Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR
    Molecules, 2015 May 12;20(5):8521-47.
    PMID: 25985355 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20058521
    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.
  2. Arumugam G, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 30;21(4):369.
    PMID: 27043511 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21040369
    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.
  3. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Akhtar MS
    PMID: 26783409 DOI: 10.1155/2015/506413
    We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform) on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield) and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g) content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus). Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%), phytol (4.528%), caryophyllene oxide (4.605%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (3.751%).
  4. Swamy MK, Akhtar MS, Sinniah UR
    PMID: 28090211 DOI: 10.1155/2016/3012462
    A wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, synthesized naturally in different plant parts during the process of secondary metabolism. Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The presence of different types of aldehydes, phenolics, terpenes, and other antimicrobial compounds means that the essential oils are effective against a diverse range of pathogens. The reactivity of essential oil depends upon the nature, composition, and orientation of its functional groups. The aim of this article is to review the antimicrobial potential of essential oils secreted from MAPs and their possible mechanisms of action against human pathogens. This comprehensive review will benefit researchers who wish to explore the potential of essential oils in the development of novel broad-spectrum key molecules against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogenic microbes.
  5. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2018 Sep;102(18):7775-7793.
    PMID: 30022261 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9223-y
    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a highly valued natural phenolic compound that is very commonly found in plants of the families Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, including Coleus blumei, Heliotropium foertherianum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla frutescens, and Salvia officinalis. RA is also found in other members of higher plant families and in some fern and horned liverwort species. The biosynthesis of RA is catalyzed by the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylase using the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Chemically, RA can be produced via methods involving the esterification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and caffeic acid. Some of the derivatives of RA include melitric acid, salvianolic acid, lithospermic acid, and yunnaneic acid. In plants, RA is known to have growth-promoting and defensive roles. Studies have elucidated the varied pharmacological potential of RA and its derived molecules, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The demand for RA is therefore, very high in the pharmaceutical industry, but this demand cannot be met by plants alone because RA content in plant organs is very low. Further, many plants that synthesize RA are under threat and near extinction owing to biodiversity loss caused by unscientific harvesting, over-collection, environmental changes, and other inherent features. Moreover, the chemical synthesis of RA is complicated and expensive. Alternative approaches using biotechnological methodologies could overcome these problems. This review provides the state of the art information on the chemistry, sources, and biosynthetic pathways of RA, as well as its anticancer properties against different cancer types. Biotechnological methods are also discussed for producing RA using plant cell, tissue, and organ cultures and hairy-root cultures using flasks and bioreactors. The recent developments and applications of the functional genomics approach and heterologous production of RA in microbes are also highlighted. This chapter will be of benefit to readers aiming to design studies on RA and its applicability as an anticancer agent.
  6. Palanyandy SR, Gantait S, Sinniah UR
    J Genet Eng Biotechnol, 2020 Feb 03;18(1):5.
    PMID: 32009231 DOI: 10.1186/s43141-019-0018-z
    Oil palm, a tropical plant with an economic life of 20-25 years, is on high demand since its oil (palm oil) is now considered to be the world's most consumed oil. Despite the high potential for the use of clonal materials, the tissue culture technique for oil palm is difficult and laborious. One of the key steps of the process is the conversion of polyembroids into plantlets. Gelling agent has been implicated to play a role in ensuring the conversion of oil palm polyembryoids into complete plantlets. In the present study, for the first time, we report the effects of two types of common gelling agents, Agar Type 900 and Gelrite®, for enhanced conversion of oil palm polyembryoids into plantlets. Polyembryoids, developed from embryonic calli, were cultured and incubated on Murashige and Skoog semisolid media supplemented with Agar (Type 900) at 8-12 g/l or gellan gum (Gelrite®) 1.5-3.5 g/l. The effects of gelling agents on polyembryoid conversion was assessed based on the percentages of viability, survival, and polyembryoids that swelled, enlarged, and turned green, as well as on the basis of morphological characteristics, viz, number of shoots, leaves, roots, secondary somatic embryos, and callus formation. Based on the results of this study, in comparison to Agar Type 900, the Gelrite® with 3.5 g/l concentration was chosen as an effective gelling agent for conversion of polyembryoids into plantlets, since it resulted in 100% survival with 53.3% completely developed plantlets (multiple shoots with roots). The successful conversion of polyembryoids into plantlets achieved in this study, using the optimized gelling agent could be useful for pre-storage or post-storage conversion in many other plant species as well.
