Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Subramaniam S
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Jun;13(1):5-15.
    PMID: 1795562
    As general pathologists in Malaysia are required to perform medico-legal autopsies, this paper is written with the hope that it may serve as a guide to the less initiated. An account of elementary ballistics is included because it is essential for understanding the features of wounds produced by firearms. A complete autopsy examination including a systematic approach to the injuries is advocated. The recognition and interpretation of firearm injuries can often be difficult and it is essential that all features of injuries and other relevant findings are carefully observed and recorded. Relevant observations, documentation and opinions necessary for accurate determination of the true circumstances of death are discussed.
  2. Subramaniam S, Abdul R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Oct;61(4):474-6.
    PMID: 17243526 MyJurnal
    Day-case surgery is preferred for adults, allowing post-operative fast recovery in family environment and support. Myringoplasty using the traditional method of underlay temporalis fascia or tragal perichondrium is usually performed as an in-patient. From 2003 to 2004, 22 myringoplasty procedures were performed in a dedicated day surgery unit at the Hospital Melaka. We report the retrospectively review of the outcome results of these procedures. None of the patients need admission overnight. There were no surgical or anesthetic complications noted and this series suggests that day-case surgery is a safe and desirable practice for patients undergoing myringoplasty. However, there should be the facility for admission if required.
  3. Subramaniam S, Boo K
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Jun;14(1):49-51.
    PMID: 1469919
    A healthy 17-year-old Chinese male suddenly collapsed and died during a game of badminton. The autopsy examination revealed a solitary calcified aneurysm of the left common coronary artery with marked stenosis of the orifices of the anterior descending and circumflex branches. Histology of the aneurysm was non-specific with hyalinised scar tissue and foci of calcification. The only illness of significance in the past was an episode of 'pyrexia of unknown origin' at the age of 8 months. A review of the notes of that hospital admission revealed that the illness was most probably Kawasaki disease.
  4. Subramaniam S, Abd Majid MD
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Mar;58(1):139-41.
    PMID: 14556342
    Eagle's syndrome is an uncommon condition resulting from an elongated styloid process, which causes cervico facial pain, tinnitus and otalgia. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with bilateral upper neck pain radiating to the ears with tinnitus for almost one-year duration. Examination of the oral cavity revealed atrophic tonsils and palpable bony projection deep in the tonsillar fossa. Plain lateral neck X-ray and CT scan confirmed the presence of bilateral elongated styloid processes, which were subsequently resected surgically through an oropharyngeal approach. The patient was asymptomatic at follow up at 2 years.
  5. Gnasekaran P, Subramaniam S
    Indian J. Microbiol., 2015 Sep;55(3):285-91.
    PMID: 26063938 DOI: 10.1007/s12088-015-0519-7
    Physical contact between A. tumefaciens and the target plant cell walls is essential to transfer and integrate the transgene to introduce a novel trait. Chemotaxis response and attachment of Agrobacterium towards Vanda Kasem's Delight (VKD) protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were studied to analyse the interaction between Agrobacterium and PLB during the transformation event. The study shows that initially A. tumefaciens reversibly attached to PLB surface via polar and lateral mode of adherence followed by the irreversible attachment which involved the production of cellulosic fibril by A. tumefaciens. Cellulosic fibril allows formation of biofilm at the tip of trichome. Contrarily, attachment mutant Escherichia coli strain DH5α was significantly deficient in the attachment process. Spectrophotometric GUS assay showed the mean value of attachment by A. tumefaciens was 8.72 % compared to the negative control E. coli strain DH5α that produced 0.16 %. A. tumefaciens swarmed with sharper and brighter edge when severe wounding was applied to the PLBs producing the highest swarming ratio of 1.46 demonstrating the positive effect of the plant exudates on bacterial movement. The study shows that VKD's PLBs are the suitable explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation since the bacteria expressed higher competency rate.
