificity, tailor-made conductive nanoparticles can improve the performance of the AD process. In the AD process, H2 is used as an electron carrier, referred as mediated interspecies electron transfer (MIET). Due to the diffusion limitation of these electron carriers, the MIET efficiency is relatively low that limits the methanogenesis. Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), which enables direct cell-to-cell electron transport between bacteria and methanogen, has been considered an alternative efficient approach to MIET that creates metabolically favorable conditions and results in faster conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane. This paper discusses in detail the application of conductive nanoparticles to enhance the AD process efficiency. Interaction between microbes in anaerobic conditions for electron transfer with the help of CNPs is discussed. Application of a variety of conductive nanomaterials as an additive is discussed with their potential biogas production and treatment enhancement in the anaerobic digestion process.
  11. Zaied BK, Nasrullah M, Siddique MNI, Zularisam AW, Singh L, Krishnan S
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Mar 01;706:136095.
    PMID: 31862587 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136095
    Lack of sufficient nitrogenous substrate and buffering potential have been acknowledged as impediments to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent through co-digestion processes. In this study, ammonium bicarbonate was used to provide the nitrogenous substrate and buffering potential. To regulate the impact of ammonium bicarbonate toxicity on the anaerobic co-digestion system, dosages from 0 to 40 mg/L were supplemented. The biogas yield was used to indicate the effects of NH4+ toxicity. In a solar-assisted bioreactor, solar radiation was first collected by a solar panel and converted into electricity, which was then used to heat a mixture of palm oil mill effluent and cattle manure to maintain the reactor in the mesophilic temperature range. This co-digestion operation was performed semi-continuously and was analyzed at a 50:50 mixing ratio of palm oil mill effluent and cattle manure. The results indicate that the additional dosing of ammonium bicarbonate can significantly enhance biogas production. Maximum cumulative biogas and methane productions of 2034.00 mL and 1430.51 mL, respectively, were obtained with the optimum addition of 10 mg/L ammonium bicarbonate; these values are 29.80% and 42.30% higher, respectively, than that obtained in the control co-digestion operation without addition of ammonium bicarbonate. Utilization of a mathematical equation (G = Gmk/t) to describe a kinetic analysis of the biogas yield also indicated that the optimum ammonium bicarbonate dose was 10 mg/L. The results of this study suggest that supplementation with ammonium bicarbonate doses of up to 40 mg/L can be used to provide nitrogenous substrates and buffering potential in anaerobic co-digestion processes. The determination of the optimal dose provides an alternative and efficient option for enhanced biogas production, which will have obvious economic advantages for feasible industrial applications.
  12. Rana S, Mishra P, Wahid ZA, Thakur S, Pant D, Singh L
    J Environ Sci (China), 2020 Mar;89:47-64.
    PMID: 31892401 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2019.09.023
    In an era of electronics, recovering the precious metal such as gold from ever increasing piles of electronic-wastes and metal-ion infested soil has become one of the prime concerns for researchers worldwide. Biological mining is an attractive, economical and non-hazardous to recover gold from the low-grade auriferous ore containing waste or soil. This review represents the recent major biological gold retrieval methods used to bio-mine gold. The biomining methods discussed in this review include, bioleaching, bio-oxidation, bio-precipitation, bio-flotation, bio-flocculation, bio-sorption, bio-reduction, bio-electrometallurgical technologies and bioaccumulation. The mechanism of gold biorecovery by microbes is explained in detail to explore its intracellular mechanistic, which help it withstand high concentrations of gold without causing any fatal consequences. Major challenges and future opportunities associated with each method and how they will dictate the fate of gold bio-metallurgy from metal wastes or metal infested soil bioremediation in the coming future are also discussed. With the help of concurrent advancements in high-throughput technologies, the gold bio-exploratory methods will speed up our ways to ensure maximum gold retrieval out of such low-grade ores containing sources, while keeping the gold mining clean and more sustainable.
  13. Zaied BK, Rashid M, Nasrullah M, Zularisam AW, Pant D, Singh L
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Jul 15;726:138095.