  7. Hue TS, Abdullah TL, Abdullah NA, Sinniah UR
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015;14(4):16827-39.
    PMID: 26681029 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.14.10
    Kemunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) from the Myrtaceae family, is native to Malaysia. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various illnesses and possesses significant antibacterial properties. In addition, it has great potential as ornamental in landscape design. Genetic variability studies are important for the rational management and conservation of genetic material. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 18 R. tomentosa populations collected from ten states of Peninsular Malaysia. The 11 primers selected generated 173 bands that ranged in size from 1.6 kb to 130 bp, which corresponded to an average of 15.73 bands per primer. Of these bands, 97.69% (169 in total) were polymorphic. High genetic diversity was documented at the species level (H(T) = 0.2705; I = 0.3973; PPB = 97.69%) but there was a low diversity at population level (H(S) = 0.0073; I = 0 .1085; PPB = 20.14%). The high level of genetic differentiation revealed by G(ST) (73%) and analysis of molecular variance (63%), together with the limited gene flow among population (N(m) = 0.1851), suggests that the populations examined are isolated. Results from an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis clearly grouped the populations into two geographic groups. This clear grouping can also be demonstrated by the significant Mantel test (r = 0.581, P = 0.001). We recommend that all the R. tomentosa populations be preserved in conservation program.
  8. Gantait S, Sinniah UR, Suranthran P, Palanyandy SR, Subramaniam S
    Protoplasma, 2015 Jan;252(1):89-101.
    PMID: 24893588 DOI: 10.1007/s00709-014-0660-x
    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.
  9. Nakasha JJ, Sinniah UR, Puteh A, Hassan SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:168950.
    PMID: 24688363 DOI: 10.1155/2014/168950
    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli.
  10. Poobathy R, Sinniah UR, Xavier R, Subramaniam S
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2013 Jul;170(5):1066-79.
    PMID: 23640259 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0241-z
    Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important ornamental orchid in the Malaysian flower industry. However, the genus faces both low germination rates and the risk of producing heterozygous progenies. Cryopreservation is currently the favoured long-term storage method for orchids with propagation problems. Vitrification, a frequently used cryopreservation technique, involves the application of pretreatments and cryoprotectants to protect and recover explants during and after storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cryopreservation may cause osmotic injuries and toxicity to cryopreserved explants from the use of highly concentrated additives, and cellular injuries from thawing, devitrification and ice formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring during dehydration and cryopreservation, may also cause membrane damage. Plants possess efficient antioxidant systems such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes to scavenge ROS during low temperature stress. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium sonia-28 were assayed for the total protein content, and both SOD and CAT activities, at each stage of a vitrification exercise to observe for deleterious stages in the protocol. The results indicated that cryopreserved PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 underwent excessive post-thawing oxidative stress due to decreased levels of the CAT enzyme at the post-thawing recovery stage, which contributed to the poor survival rates of the cryopreserved PLBs.
  11. Swamy MK, Akhtar MS, Mohanty SK, Sinniah UR
    PMID: 26186612 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.07.009
    Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has been considered as green route and a reliable technique for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to its eco-friendly approach. In this study, we report a simple and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic Momordica cymbalaria fruit extract as reducing agent. The fruit extract of M. cymbalaria exposed to AgNO3 solution showed the change in color from green to light yellow at room temperature within 1h of incubation confirms the synthesis of AgNPs. UV-vis spectra analysis revealed that the synthesized AgNPs had a sharp surface plasmon resonance at around 450 nm, while, the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed distinctive peaks indices to the crystalline planes of the face centered cubic silver. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis results confirmed the presence of spherical shaped AgNPs by a huge disparity in the particle size distribution with an average size of 15.5 nm. The synthesized AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against all the tested multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains and also exhibited highest free radical scavenging activity (74.2%) compared to fruit extract (60.4%). Moreover, both fruit extract and the synthesized AgNPs showed the cytotoxicity towards Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line at different concentrations, but the highest inhibition percentage was recorded for AgNPs at concentration of 100 μg/ml.