  6. Subramaniam S, Abdullah AHR, Hairuzah I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):386-8.
    PMID: 16379201
    Primary histoplasmosis of the larynx is not a common disease. Most cases of laryngeal histoplasmosis results from hematogenous spread of disseminated histoplasmosis usually originating from pulmonary infection by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a 52-year-old male chronic smoker who had prolonged hoarseness and was initially diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma. However, biopsy of the laryngeal mucosa confirmed the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. There were no signs of pulmonary or systemic involvement. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin B was given for a week and oral ketaconazole was given for a month with complete resolution of symptoms.
  7. Tan H, Mukherjee TK, Subramaniam S
    Theor. Appl. Genet., 1975 Jan;46(4):181-90.
    PMID: 24419927 DOI: 10.1007/BF00281668
    Heritability estimates of five quantitative characters, namely, yield, girth, girth increment, virgin bark and renewed bark thickness, of the breeding Phase III Hevea families have been obtained by variance component analyses. In general, the combined heritability estimates for various characters were low to moderate. The heritabilities of these characters based on female variance components, however, were high, suggesting that considerable improvement of each of the characters could be achieved in properly designed experiments.Estimates of heritability for average yields (Range: 0.11-0.34) over different years showed that the first three years' yield was adequate for predicting estimates of genetic variance for the average of five years' yield.Correlation studies on yield with other characters indicated considerable influence of environment, with genetic correlations accounting for about 0.07 to 0.36 in the characters studied.Expected direct response to selection in yield and correlated response in yield to selection for girth at opening and virgin bark thickness have been calculated using three arbitrary values of selection intensity. The efficiency of the correlated response was found to be approximately half that of the direct response. However, the indirect selection for yield using virgin bark thickness appeared to be more favourable than that using the girth at opening favoured by earlier workers.
  8. Subramaniam S, Sundarasekar J, Sahgal G, Murugaiyah V
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:408306.
    PMID: 24895650 DOI: 10.1155/2014/408306
    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis.
  9. Subramaniam S, Balasubramaniam V, Sinniah M, Thayan R, Lim LY
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Dec;15(2):143-6.
    PMID: 8065176
    HIV-1 antibody patterns in two groups, those infected by the intravenous route (IV drug users) and those infected by the sexual route (prostitutes, male homosexuals and sexually transmitted disease patients) were compared using the Western blot technique. A total of 160 cases were studied. The intravenous drug user (IVDU) group appeared to respond to fewer antibody markers than the sexually infected group, the difference being significant for markers p31, p51, p55, p66, gp41 and gp120. Furthermore, a higher proportion (63%) of the sexually infected group carried antibodies to all Western blot markers as compared to the IVDU group (49%).
  10. Thinkhamrop J, Turner T, Subramaniam S, SEA-ORCHID Study Group
    Health Res Policy Syst, 2009 May 08;7:9.
    PMID: 19422715 DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-7-9
    Recognising the potential of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to improve practice, one of the strategies of the SEA-ORCHID project was to facilitate the development of evidence-based CPGs, and to support clinical staff in each of the four countries to build their skills in development of CPGs in the nine participating hospitals in Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the SEA-ORCHID project on development of evidence-based CPGs.
  11. Haque M, Islam SMS, Subramaniam S
    3 Biotech, 2017 May;7(1):63.
    PMID: 28452013 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-017-0675-z
    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been developed using salt and heat as pre-treatment factors for three barley genotypes viz. BB-3, BB-6 and BHL-18. Different concentrations of NaCl (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 g/L) were used and its effects were determined on the basis of the viability of callus (CV), plant regeneration (PR), relative growth rate (RGR) and tolerance index (TI). The BB-6 showed highest performance on tolerance based on CV (14.72%), PR (7.69%), RGR (0.91%) and TI (0.42%) at 6.5 g/L NaCl. Various NaCl concentrations displayed significantly differences at P 
