MATERIALS AND METHODS: REVEAL dental fluorescence loupes and headlight system were used. Occlusal enamel was removed, and mid-coronal dentine was exposed. Carious artificial lesion was created. Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis were used. The assessment was performed using two diagnostic methods: naked eye and Design for Vision Glasses with inter examiner blinding using two calibrated examiners. After 7 days, Raman measurements were made on dentin disc specimens with 785 nm wavelength. The bacterial counts in colony-forming units (CFU) were used to examine the growth kinetics of biofilms. The collagen fibril structure within the discs was performed using Transmission Electron Microscope. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to image samples at various magnifications. FISH was performed with specimens fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline. Reproducibility was measured by Cohen kappa scores, values of which range from 0 for less than chance agreement to 1 for almost perfect agreement (p
METHODS: Experimental adhesives modified with different fractions of dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium and riboflavin (QARF) were formulated. Dentine specimens were bonded to resincomposites with control or the experimental adhesives to be evaluated for bond strength, interfacial morphology, micro-Raman analysis, nano-CT and nano-leakage expression. In addition, the antibacterial and biocompatibilities of the experimental adhesives were investigated. The endogenous proteases activities and their molecular binding-sites were studied.
RESULTS: Modifying the experimental adhesives with QARF did not adversely affect micro-tensile bond strength or the degree of conversion along with the demonstration of anti-proteases and antibacterial abilities with acceptable biocompatibilities. In general, all experimental adhesives demonstrated favourable bond strength with increased and improved values in 1% QARF adhesive at 24 h (39.2 ± 3.0 MPa) and following thermocycling (34.8 ± 4.3 MPa).
SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to conclude that the use of QARF with defined concentration can maintain bond strength values when an appropriate protocol is used and have contributed in ensuring a significant decrease in microbial growth of biofilms. Incorporation of 1% QARF in the experimental adhesive lead to simultaneous antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic effects with low cytotoxic effects, acceptable bond strength and interfacial morphology.