    PMID: 32481207 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138095
    The pharmaceuticals are emergent contaminants, which can create potential threats for human health and the environment. All the pharmaceutical contaminants are becoming enormous in the environment as conventional wastewater treatment cannot be effectively implemented due to toxic and intractable action of pharmaceuticals. For this reason, the existence of pharmaceutical contaminants has brought great awareness, causing significant concern on their transformation, occurrence, risk, and fate in the environments. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment process is effectively applied for the removal of contaminants, radionuclides, pesticides, and also harmful microorganisms. During the EC process, an electric current is employed directly, and both electrodes are dissoluted partially in the reactor under the special conditions. This electrode dissolution produces the increased concentration of cation, which is finally precipitated as hydroxides and oxides. Different anode materials usage like aluminum, stainless steel, iron, etc. are found more effective in EC operation for efficient removal of pharmaceutical contaminants. Due to the simple procedure and less costly material, EC method is extensively recognized for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment over further conventional treatment methods. The EC process has more usefulness to destabilize the pharmaceutical contaminants with the neutralization of charge and after that coagulating those contaminants to produce flocs. Thus, the review places particular emphasis on the application of EC process to remove pharmaceutical contaminants. First, the operational parameters influencing EC efficiency with the electroanalysis techniques are described. Second, in this review emerging challenges, current developments and techno-economic concerns of EC are highlighted. Finally, future recommendations and prospective on EC are envisioned.
  14. Ghosh P, Kumar M, Kapoor R, Kumar SS, Singh L, Vijay V, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jan;296:122275.
    PMID: 31683109 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122275
    The present study intends to evaluate the potential of co-digestion for utilizing Organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) for enhanced biogas production. Metagenomic analysis was performed to identify the dominant bacteria, archaea and fungi, changes in their communities with time and their functional roles during the course of anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas yield of 586.2 mL biogas/gVS with the highest methane concentration of 69.5% was observed under an optimum ratio of OFMSW:SS (40:60 w/w). Bacteria and fungi were found to be majorly involved in hydrolysis and initial stages of AD. Probably, the most common archaea Methanosarsina sp. primarily followed the acetoclastic pathway. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was less followed as indicated by the reduction in abundance of syntrophic acetate oxidizers. An adequate understanding of microbial communities is important to manipulate and inoculate the specific microbial consortia to maximize CH4 production through AD.
  15. Sunil Kumar Naik TS, Singh S, N P, Varshney R, Uppara B, Singh J, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Nov 05;311(Pt 2):137104.
    PMID: 36347345 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137104
    In the present study, a simple and sensitive method for detecting bisphenol A (BPA) in various environments, including groundwater, was described using a widespread electrochemical method. BPA is well-known for its endocrine-disrupting properties, which may cause potential toxicological effects oon the nervous, reproductive, and immune systems. A novel metal-organic framework (UiO-66-NDC/GO) was synthesized, and its existence was confirmed by several characterization techniques like FTIR, UV-visible, XRD, SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and TGA. Due to the excellent electrocatalytic nature, UiO-66-NDC/GO was chosen as the sensor material and integrated on the surface of the bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE). The UiO-66-NDC/GO modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) was engaged for the detection of BPA using techniques like cyclic Voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The applied sensor exhibited an astonishing outcome for BPA detection with high sensitivity and selectivity. The lower detection limit (LLOD) of 0.025 μM was achieved at the modified sensor with a linear concentration range of 10-70 μM. Moreover, the practical applicability of the sensor was tested on tap water, drinking water, and fresh liquid milk, giving an excellent recovery of BPA in the range of 94.8-99.3 (v.%). The proposed method could be employed for electrochemical device or a solid state device fabrication for the onsite monitoring of BPA.
  16. Majeed Butt O, Shakeel Ahmad M, Kai Lun T, Seng Che H, Fayaz H, Abd Rahim N, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2023 Feb 01;156:1-11.
    PMID: 36424243 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2022.11.016
    The integration of hydrogen in the primary energy mix requires a major technological shift in virtually every energy-related application. This study has attempted to investigate the techno-economic solar photovoltaic (PV) integrated water electrolysis and waste incineration system. Three different strategies, i.e., (i) PV + Battery(Hybrid mode with required batteries); (ii) auto-ignition (Direct coupling); and (iii) PV + Secondary-Electrolyzer(Direct coupling assisted with secondary electrolyzer), have been envisioned. The 'PV + Battery' consume 42.42 % and 15.07 % less energy than the auto-ignition and 'PV + Secondary-Electrolyzer' methods. However, the capital cost of 'PV + Battery' has been calculated to be 15.4 % and 11.8 % more than auto-ignition and 'PV + Secondary-Electrolyzer, respectively.The energy consumption relative to waste input, the 'PV + Battery' method used 80 % less energy, while auto-ignition and 'PV + Secondary-Electrolyzer' showed 70.5 % and 77.5 % less energy, respectively. Furthermore, these approaches showed a vast difference in cost-benefit for the longer run. 'PV + Battery' was forecasted to be 73.3 % and 23.3 % more expensive than auto-ignition and 'PV + Secondary-Electrolyzer' methods, respectively, for 30 years. Overall, this study can benefit from using either of these methods depending on the application, usage scale, and climatic conditions.