  12. Cheruth AJ, Kurup SS, Subramaniam S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:846104.
    PMID: 26167536 DOI: 10.1155/2015/846104
    The present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of Nagal, Lulu, and Khalas date palm varieties in UAE. The nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. The ABA and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period and then increased after the flowering stage. Gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations were significantly higher in the early flowering varieties and higher levels of ABA may contribute to the delayed flowering in mid and late varieties. The results on hormone profiling displayed a significant variation between seasons (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering) and also between the three date palms (early, mid, and late flowering varieties). Ascorbic acid (AA) concentration was low at the preflowering stage in the early flowering Nagal (0.694 mg/g dw), which is similar with the late flowering Lulu variety (0.862 mg/g dw). However, Khalas variety showed significantly higher amount of AA content (7.494 mg/g dw) at the preflowering stage when compared to other varieties. In flowering stage, Nagal (0.814 mg/g dw) and Lulu (0.963 mg/g dw) were similar with respect to the production of AA, while the mid flowering variety showed significantly higher amount of AA (9.358 mg/g dw). The Khalas variety produced the highest tocopherol at 4.78 mg/g dw compared to Nagal and Lulu, at 1.997 and 1.908 mg/g dw, respectively, during the preflowering stage. In Nagal variety, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the preflowering stage was 0.507 mg/g dw, which was not significantly different from the flowering and postflowering stages at 0.4 and 0.45 mg/g dw, respectively. The GSH was significantly higher in Khalas compared to Nagal and Lulu varieties, at 1.321 mg/g w in the preflowering phase followed by 3.347 mg/g dw and 2.349 mg/g dw at the flowering and postflowering phases, respectively. Catalase activity increased with different stages of growth. The lowest catalase activity was observed at the preflowering stage in Khalas (0.116), with similar observations noted during flowering (0.110) and postflowering stage. This study provides an insight into the possible roles of endogenous hormones and antioxidants and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the regulation of flower development in date palm varieties.
  13. Subramaniam S, Nadarajan C, Aziz ME
    Cureus, 2018 Feb 23;10(2):e2220.
    PMID: 29692958 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.2220
    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon cause of secondary postpartum hemorrhage, although it carries a high mortality rate. The etiology includes vascular trauma during cesarean section, vaginal delivery, curettage or hysterotomy. We present a post-cesarean female who developed delayed hemorrhage and was diagnosed with left uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. Selective transcatheter arterial embolization was performed and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully obliterated. Angiographic embolization is a safe and efficient method of treatment of postpartum hemorrhage due to pseudoaneurysm in hemodynamically stable patients. Thus, it should be considered as a treatment option before opting for surgery in favorable cases.
  14. Poobathy R, Zakaria R, Murugaiyah V, Subramaniam S
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(4):e0195642.
    PMID: 29649288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195642
    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.
  15. Ping KS, Poobathy RR, Zakaria R, Subramaniam S
    Cryo Letters, 2018 5 8;38(4):290-298.
    PMID: 29734430
      BACKGROUND: Conservation of commercially important ornamental plants is important to maintain its unique beauty to cater the market demands.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for Aranda Broga Blue orchid PLBs using droplet-vitrification method.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several critical factors in cryopreservation were accessed such as preculture concentrations and durations, choice of vitrification solutions, two-step or three-step vitrification, growth recovery medium and PVS2 exposure duration.

    RESULTS: The best growth regeneration percentage (5%) was obtained when 3-4mm PLBs were precultured in 0.2M sucrose for 3 days, followed by osmoprotection for 20 minutes, dehydration in PVS2 for 20 minutes at 0 degree C, LN storage, thawed and unloading for 20 minutes, and growth regeneration in VW10 medium. PLBs were found to be very sensitive to osmotic stress imposed by high molecular weight cryoprotectant such as sucrose and glycerol. Osmotic potential of growth recovery medium is one of the main factors that affect growth recovery in cryopreserved PLBs.

    CONCLUSION: Current report showed possibilities in cryopreserving Aranda Broga Blue PLBs using droplet-vitrification technique. However, further improvement of growth recovery can be done by focussing on approaches that facilitate sufficient water removal from PLBs without causing severe osmotic injuries to the plant cells.

  16. Subramaniam S, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    PMID: 29987247 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15071445
    Bone health screening plays a vital role in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis to prevent fragility fractures among the elderly and high-risk individuals. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which detects bone mineral density, is the gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis but is not suitable for screening. Therefore, many screening tools have been developed to identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and prioritize them for DXA scanning. The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST) is among the first tools established to predict osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It can identify the population at risk for osteoporosis, but its performance varies according to ethnicity, gender, and age. Thus, these factors should be considered to ensure the optimal use of OST worldwide. Overall, OST is a simple and economical screening tool to predict osteoporosis and it can help to optimize the use of DXA.
