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  1. Ahmed HM, Cohen S, Lévy G, Steier L, Bukiet F
    Aust Dent J, 2014 Dec;59(4):457-63.
    PMID: 25091028 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12210
    Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines.
  2. Marya A, Steier L, Karobari MI, Venugopal A
    Dent J (Basel), 2021 Aug 05;9(8).
    PMID: 34436002 DOI: 10.3390/dj9080090
    Dental biofilm is often found to be the source of bacteria that releases toxins, peptides, lipopolysaccharides as well as organic acids, which lead to gingival inflammation and tooth caries. Further, the persistent plaque may result in the continued destruction of the surrounding soft and hard tissues. During fixed orthodontic therapy, arch-wires, brackets, and elastic modules have been shown to be sites of significant plaque accumulation, making it difficult for a patient to maintain proper oral hygiene. The problem most dentists face is that they cannot visualize this biofilm completely to be able to carry out efficient plaque removal. Visual assessment is, to date, the most common method for plaque visualization, and various indexes have been demonstrated to be sufficient for quantification of the amount of plaque present. However, the problem is that visual assessments are inconsistent, operator dependent and often subjective, which can lead to inconsistency in results. Fluorescence is one such method that can be explored for its use in effective plaque identification and removal. Literature has it that dentists and patients find it particularly useful for monitoring oral hygiene status during treatment. Fluorescence has the capability of offering clinical orthodontists and researchers a new method of detection of demineralization during orthodontic treatment, furthermore, for efficient removal of orthodontic adhesive cements, fluorescent light may be used in conjunction with high-speed burs to deliver fast, less time consuming, and safer results. The benefit of direct visual treatment using fluorescence enhanced theragnosis is that the patient receives controlled and guided therapy. It has multiple benefits, such as early diagnosis of caries, biofilm identification, and even helps to achieve improved treatment outcomes by better resin selection for esthetic procedures.
  3. Steier L, Sidhu P, Qasim SS, Mahdi SS, Daood U
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2022 Jan 20;38:102732.
    PMID: 35066134 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2022.102732
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate accuracy of caries detection and the application-sensitivity of the new Designs for Vision's REVEAL™ utilizing a fluorescence activating headlight for excitation purpose.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: REVEAL dental fluorescence loupes and headlight system were used. Occlusal enamel was removed, and mid-coronal dentine was exposed. Carious artificial lesion was created. Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis were used. The assessment was performed using two diagnostic methods: naked eye and Design for Vision Glasses with inter examiner blinding using two calibrated examiners. After 7 days, Raman measurements were made on dentin disc specimens with 785 nm wavelength. The bacterial counts in colony-forming units (CFU) were used to examine the growth kinetics of biofilms. The collagen fibril structure within the discs was performed using Transmission Electron Microscope. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to image samples at various magnifications. FISH was performed with specimens fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline. Reproducibility was measured by Cohen kappa scores, values of which range from 0 for less than chance agreement to 1 for almost perfect agreement (p 

  4. Daood U, Omar H, Qasim S, Nogueira LP, Pichika MR, Mak KK, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 10;110:103927.
    PMID: 32957222 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103927
    OBJECTIVE: Here we describe a novel formulation, based on quaternary ammonium (QA) and riboflavin (RF), which combines antimicrobial activities and protease inhibitory properties with collagen crosslinking without interference to bonding capabilities, was investigated.

    METHODS: Experimental adhesives modified with different fractions of dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium and riboflavin (QARF) were formulated. Dentine specimens were bonded to resincomposites with control or the experimental adhesives to be evaluated for bond strength, interfacial morphology, micro-Raman analysis, nano-CT and nano-leakage expression. In addition, the antibacterial and biocompatibilities of the experimental adhesives were investigated. The endogenous proteases activities and their molecular binding-sites were studied.

    RESULTS: Modifying the experimental adhesives with QARF did not adversely affect micro-tensile bond strength or the degree of conversion along with the demonstration of anti-proteases and antibacterial abilities with acceptable biocompatibilities. In general, all experimental adhesives demonstrated favourable bond strength with increased and improved values in 1% QARF adhesive at 24 h (39.2 ± 3.0 MPa) and following thermocycling (34.8 ± 4.3 MPa).

    SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to conclude that the use of QARF with defined concentration can maintain bond strength values when an appropriate protocol is used and have contributed in ensuring a significant decrease in microbial growth of biofilms. Incorporation of 1% QARF in the experimental adhesive lead to simultaneous antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic effects with low cytotoxic effects, acceptable bond strength and interfacial morphology.

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