  12. Rudramurthy GR, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 27;21(7).
    PMID: 27355939 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070836
    Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future.
  13. Nakasha JJ, Sinniah UR, Kemat N, Mallappa KS
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2016 Jul;12(Suppl 4):S460-S464.
    PMID: 27761075
    BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C. borivilianum.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young shoot buds of C. borivilianum were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with 3% sucrose and different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 mg/L) of either naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or indole-3-acetic acid and callus induction was evaluated up to four subcultures cycles. Shoot regeneration from callus was studied on Murashige and Skoog media fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine andkinetin or thidiazuron at varied levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L). Microshoots were rooted on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid and plantlets were acclimatized before transferred to the natural conditions.

    RESULTS: Callus induction was better evidenced on Murashige and Skoog media containing 5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid up to fourth subculture. Callus differentiated into shoots on Murashige and Skoog media fortified with 6-benzylaminopurine or kinetin, whereas thidiazuron completely failed to regenerate shoots. Furthermore, microshoots rooted on 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid containing Murashige and Skoog media. The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in soil with 88.3% survivability.

    CONCLUSION: The type of auxins played an important role in inducing callus tissue from shoot bud explants of Safed musli. In future, this in vitro protocol could benefit in crop improvement programs and serve as a new source of bioactive compounds from Safed musli callus tissue for various therapeutic applications.

    SUMMARY: Explants de-differentiated to form callus on Murashige and Skoog media containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D up to fourth subculture.Callus re-differentiated into shoots on Murashige and Skoog media fortified with 0.5 mg/L BAP.In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved on 1.0 mg/L IBA containing Murashige and Skoog media.The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in soil with 88.3% survivability. Abbreviations used: MS: Murashige and Skoog, NAA: naphthalene acetic acid, 2,4-D: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, IAA: indole-3-acetic acid, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine, Kn: Kinetin, TDZ: thidiazuron, IBA: indole-3-butyric acid, RCBD: Randomized Complete Block Design, DMRT: Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

  14. Mohanty SK, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Anuradha M
    Molecules, 2017 06 19;22(6).
    PMID: 28629185 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22061019
    Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules.
  15. Arumugam G, Sinniah UR, Swamy MK, Lynch PT
    3 Biotech, 2019 Aug;9(8):298.
    PMID: 31328080 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1831-4
    This investigation demonstrates an efficient method of propagation, short-term conservation, and germplasm exchange for Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. encapsulated propagules. In vitro-derived shoot apices (shoot tips and nodal segments) which showed 100% survival on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine were selected for encapsulation studies. Shoot apices measuring about 3-5 mm in size showed the ability to break the beads and exhibited 100% survival and regrowth. The combination of 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 was found to be ideal for forming uniformally spherical beads, and successive preservation of encapsulated shoot apices into plantlets. The encapsulated shoot tips were relatively more effective than the nodal segments in terms of shoot growth and multiplication. Encapsulated shoot tips retained the ability to regrow (63.3%) for up to 40 days when maintained at 4 °C. Encapsulated shoot tips effectively converted into plantlets on agar medium (78%) and peat moss (58%) under in vitro conditions. Encapsulated shoot tips on agar medium showed a higher shoot regeneration (9.91 ± 0.15 shoots per explant) ability than the peat moss (5.71 ± 0.34 shoots per explant), while the highest rooting (12.16 ± 0.23 roots per explant) was observed on peat moss. Thus, calcium alginate encapsulation holds latent qualities that could be explored to develop a future alternative method of propagation, short-term storage and germplasm distribution for elite genotypes of Plectranthus sp.