  17. Subramaniam S, Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan AK
    Biomolecules, 2019 Nov 21;9(12).
    PMID: 31766399 DOI: 10.3390/biom9120758
    Cancer is a devastating disease that has claimed many lives. Natural bioactive agents from plants are gaining wide attention for their anticancer activities. Several studies have found that natural plant-based bioactive compounds can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, and in some cases ameliorate some of the side-effects of drugs used as chemotherapeutic agents. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the anticancer effects of four plant-based bioactive compounds namely, curcumin, myricetin, geraniin and tocotrienols (T3) to provide an overview on some of the key findings that are related to this effect. The molecular mechanisms through which the active compounds may exert their anticancer properties in cell and animal-based studies also discussed.
  18. Dehgahi R, Zakaria L, Mohamad A, Joniyas A, Subramaniam S
    Protoplasma, 2016 Sep;253(5):1373-83.
    PMID: 26471909 DOI: 10.1007/s00709-015-0895-1
    Dendrobium sonia-28 is a popular orchid hybrid due to its flowering recurrence and dense inflorescences. Unfortunately, it is being decimated by fungal diseases, especially those caused by Fusarium proliferatum. In this study, selection of F. proliferatum-tolerant protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) was carried out by assessing the effects of differing concentrations of fusaric acid (FA). PLBs were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.05 to 0.2 millimolar (mM) concentrations of FA. Higher concentrations of FA increased mortality of PLBs and reduced their growth. The survival rate for 0.05 mM FA was 20 % but only 1 % at the highest dose of 0.2 mM. Additionally, two different size ranges of PLBs were investigated, and growth increased more at lower FA concentrations for larger PLBs, whilst the growth rate of smaller PLBs was inhibited at an FA concentration of 0.2 mM. Histological examination using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses disclosed severe cell wall and organelle damage, as well as stomatal closure in PLBs treated with the high FA concentrations. Reductions in plantlet growth were much greater at the highest concentrations of FA. Some randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers clearly discriminated between selected and non-selected variants of Dendrobium sonia-28, showing different banding patterns for each FA concentration and specific bands for selected and control plants.
  19. AhbiRami R, Zuharah WF, Thiagaletchumi M, Subramaniam S, Sundarasekar J
    J. Insect Sci., 2014;14:180.
    PMID: 25368088 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu042
    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.
  20. Salman OH, Rasid MF, Saripan MI, Subramaniam SK
    J Med Syst, 2014 Sep;38(9):103.
    PMID: 25047520 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-014-0103-4
    The healthcare industry is streamlining processes to offer more timely and effective services to all patients. Computerized software algorithm and smart devices can streamline the relation between users and doctors by providing more services inside the healthcare telemonitoring systems. This paper proposes a multi-sources framework to support advanced healthcare applications. The proposed framework named Multi Sources Healthcare Architecture (MSHA) considers multi-sources: sensors (ECG, SpO2 and Blood Pressure) and text-based inputs from wireless and pervasive devices of Wireless Body Area Network. The proposed framework is used to improve the healthcare scalability efficiency by enhancing the remote triaging and remote prioritization processes for the patients. The proposed framework is also used to provide intelligent services over telemonitoring healthcare services systems by using data fusion method and prioritization technique. As telemonitoring system consists of three tiers (Sensors/ sources, Base station and Server), the simulation of the MSHA algorithm in the base station is demonstrated in this paper. The achievement of a high level of accuracy in the prioritization and triaging patients remotely, is set to be our main goal. Meanwhile, the role of multi sources data fusion in the telemonitoring healthcare services systems has been demonstrated. In addition to that, we discuss how the proposed framework can be applied in a healthcare telemonitoring scenario. Simulation results, for different symptoms relate to different emergency levels of heart chronic diseases, demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm compared with conventional algorithms in terms of classify and prioritize the patients remotely.
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