  17. Singh L, Joshi T, Tewari D, Echeverría J, Mocan A, Sah AN, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2019;10:1593.
    PMID: 32116660 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01593
    Excessive alcohol consumption is the cause of several diseases and thus is of a major concern for society. Worldwide alcohol consumption has increased by many folds over the past decades. This urgently calls for intervention and relapse counteract measures. Modern pharmacological solutions induce complete alcohol self-restraint and prevent relapse, but they have many side effects. Natural products are most promising as they cause fewer adverse effects. Here we discuss in detail the medicinal plants used in various traditional/folklore medicine systems for targeting alcohol abuse. We also comprehensively describe preclinical and clinical studies done on some of these plants along with the possible mechanisms of action.
  18. Chuprom J, Sangkanu S, Mitsuwan W, Boonhok R, Mahabusarakam W, Singh LR, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e14468.
    PMID: 36523474 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14468
    Garcinia mangostana L., also known as the mangosteen tree, is a native medicinal plant in Southeast Asia having a wide variety of pharmacologically active compounds, including xanthonoid mangostin. In this study, we examined the pharmacological activities of the selected semi-synthetic mangostin derivative, namely, amoebicidal activity, encystation inhibition, excystation activity, and removal capacity of adhesive Acanthamoeba from the surface of contact lens (CL). Among the three derivatives, C1 exhibited promising anti-Acanthamoeba activity against Acanthamoeba triangularis WU19001 trophozoites and cysts. SEM images displayed morphological changes in Acanthamoeba trophozoites, including the loss of acanthopodia, pore formation in the cell membrane, and membrane damage. In addition, the treated cyst was shrunken and adopted an irregular flat cyst shape. Under a fluorescence microscope, acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining revealed C1 induced condensation of cytoplasm and chromatin with the loss of cell volume in the treated trophozoites, while calcofluor white staining demonstrated the leakage of cell wall in treated cysts, leading to cell death. Interestingly, at the concentration ranges in which C1 showed the anti-Acanthamoeba effects (IC50 values ranging from 0.035-0.056 mg/mL), they were not toxic to Vero cells. C1 displayed the highest inhibitory effect on A. triangularis encystation at 1/16×MIC value (0.004 mg/mL). While C1 demonstrated the excystation activity at 1/128×MIC value with a high rate of 89.47%. Furthermore, C1 exhibited the removal capacity of adhesive Acanthamoeba from the surface of CL comparable with commercial multipurpose solutions (MPSs). Based on the results obtained, C1 may be a promising lead agent to develop a therapeutic for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections and disinfectant solutions for CL.
  19. Hinton R, Armstrong C, Asri E, Baesel K, Barnett S, Blauvelt C, et al.
    Global Health, 2021 02 01;17(1):18.
    PMID: 33522937 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-021-00664-w
    BACKGROUND: The success of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is predicated on multisectoral collaboration (MSC), and the COVID-19 pandemic makes it more urgent to learn how this can be done better. Complex challenges facing countries, such as COVID-19, cut across health, education, environment, financial and other sectors. Addressing these challenges requires the range of responsible sectors and intersecting services - across health, education, social and financial protection, economic development, law enforcement, among others - transform the way they work together towards shared goals. While the necessity of MSC is recognized, research is needed to understand how sectors collaborate, inform how to do so more efficiently, effectively and equitably, and ascertain similarities and differences across contexts. To answer these questions and inform practice, research to strengthen the evidence-base on MSC is critical.

    METHODS: This paper draws on a 12-country study series on MSC for health and sustainable development, in the context of the health and rights of women, children and adolescents. It is written by core members of the research coordination and country teams. Issues were analyzed during the study period through 'real-time' discussions and structured reporting, as well as through literature reviews and retrospective feedback and analysis at the end of the study.

    RESULTS: We identify four considerations that are unique to MSC research which will be of interest to other researchers, in the context of COVID-19 and beyond: 1) use theoretical frameworks to frame research questions as relevant to all sectors and to facilitate theoretical generalizability and evolution; 2) specifically incorporate sectoral analysis into MSC research methods; 3) develop a core set of research questions, using mixed methods and contextual adaptations as needed, with agreement on criteria for research rigor; and 4) identify shared indicators of success and failure across sectors to assess MSCs.

    CONCLUSION: In responding to COVID-19 it is evident that effective MSC is an urgent priority. It enables partners from diverse sectors to effectively convene to do more together than alone. Our findings have practical relevance for achieving this objective and contribute to the growing literature on partnerships and collaboration. We must seize the opportunity here to identify remaining knowledge gaps on how diverse sectors can work together efficiently and effectively in different settings to accelerate progress towards achieving shared goals.

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