  16. Palanyandy SR, Gantait S, Subramaniam S, Sinniah UR
    3 Biotech, 2020 Jan;10(1):9.
    PMID: 31850156 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1997-9
    The current report assesses the efficiency of encapsulation-desiccation protocol to cryopreserve oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids. Specifically identified polyembryoids, comprising of haustorium and torpedo-shaped structures, were encapsulated [comprising 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2]. Calcium alginate-encapsulated and sucrose-precultured polyembryoids were subjected to different spans of desiccation in a laminar air-flow cabinet, followed by freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of sucrose preculture (with gradual exposure to 0.3, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 M for 7 days) and dehydration periods (0-10 h) under sterile air-flow on post-freezing survival and regrowth of encapsulated polyembryoids were studied. Cryopreserved and thawed polyembryoids (initially precultured in sucrose, followed by 9 h air-desiccated to 23.3% moisture content) displayed the highest survival percentage (73.3%) and regeneration (of shoot, root and secondary somatic embryo) on Murashige and Skoog regrowth medium containing sucrose (0.3-1 M) and 0.2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. In addition, ultrastructural study using scanning electron microscopy exhibited successful revival of cryopreserved polyembryoids, owing to retention of cellular membrane stability through optimized and protected (encapsulated) desiccation. The present study thus substantiates the potential of this encapsulation-desiccation procedure in cryopreservation of oil palm polyembryoids for long-term conservation programs.
  17. Gantait S, Sinniah UR, Ali MN, Sahu NC
    Curr Protein Pept Sci, 2015;16(5):406-12.
    PMID: 25824386
    Plants tend to acclimatize to unfavourable environs by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated signals. Phytohormones strongly regulate convergent developmental and stress adaptive procedures and synchronize cellular reaction to the exogenous and endogenous conditions within the adaptive signaling networks. Gibberellins (GA), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoids, being vital regulators of plant growth, are accountable for regulating several aspects of growth and development of higher plants. If the element of reproduction is considered as an absolute requisite then for a majority of the higher plants GA signaling is simply indispensable. Latest reports have revealed unique conflicting roles of GA and other phytohormones in amalgamating growth and development in plants through environmental signaling. Numerous physiological researches have detailed substantial crosstalk between GA and other hormones like abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid. In this review, a number of explanations and clarifications for this discrepancy are explored based on the crosstalk among GA and other phytohormones.
  18. Hor YL, Kim YJ, Ugap A, Chabrillange N, Sinniah UR, Engelmann F, et al.
    Ann Bot, 2005 Jun;95(7):1153-61.
    PMID: 15781438
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of intermediate oily seeds using Citrus as a model.
  19. Swamy MK, Arumugam G, Kaur R, Ghasemzadeh A, Yusoff MM, Sinniah UR
    PMID: 28424737 DOI: 10.1155/2017/1517683
    This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95 μM of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92 ± 25.44 μM of Fe (II)/g dry weight). The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans). However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli. S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%), tetracontane (16.6%), squalene (15.6%), tetrapentacontane (13.7%), and Phytol (12.9%). In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.
  20. Qing S, Shoutian Q, Hongyan G, Ming Y, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 07 01;19(7):4109-4115.
    PMID: 30764978 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2019.16282
    This study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using methanolic leaf extract of Pogostemon cablin Benth. (Patchouli) as a reducing agent, and their potent biological (antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer) activities. The P. cablin extract when exposed to silver nitrate reduced silver ions to form crystalline AgNPs within 1 h of incubation at room-temperature. UV-visible spectra showed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at around 430 nm for the biosynthesized AgNPs and the XRD pattern indicated the crystalline planes of the face centered cubic silver. The FE-SEM analysis revealed the occurrence of predominant spherical shaped AgNPs with a huge disparity in their particle size distribution with an average size of 25 nm, while, the FTIR data confirmed the bio-reduction and capping of AgNPs by several phytocompounds present in the methanolic leaf extract. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of all the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), while, the methanolic leaf extract failed to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. AgNPs showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (79.0 ± 0.76%) compared to methanolic leaf extract (68.3 ± 0.68%) at 100 μg/ml. Further, the cytotoxicity study using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) confirmed that AgNPs successfully inhibited the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) in a dose dependent manner. At higher concentrations (500 μg/ml), only 4% of cells survived after 72 hrs of exposure with IC50 value of 120 μg/ml. Thus, these findings offer a new source of biomolecules with diverse biological activities.
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